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Encyclopedia > Eclipse
This view from the International Space Station shows the shadow of the Moon cast upon the eastern Mediterranean Sea near Cyprus. NASA image.
This view from the International Space Station shows the shadow of the Moon cast upon the eastern Mediterranean Sea near Cyprus. NASA image.

An eclipse (Ancient Greek noun έκλειψις (ékleipsis), from verb εκλείπω (ekleípō), "I cease to exist," a combination of prefix εκ- (ek-), from preposition εκ, εξ (ek, ex), "out," and of verb λείπω (leípō), "I am absent")[1] is an astronomical event that occurs when one celestial object moves into the shadow of another. The term is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the shadow of Earth. However, it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth-Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its parent planet, or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon. An eclipse is a type of syzygy, as are transits and occultations. Look up eclipse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the 1995 film, see Total Eclipse (film). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Solar_eclipse_from_space_29_Mar_2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Solar_eclipse_from_space_29_Mar_2006. ... ISS redirects here. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth’s shadow. ... Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2003 Transit of Mercury The term transit or astronomical transit has two meanings in astronomy: A transit is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial body appears to move across the face of another celestial body, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point. ... In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ...

Contents

Shadow

Umbra and penumbra cast by a solid object occulting a light source.

An eclipse occurs when there is a linear arrangement between two solid celestial bodies and a star. The shadow cast by the object closest to the star intersects the more distant body, lowering the amount of luminosity reaching the surface. The region of shadow cast by the occulting body is divided into an umbra, where the radiation from the star's photosphere is completely blocked, and a penumbra, where only a portion of the radiation is blocked. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region at which the optical depth becomes one for a photon of wavelength equal to 5000 angstroms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Umbra. ...


A total eclipse will occur when the observer is located within the umbra of the occulting body. For spherical bodies, when the occluding object is smaller than the star, the umbra forms a cone whose length is determined by the distance to the star times the ratio of the occulting object's diameter to the star's diameter. If the occulting body has an atmosphere, however, some of the luminosity of the star can be refracted into the volume of the umbra. This occurs, for example, during an eclipse of the Moon by the Earth—producing a faint, ruddy illumination of the Moon even at totality.


Earth-Moon System

An eclipse involving the Sun, Earth and Moon can occur only when they are nearly in a straight line. Because the orbital plane of the Moon is tilted with respect to the orbital plane of the Earth (the ecliptic), eclipses can occur only when the Moon is close to the intersection of these two planes (the nodes). The Sun, Earth and nodes are aligned twice a year, and eclipses can occur during a period of about two months around these times. There can be from four to seven eclipses in a calendar year, which repeat according to various eclipse cycles, such as the Saros cycle. The orbit of the Moon around the Earth is completed in approximately 27. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... A node is one of two points where a bodys orbit crosses the ecliptic, called the ascending node (when the body is moving northward) and descending node (when the body is moving southward). ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Time-lapse series of photos of the lunar eclipse of October 2004 as seen from Northern California. ... A Saros cycle is a period of 6585 + 1/3 days (approximately 18 years 10 days and 8 hours) which can be used to predict eclipses of the sun and the moon. ...


Solar eclipse

Main article: Solar eclipse

An eclipse of the Sun by the Moon is termed a solar eclipse. Records of solar eclipses have been kept since ancient times. A Syrian clay tablet records a solar eclipse on May 3, 1375 BCE,[2] while a stone in Ireland records an eclipse on November 30, 3340 BCE.[3] Chinese historical records of solar eclipses date back over 4,000 years and have been used to measure changes in the Earth's rate of spin.[4] Eclipse dates can also be used for chronological dating of historical records. Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ...

Totality during the 1999 solar eclipse. Solar prominences can be seen along the limb (in red) as well as extensive coronal filaments.
Totality during the 1999 solar eclipse. Solar prominences can be seen along the limb (in red) as well as extensive coronal filaments.

The type of solar eclipse event depends on the distance of the Moon from the Earth during the event. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Earth intersects the umbra portion of the Moon's shadow. When the umbra does not reach the surface of the Earth, the Sun is only partially occluded, resulting in an annular eclipse. Partial solar eclipses occur when the viewer is inside the penumbra.[5] Download high resolution version (945x949, 58 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (945x949, 58 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the year. ... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmosphere with its magnetic field. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ...


Solar eclipses are relatively brief events that can only be viewed in totality along a relatively narrow track. Under the most favorable circumstances, a total solar eclipse can last for 7 minutes, 40 seconds, and can be viewed along a track that is up to 250 km wide. However, the region where partial totality can be observed is much larger. The Moon's umbra will advance eastward at a rate of 1,700 km/h, until it no longer intersects the Earth.


During a solar eclipse, the Moon can sometimes perfectly cover the Sun because its apparent size is nearly the same as the Sun when viewed from the Earth. A solar eclipse is actually a misnomer; the phenomenon is more correctly described as an occultation. In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ...


Lunar eclipse

Main article: Lunar eclipse
The progression of a lunar eclipse. Totality is shown with the last two images to lower right. These required a longer exposure time to make the details visible.
The progression of a lunar eclipse. Totality is shown with the last two images to lower right. These required a longer exposure time to make the details visible.

Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow. Since this occurs only when the Moon is on the far side of the Earth from the Sun, lunar eclipses only occur when there is a full moon. Unlike a solar eclipse, an eclipse of the Moon can be observed from nearly an entire hemisphere. For this reason it is much more common to observe a lunar eclipse from a given location. A lunar eclipse also lasts longer, taking several hours to complete, and totality can last from 30 minutes to an hour.[6] Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth’s shadow. ... Image File history File links Eclipse_lune. ... Image File history File links Eclipse_lune. ... For other uses, see Full Moon. ...


There are three types of lunar eclipses: penumbral, when the Moon crosses only the Earth's penumbra; partial, when the Moon crosses partially into the Earth's umbra; and total, when the Moon crosses entirely within the Earth's umbra. Total lunar eclipses pass through all three phases. Even during a total lunar eclipse, however, the Moon is not completely dark. Sunlight refracted through the Earth's atmosphere intersects the umbra and provides a faint illumination. Much as in a sunset, the atmosphere tends to scatter light with shorter wavelengths, so the illumination of the Moon by refracted light has a red hue. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Other planets

Phobos transits Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity
Phobos transits Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity

Eclipses are impossible on Mercury and Venus, which have no moons. Both have been observed to transit across the face of the Sun, however. On Mars, only partial solar eclipses are possible, because neither of its moons is large enough to cover the Sun's disc as seen from the surface of the planet. (Lunar eclipses are not only possible, but common.) Martian eclipses have been photographed from both the surface of Mars and from orbit. Phobos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 10, 2004 A transit of Phobos across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when Phobos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a large part of the Suns... ... The Sun disappears behind Charons surface during the total solar eclipse on Pluto of 23rd December 2111 Eclipses of the Sun on Pluto are caused when its natural satellite, Charon passes infront of the Sun, blocking its light. ... Image File history File links PIA05553. ... Image File history File links PIA05553. ... Phobos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 10, 2004 A transit of Phobos across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when Phobos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a large part of the Suns... MER-B (Opportunity) is the second of the two rovers of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Mission. ... [[Link titleBold text // ]] This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...

A picture of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble. The black spot is Io's shadow.
A picture of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble. The black spot is Io's shadow.
Saturn eclipses the Sun as seen from the Cassini–Huygens space probe
Saturn eclipses the Sun as seen from the Cassini–Huygens space probe

The gas giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) have many moons and thus frequently display eclipses. The most striking involve Jupiter, which has four large moons and a low axial tilt, making eclipses more frequent: it is common to see the larger moons casting circular shadows upon Jupiter's cloudtops. On the other three giants, eclipses only occur at certain periods during the planet's orbit, due to their higher axial tilts. Download high resolution version (736x612, 67 KB)Public Domain photo of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble Space Telescope. ... Download high resolution version (736x612, 67 KB)Public Domain photo of Jupiter and its moon Io taken by Hubble Space Telescope. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2766x1364, 296 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Saturn Portal:Astronomy/Picture User talk:Titoxd User:Istvan Wikipedia:Featured pictures/Sciences/Astronomy Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2766x1364, 296 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Saturn Portal:Astronomy/Picture User talk:Titoxd User:Istvan Wikipedia:Featured pictures/Sciences/Astronomy Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs... This article is about the planet. ... Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ...


The eclipses of the Galilean moons by Jupiter became accurately predictable once their orbital elements were known. During the 1670s, it was discovered that these events were occurring about 17 minutes later than expected when Jupiter was on the far side of the Sun. Ole Rømer deduced that the delay was caused by the time needed for light to travel from Jupiter to the Earth. This was used to produce the first estimate of the speed of light.[7] Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Ole Rømer. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ...


The timing of the Jovian satellite eclipses were also used to calculate an observer's longitude upon the Earth. By knowing the expected time when an eclipse would be observed at a standard longitude (such as Greenwich), the time difference could be computed by accurately observing the local time of the eclipse. The time difference gives the longitude of the observer because every hour of difference corresponded to 15° around the Earth's equator. This technique was used, for example, by Giovanni D. Cassini in 1679 to re-map France.[8] Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Portrait Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625–September 14, 1712) was an Italian astronomer, engineer, and astrologer. ...


Pluto, with its large moon Charon, is also the site of many eclipses.[citation needed] For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Charon (shair-ən or kair-ən (key), IPA , Greek Χάρων), discovered in 1978, is, depending on the definition employed, either the largest moon of Pluto or one member of a double dwarf planet with Pluto being the other member. ...


Eclipsing binaries

A binary star system consists of two stars that orbit around their common center of mass. The movements of both stars lie on a common orbital plane in space. When this plane is very closely aligned with the location of an observer, the stars can be seen to pass in front of each other. The result is a type of extrinsic variable star system called an eclipsing binary. For the band of the same name, see: Binary Star (band) Hubble image of the Sirius binary system, in which Sirius B can be clearly distinguished (lower left). ... In physics, the center of mass of a system of particles is a specific point at which, for many purposes, the systems mass behaves as if it were concentrated. ... The orbital plane of an object orbiting another is the geometrical plane in which the orbit is embedded. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ...


The maximum luminosity of an eclipsing binary system is equal to the sum of the luminosity contributions from the individual stars. When one star passes in front of the other, the luminosity of the system is seen to decrease. The luminosity returns to normal once the two stars are no longer in alignment.[9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first eclipsing binary star system to be discovered was Algol, a star system in the constellation Perseus. Normally this star system has a visual magnitude of 2.1. However, every 20.867 days the magnitude decreases to 3.4 for more than 9 hours. This is caused by the passage of the dimmer member of the pair in front of the brighter star.[10] The concept that an eclipsing body caused these luminosity variations was introduced by John Goodricke in 1783.[11] It has been suggested that ALGOL object code be merged into this article or section. ... Perseus is a northern constellation, named after the Greek hero who slew the monster Medusa. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other heavenly body is a measure of its apparent brightness; that is, the amount of light received from the object. ... John Goodricke (September 17, 1764 – April 20, 1786) was an amateur astronomer. ...


See also

Time-lapse series of photos of the lunar eclipse of October 2004 as seen from Northern California. ... A Saros cycle is a period of 6585 + 1/3 days (approximately 18 years 10 days and 8 hours) which can be used to predict eclipses of the sun and the moon. ... Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The solar eclipse mentioned in the annals of Mursili II is of great importance for the absolute dating of the Hittite Empire within the chronology of the Ancient Near East. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ de Jong, T.; van Soldt, W. H. (1989). "The earliest known solar eclipse record redated". Nature 338: 238-240. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  3. ^ Griffin, Paul (2002). Confirmation of World's Oldest Solar Eclipse Recorded in Stone. The Digital Universe. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  4. ^ Solar Eclipses in History and Mythology. Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  5. ^ Cardall, C. Y.; Daunt, S. J. (1999). Solar Eclipses. University of Tennessee. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  6. ^ Staff (January 6, 2006). Solar and Lunar Eclipses. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  7. ^ Roemer's Hypothesis. MathPages. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  8. ^ Cassini, Giovanni D. (1694). "Monsieur Cassini His New and Exact Tables for the Eclipses of the First Satellite of Jupiter, Reduced to the Julian Stile, and Meridian of London". Philosophical Transactions 18: 237-256. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
  9. ^ Bruton, Dan. Eclipsing binary stars. Midnightkite Solutions. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  10. ^ Price, Aaron (January 1999). Variable Star Of The Month: Beta Persei (Algol). AAVSO. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  11. ^ Goodricke, John (1785). "Observations of a New Variable Star". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 75: 153-164. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Portrait Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625–September 14, 1712) was an Italian astronomer, engineer, and astrologer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Goodricke (September 17, 1764 – April 20, 1786) was an amateur astronomer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Eclipse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1272 words)
Because the plane of the orbit of the Moon is tilted with respect to the plane of the orbit of the Earth (the ecliptic), eclipses occur only when the three bodies are near the intersection (the node) of these planes.
For solar eclipses, the viewer is in the penumbra part of the Moon's shadow.
For solar eclipses, the viewer is in the antumbra part of the Moon's shadow.
Eclipse (software) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1018 words)
Eclipse was originally developed by IBM as the successor of its VisualAge family of tools.
Eclipse employs plugins in order to provide all of its functionality on top of the rich client platform, in contrast to some other IDEs where functionality is typically hard-coded.
Eclipse Documentation - Documentation for the Eclipse SDK
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