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Encyclopedia > Ebola
Ebola virus

Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filovirus
Genus: Ebolavirus
Type species
Zaïre Ebolavirus
Species

Reston Ebolavirus
Sudan Ebolavirus
Ivory Coast Ebolavirus
Bundibugyo Ebolavirus Ebola can refer to: Ebola, a virus Ebola River, in Bumba, Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola (rap star), a rap star Ebolaworld, a flash comedy cartoon website. ... Image File history File links Ebola_virus. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Families Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae Filoviridae Bornaviridae The Mononegavirales are an order of viruses comprising species that have a non-segmented, negative sense RNA genome. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... Ebola Reston is a strain of the Ebola virus, named after an outbreak that occurred in Reston, Virginia during 1989. ...

Ebola
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A98.4
ICD-9 065.8
DiseasesDB 18043
MedlinePlus 001339
eMedicine med/626 
MeSH C02.782.417.415

Ebola is the common term for a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebola, family Filoviridae, and for the disease which they cause, Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The viruses are characterised by a long, filamentous morphology surrounded by a protein/lipid viral envelope. Ebola viruses are morphologically similar to the Marburg virus, also in the family Filoviridae, and share similar disease symptoms. Ebola has caused a number of serious and highly publicized outbreaks since its discovery.[1] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Many viruses (e. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ...

Contents

Overview

The Ebola virus first came to notice in 1976 in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire and Sudan.[2] The strain of Ebola which broke out in Zaire has one of the highest case fatality rates of any human pathogenic virus, roughly 90%. The strain which broke out later in Sudan has a mortality of approximately 50%. The virus is believed to be initially transmitted to a human via contact with an infected animal host. From the first human infected, the virus is then transmitted by human contact with infected blood and bodily fluids of a diseased person, and by human contact with contaminated medical equipment, such as needles. Both of these infectious mechanisms will occur in clinical (nosocomial) and non-clinical situations. Due to the high fatality rate, the rapidity of demise, and the often remote areas where infections occur, the potential for widespread epidemic outbreaks is considered low. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... In epidemiology, Case fatality refers the rate of death among people who already have a condition. ... A nosocomial infection is an infection that is caused by staying in a hospital. ...


Ebola is believed to be a zoonotic virus as it is currently devastating the populations of lowland gorillas in Central Africa. As of late 2005, three species of fruit bat were identified as carrying the virus, and did not exhibit symptoms, and are now believed to be the natural host species, or reservoir, of the virus. Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ...


Ebola hemorrhagic fever is potentially lethal and encompasses a range of symptoms including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, generalized pain or malaise, and sometimes internal and external bleeding. Mortality rates are extremely high, with the human case-fatality rate ranging from 50% - 89%, according to viral subtype.[3] The cause of death is usually due to hypovolemic shock or organ failure. An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Heaving redirects here. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS; previously known as multiple organ failure (MOF) is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to maintain homeostasis. ...


Because Ebola is potentially lethal and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, Ebola is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has the potential to be weaponized for use in biological warfare and was investigated for that use by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War[citation needed]. Its effectiveness as a biological-warfare agent is compromised by its extreme deadliness and its level of contagion: a typical outbreak spreads through a small village or hospital, affects the entire population, and then runs out of potential hosts, burning out before it reaches a larger community. Also important is that none of the strains of Ebola known to cause disease in humans have been found to be airborne; only the strain known as Ebola Reston (after the city of Reston, Virginia where it was first identified in Green Monkeys) is believed to be airborne. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Laws and practice of several countries specify four levels of biocontainment precautions for biological agents, Biosafety Levels 1 through 4. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Etymology

The virus is named after the Ebola River Valley in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaïre), near the site of the first recognized outbreak in 1976, in a mission run by Flemish nuns.[4] The Ebola River in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the headstream of the Mongala River (a tributary of the Congo River, formerly named the Zaïre River). ... For other uses, see Zaire (disambiguation). ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Structure

Electron micrograph of the filamentous structure of Ebola
Electron micrograph of the filamentous structure of Ebola

An electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle showing the characteristic filamentous structure of a Filoviridae. ... An electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle showing the characteristic filamentous structure of a Filoviridae. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ...

Size and shape

Electron micrographs of members of Ebola virus show them to have the characteristic thread-like structure of a filovirus.[5] EBOV VP30 is around 288 amino acids long.[5] The virions are tubular and variable in shape and may appear as a "U", "6", coiled, circular, or branched shape, however, laboratory purification techniques, such as centrifugation, may contribute to the various shapes seen.[5] Virions are generally 80 nm in diameter.[5] They are variable in length, and can be up to 1400 nm long. On average, however, the length of a typical Ebola virus is closer to 1000 nm. In the center of the virion is a structure called nucleocapsid, which is formed by the helically wound viral genomic RNA complexed with the proteins NP, VP35, VP30 and L. It has a diameter of 40 – 50 nm and contains a central channel of 20–30 nm in diameter. Virally encoded glycoprotein (GP) spikes 10 nm long and 10 nm apart are present on the outer viral envelope of the virion, which is derived from the host cell membrane. Between envelope and nucleocapsid, in the so-called matrix space, the viral proteins VP40 and VP24 are located. An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Many viruses (e. ...


Genome

Each virion contains one minor molecule of linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA, totaling 18959 to 18961 nucleotides in length. The 3′ terminus is not polyadenylated and the 5′ end is not capped. It was found that 472 nucleotides from the 3' end and 731 nucleotides from the 5' end were sufficient for replication.[5] It codes for seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3′ - leader - NP - VP35 - VP40 - GP/sGP - VP30 - VP24 - L - trailer - 5′; with the leader and trailer being non-transcribed regions which carry important signals to control transcription, replication and packaging of the viral genomes into new virions. The genomic material by itself is not infectious, because viral proteins, among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are necessary to transcribe the viral genome into mRNAs, as well as for replication of the viral genome. Sense, when applied in a molecular biology context, is a general concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, particularly RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules. ...


Subtypes

Microbiologists have defined several subtypes of Ebola. The following list is not exclusive. A new strain of Ebola has been identified in Uganda during an outbreak. It does not match any of the four Ebola subtypes previously identified by scientists.[6]


Zaïre ebola virus

Known human cases and deaths during outbreaks of Zaïre Ebolavirus between 1976 and 2003
Known human cases and deaths during outbreaks of Zaïre Ebolavirus between 1976 and 2003

The Zaïre Ebola virus has the highest mortality rate, up to 90% in some epidemics, with an average of approximately 83% mortality over 27 years. The case-fatality rates were 88% in 1976, 100% in 1977, 59% in 1994, 81% in 1995, 73% in 1996, 80% in 2001-2002 and 90% in 2003. There have been more outbreaks of Zaïre Ebola virus than any other strain. Original Sources: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Table Showing Known Cases and Outbreaks, in Chronological Order, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 18 October 2002. ... Original Sources: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Table Showing Known Cases and Outbreaks, in Chronological Order, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 18 October 2002. ...


The first outbreak took place on August 26, 1976 in Yambuku, a town in the north of Zaïre. The first recorded case was Mabalo Lokela, a 44-year-old schoolteacher returning from a trip around the north of the state. His high fever was diagnosed as possible malaria and he was subsequently given a quinine shot. Lokela returned to the hospital every day. A week later, his symptoms included uncontrolled vomiting, bloody diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and trouble breathing. Later, he began bleeding from his nose, mouth, and anus. Lokela died on September 8, 1976, roughly 14 days after the onset of symptoms. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yambuku is a small village in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (previously Zaire) and was the site of the first known outbreak of the Ebola Zaire strain of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus in 1976. ... For other uses, see Zaire (disambiguation). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Heaving redirects here. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soon after, more patients arrived with varying but similar symptoms including fever, headache, muscle and joint aches, fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. These often progressed to bloody diarrhea, severe vomiting, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and anus. The initial transmission was believed to be due to reuse of the needle for Lokela’s injection without sterilization. Subsequent transmission was also due to care of the sick patients without barrier nursing and the traditional burial preparation method, which involved washing and gastrointestinal tract cleansing. Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ... Gut redirects here. ...


Two nuns working in Yambuku as nurses also died in the same outbreak.[7]


Sudan ebolavirus

Known human cases and deaths during outbreaks of Sudan Ebolavirus between 1976 and 2003
Known human cases and deaths during outbreaks of Sudan Ebolavirus between 1976 and 2003

Sudan Ebolavirus was the second strand of Ebola reported in 1976. It apparently originated amongst cotton factory workers in Nzara, Sudan. The first case reported was a worker exposed to a potential natural reservoir at the cotton factory. Scientists tested all animals and insects in response to this, however none tested positive for the virus. The carrier is still unknown. Original Source Info: Source: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Table Showing Known Cases and Outbreaks, in Chronological Order, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 18 October 2002. ... Original Source Info: Source: Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Table Showing Known Cases and Outbreaks, in Chronological Order, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 18 October 2002. ...


A second case involved a nightclub owner in Nzara, Sudan. The local hospital, Maridi, tested and attempted to treat the patient; however, nothing was successful, and he died. The hospital did not advocate safe and practical procedures in sterilizing and disinfecting the medical tools used on the nightclub owner, likely facilitating the spread of the virus in the hospital.


The most recent outbreak of Sudan Ebolavirus occurred in May 2004. As of May 2004, 20 cases of Sudan Ebolavirus were reported in Yambio County, Sudan, with 5 deaths resulting. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the virus a few days later. The neighbouring countries of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo have increased surveillance in bordering areas, and other similar measures have been taken to control the outbreak. The average fatality rates for Sudan Ebolavirus were 54% in 1976, 68% in 1979, and 53% in 2000/2001. The average case-fatality rate is 54%. For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yambio (Arabic: يامبيو) is a capital city of West Equatoria, Sudan, close to the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ...


Reston ebolavirus

Main article: Ebola Reston

First discovered in November 1989 in a group of 100 Crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from the Philippines to Reston, Virginia. A parallel infected shipment was also sent to Philadelphia. This strain was highly lethal in monkeys, but did not cause any fatalities in humans. Six of the Reston primate handlers tested positive for the virus, two due to previous exposure. The bio-thriller The Hot Zone was based on this incident. Ebola Reston is a strain of the Ebola virus, named after an outbreak that occurred in Reston, Virginia during 1989. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... A view of the Reston Town Center Reston is an internationally known planned community whose goal was to revolutionize post-World War II concepts of land use and residential/corporate development in American suburbia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... For the Stargate Atlantis episode, see Hot Zone (Stargate Atlantis). ...


Further Reston Ebolavirus infected monkeys were shipped again to Reston, and Alice, Texas, in February of 1990. More Reston Ebolavirus infected monkeys were discovered in 1992 in Siena, Italy and in Texas again in March 1996. A high rate of co-infection with Simian hemorragic fever (SHF) was present in all infected monkeys. No human illness has resulted from these two outbreaks. Alice is a city in Jim Wells County, Texas, United States. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ...


Tai (Ivory Coast) ebolavirus

This subtype of Ebola was first discovered amongst chimpanzees of the Tai Forest in Côte d’Ivoire, Africa. On November 1, 1994, the corpses of two chimpanzees were found in the forest. Necropsies showed blood within the heart to be liquid and brown, no obvious marks seen on the organs, and one presented lungs filled with liquid blood. Studies of tissues taken from the chimps showed results similar to human cases during the 1976 Ebola outbreaks in Zaïre and Sudan. Later in 1994, more dead chimpanzees were discovered, with many testing positive to Ebola using molecular techniques. The source of contamination was believed to be the meat of infected Western Red Colobus monkeys, upon which the chimpanzees preyed.[8] Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Motto Unity, Discipline and Labour(translation) Anthem LAbidjanaise Capital Yamoussoukro (de jure) Abidjan (de facto) Largest city Abidjan Official languages French Demonym Ivorian Government Republic  -  President Laurent Gbagbo[1]  -  Prime Minister Guillaume Soro[1] Independence from France   -  Date August 7, 1960  Area  -  Total 322,460 km² (68th) 124,502... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ... Binomial name Piliocolobus badius (Kerr, 1792) The Western Red Colobus (Piliocolobus) is a species of Old World monkey. ...


One of the scientists performing the necropsies on the infected chimpanzees contracted Ebola. She developed symptoms similar to dengue fever approximately a week after the necropsy and was transported to Switzerland for treatment. After two weeks she was discharged from hospital, and was fully recovered six weeks after the infection. Dengue Fever redirects here. ...


Bundibugyo ebolavirus

On November 24, 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the Bundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization has confirmed the presence of a new species of the Ebola virus. On February 20, 2008, the Uganda Ministry officially announced the end of the epidemic in Bundibugyo with the last infected person discharged on January 8, 2008.[9] Ugandan officials confirmed a total of 149 cases of this new Ebola species, with 37 deaths attributed to the strain.[10] is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Bundibugyo is a district in western Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Symptoms

1976 photograph of two nurses standing in front of Kinshasa case #3 (Nurse Mayinga) who was treated and later died in Ngaliema Hospital, in Kinshasa, Zaïre
1976 photograph of two nurses standing in front of Kinshasa case #3 (Nurse Mayinga) who was treated and later died in Ngaliema Hospital, in Kinshasa, Zaïre

Symptoms are varied and often appear suddenly. Initial symptoms include high fever (at least 38.8°C; 101.8°F), severe headache, muscle, joint, or abdominal pain, severe weakness and exhaustion, sore throat, nausea, and dizziness[11]. Before an outbreak is suspected, these early symptoms are easily mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, influenza, or various bacterial infections, which are all far more common and reliably less fatal. Download high resolution version (700x1069, 84 KB)ID#: 7042 larger image at: http://phil. ... Download high resolution version (700x1069, 84 KB)ID#: 7042 larger image at: http://phil. ... Nurse Mayinga was the first recorded victim in an Ebola epidemic in Zaïre. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... For other uses, see Zaire (disambiguation). ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... Muscle weakness (or lack of strength) is a direct term for the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individuals general physical fitness. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... Pharyngitis (IPA: ) is, in most cases, a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Flu redirects here. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Ebola may progress to cause more serious symptoms, such as diarrhea, dark or bloody feces, vomiting blood, red eyes due to Distension and hemorrhage of sclerotic arterioles, petechia, maculopapular rash, and purpura. Other secondary symptoms include hypotension (less than 90 mm Hg systolic /60 mm Hg diastolic), hypovolemia, tachycardia, organ damage (especially the kidneys, spleen, and liver) as a result of disseminated systemic necrosis, and proteinuria. The interior bleeding is caused by a chemical reaction between the virus and the platelets which creates a chemical that will cut cell sized holes into the capillary walls. After 5-7 days the person will die of "a million cuts." Occasionally, internal and external hemorrhage from orifices, such as the nose and mouth may also occur, as well as from incompletely healed injuries such as needle-puncture sites. Ebola virus can affect the levels of white blood cells and platelets, disrupting clotting.[citation needed] Fewer than 50 percent of patients will develop any hemorrhaging. Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Coffee ground vomiting refers to a particular appearance of vomit. ... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease, a non-contagious chronic autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system which can present with a variety of neurological symptoms occurring in attacks or slowly progressing over time. ... minor Petechia A petechia (IPA pronunciation: ), plural petechiae (IPA pronunciation: ) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ... A rash that is maculopapular. ... Purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... Proteinuria (from protein and urine) means the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the body orifices are: the nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell the mouth, for eating and vocalizations such as speech the ear canals, for the sense of hearing the anus, for defecation the urethra, for urination (and... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ...


Methods of diagnosis of Ebola include testing saliva and urine samples. The span of time from onset of symptoms to death is usually between 7 and 14 days. By the second week of infection, patients will either defervesce (the fever will lessen) or undergo systemic multi-organ failure. Mortality rates are generally high, ranging from 50% - 90%.[11] The cause of death is usually due to hypovolemic shock or organ failure.[12] Defervescence (dēfər vesəns, defər-), a noun, means abatement of a fever. ... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS; previously known as multiple organ failure (MOF) is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to maintain homeostasis. ...


Filoviruses replicate well in a wide range of organs and cell types such as hepatocytes, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, fibroblastic reticular cells and adrenal cortical cells.[5] Most notably, the susceptibility of human endothelial cells is likely the cause of the symptoms that appear in the late stages of the infection such as shock syndrome and hemorrhaging.[5] The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ...


Transmission

Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids, or to a lesser extent, skin or mucous membrane contact. The incubation period can be anywhere from 2 to 21 days, but is generally between 5 and 10 days. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Bodily fluids are fluids, which are generally excreted or secreted from the human body. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Incubation period, also called the latent period or latency period, is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, or chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ...


Although airborne transmission between monkeys has been demonstrated by an accidental outbreak in a laboratory located in Virginia, USA, there is very limited evidence for human-to-human airborne transmission in any reported epidemics. Nurse Mayinga might represent the only possible case. The means by which she contracted the virus remains uncertain. Bacteria and viruses showing the ability to be transmitted through aerosols are considered to be airborne. ... This 1976 photograph shows two nurses standing in front of Kinshasa case #3 (Nurse Mayinga) who was treated and later died in Ngaliema Hospital, in Kinshasa, Zaire - CDC/Dr. Lyle Conrad Mayinga NSeka was the index case in an Ebola epidemic in Zaire. ...


The infection of human cases with Ebola virus has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, and forest antelopes--both dead and alive--as was documented in Côte d'Ivoire, the Republic of Congo and Gabon. The transmission of the Ebola Reston strain through the handling of cynomolgus monkeys has also been reported.[11]


So far, all epidemics of Ebola have occurred in sub-optimal hospital conditions, where practices of basic hygiene and sanitation are often either luxuries or unknown to caretakers and where disposable needles and autoclaves are unavailable or too expensive. In modern hospitals with disposable needles and knowledge of basic hygiene and barrier nursing techniques, Ebola has never spread on such a large scale. Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ...


In the early stages, Ebola may not be highly contagious. Contact with someone in early stages may not even transmit the disease. As the illness progresses, bodily fluids from diarrhea, vomiting, and bleeding represent an extreme biohazard. Due to lack of proper equipment and hygienic practices, large scale epidemics occur mostly in poor, isolated areas without modern hospitals or well-educated medical staff. Many areas where the infectious reservoir exists have just these characteristics. In such environments, all that can be done is to immediately cease all needle-sharing or use without adequate sterilization procedures, to isolate patients, and to observe strict barrier nursing procedures with the use of a medical rated disposable face mask, gloves, goggles, and a gown at all times. This should be strictly enforced for all medical personnel and visitors. Biological hazard. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Universal precautions is the term used to describe the practice in medicine of avoiding contact with patients bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as gloves, goggles, and face shields. ...


Ebola is unlikely to develop into a pandemic, or world-wide infection, due to its difficulty in spreading by airborne transmission and the period of time that the virus can use a living and contagious victim to spread compared to other infectious diseases. In isolated settings such as a quarantined hospital or a remote village, most victims are infected shortly after the first case of infection is present. In addition, the quick onset of symptoms from the time the disease becomes contagious in an individual makes it easy to identify sick individuals and limits an individual's ability to spread the disease by traveling. Because bodies of the deceased are still infectious, many doctors implemented measures to properly dispose of dead bodies in spite of some traditional local burial rituals.[13] Bacteria and viruses showing the ability to be transmitted through aerosols are considered to be airborne. ...


Treatments

A hospital isolation ward in Gulu, Uganda during the October 2000 outbreak
A hospital isolation ward in Gulu, Uganda during the October 2000 outbreak

Treatment is primarily supportive and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing electrolytes since patients are frequently dehydrated, replacing lost coagulation factors to help stop bleeding, maintaining oxygen and blood levels, and treating any complicating infections. Convalescent Plasma (factors from those who have survived Ebola infection) shows promise as a treatment for the disease[citation needed]. Ribavirin is ineffective. Interferon is also thought to be ineffective. In monkeys, administration of an inhibitor of coagulation (rNAPc2) has shown some benefit, protecting 33% of infected animals from a usually 100% (for monkeys) lethal infection (unfortunately this inoculation does not work on humans). In early 2006, scientists at USAMRIID announced a 75% recovery rate after infecting four rhesus monkeys with Ebola virus and administering antisense drugs.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Gulu (disambiguation). ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Antisense therapy is a theoretical form of treatment for genetic disorders. ...


Vaccines

Vaccines have been produced for both Ebola [15] and Marburg[16] that were 99% effective in protecting a group of monkeys from the disease. These vaccines are based on either a recombinant Vesicular stomatitis virus or a recombinant Adenovirus[17] carrying the Ebola spikeprotein on its surface. Early human vaccine efforts, like the one at NIAID in 2003, have so far not reported any successes.[18] The biggest problem with the vaccine is that unless the patient is given it near the onset of the virus (1-4 days after the symptoms begin) then there will be too much damage to the human body to repair, ie: ruptured arteries and capillaries, vomiting, and other symptoms which may still cause enough harm to kill or seriously traumatize the patient. Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ...


Viral reservoirs

Despite numerous studies, the wildlife reservoir of Ebolavirus has not been identified. Between 1976 and 1998, from 30,000 mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods sampled from outbreak regions, no Ebolavirus was detected [19] apart from some genetic material found in six rodents (Mus setulosus and Praomys species) and a shrew (Sylvisorex ollula) collected from the Central African Republic in 1998.[20] Ebolavirus was detected in the carcasses of gorillas, chimpanzees and duikers during outbreaks in 2001 and 2003 (the carcasses were the source of the initial human infections) but the high mortality from infection in these species precludes them from acting as reservoirs.[19] It has been suggested that Echolocating shrew be merged into this article or section. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Genera Cephalophus Sylvicapra A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species native to sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Plants, arthropods, and birds have also been considered as reservoirs, however bats are considered the most likely candidate[21]. Bats were known to reside in the cotton factory in which the index cases for the 1976 and 1979 outbreaks were employed and have also been implicated in Marburg infections in 1975 and 1980.[19] Of 24 plant species and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with Ebolavirus, only bats became infected.[22] The absence of clinical signs in these bats is characteristic of a reservoir species. In 2002-03, a survey of 1,030 animals from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo including 679 bats found Ebolavirus RNA in 13 fruit bats (Hyspignathus monstrosus, Epomops franquetti and Myonycteris torquata).[23] Bats are also known to be the reservoirs for a number of related viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus and lyssaviruses. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Fruit Bats are an American band originally from Chicago, but now based in Seattle. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus, EBV) and Nipah virus. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus, EBV) and Nipah virus. ... Lyssavirus (from a Greek word meaning frenzy) is a genus of virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. ...


Weaponization

Because Ebola is lethal and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, Ebola is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent[24] and a select agent by the CDC. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specifies four levels of biosafety precautions for biological agents. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... In the United States, select agents are pathogens or biological toxins which have been declared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. The Centers for... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Ebola shows potential as a biological weapon because of its lethality but due to its relatively short incubation period it may be more difficult to spread since it may kill its victim before it has a chance to be transmitted.


As a terrorist weapon, Ebola has been considered by members of Japan's Aum Shinrikyo cult, whose leader, Shoko Asahara led about 40 members to Zaire in 1992 under the guise of offering medical aid to Ebola victims in what was presumably an attempt to acquire a sample of the virus.[25] Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... Shoko Asahara (麻原 彰晃 Asahara Shōkō) (born Chizuo Matsumoto (松本智津夫 Matsumoto Chizuo) on March 2, 1955) is the founder of Japans controversial Buddhist religious group Aum Shinrikyo (now known as Aleph). ...


Cultural impact

An Ebola virus cuddly toy
An Ebola virus cuddly toy

Ebola and Marburg have served as a rich source of ideas and plotlines for many forms of entertainment. The infatuation with the virus is likely due to the high mortality rate of its victims, its mysterious nature, and its tendency to cause gruesome bleeding from body orifices. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1249x2284, 558 KB) A stuffed ebola virus, manufactured by Giantmicrobes, Inc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1249x2284, 558 KB) A stuffed ebola virus, manufactured by Giantmicrobes, Inc. ...


In the movie Outbreak, the virus looks the same as the Ebola virus.[original research?] In fact, the entire movie's made up virus "Motaba" is based very closely on Ebola.[original research?] The symptoms and area of infection had relevance. Outbreak (1995) is a suspense film starring Dustin Hoffman, Rene Russo, Morgan Freeman and Kevin Spacey. ...


In the book Outbreak, by Robin Cook, the Ebola virus is used in name as a possible weapon, with criminal intent. This book is different from the movie Outbreak of the same name The fast-paced and engrossing medical thriller, Outbreak was written by Dr. Robin Cook. ... Robin Cook (born May 4, 1940 in New York) is an American doctor/novelist who writes about medicine and topics affecting public health. ... Outbreak (1995) is a suspense film starring Dustin Hoffman, Rene Russo, Morgan Freeman and Kevin Spacey. ...


Biological warfare using airborne modifications of the Ebola virus was a main theme in Tom Clancy's novels Executive Orders and Rainbow Six. For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... Executive Orders is a political and military thriller novel by Tom Clancy. ... Rainbow Six is a techno-thriller novel written by Tom Clancy. ...


In Resident Evil, the T-Virus is a modified version of the Progenitor Virus, created by inserting it with Ebola genes.[26] Resident Evil (known in Japan as Biohazard )) is a media franchise consisting of a survival horror video games series, comic books, novelizations, three Hollywood motion pictures, and a variety of collectibles, including action figures, strategy guides and publications. ...


Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life features a biological weapon[27] consisting of a greatly accelerated form of Ebola, capable of causing death within minutes. Categories: Movie stubs | Action films | Adventure films | 2003 films | Films based on video games ...


Much of the representation of the Ebola virus in fiction and the media is considered exaggerated or myth.[citation needed] One pervasive myth follows that the virus kills so fast that it has little time to spread. Victims die very soon after contact with the virus. In reality, the incubation time is usually about a week. The average time from onset of early symptoms to death varies in the range 3-21 days, with a mean of 10.1. Although this would prevent the transmission of the virus to many people, it is still enough time for some people to catch the disease. In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ...


Another myth states that the virus causes patients to melt, liquefy, or bleed profusely. In depictions of this type, victims of Ebola suffer from squirting blood, liquefying flesh, zombie-like faces and dramatic projectile bloody vomiting, at times, from even recently deceased. In actual fact, only a fraction of Ebola victims have severe bleeding, and most accounts of the course of the disease describe patients as dull and lethargic. Approximately 10% of patients suffer some bleeding, but this is often internal or subtle, such as bleeding from the gums. Ebola symptoms are usually limited to extreme exhaustion, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, a high fever, headaches and other body pains. This article is about the undead. ...


The following is an excerpt from an interview with Philippe Calain, M.D. Chief Epidemiologist, CDC Special Pathogens Branch, Kikwit 1996:

At the end of the disease the patient does not look, from the outside, as horrible as you can read in some books. They are not melting. They are not full of blood. They're in shock, muscular shock. They are not unconscious, but you would say 'obtunded', dull, quiet, very tired. Very few were hemorrhaging. Hemorrhage is not the main symptom. Less than half of the patients had some kind of hemorrhage. But the ones that had bled, died.

Recent outbreaks

As of August 30, 2007, 103 people (100 adults and three children) were infected by a suspected hemorrhagic fever outbreak in the village of Mweka, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The outbreak started after the funerals of two village chiefs, and 217 people in four villages fell ill. The World Health Organization sent a team to take blood samples for analysis and confirmed that many of the cases are the result of the Ebola virus [28]. The Congo's last major Ebola epidemic killed 245 people in 1995 in Kikwit, about 200 miles from the source of the Aug. 2007 outbreak.[29] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the DR-Congolese town. ... WHO redirects here. ... Kikwit is a city lying on the Kwilu River in the south western Democratic Republic of Congo. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


On November 30, 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the Bundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization confirmed the presence of a new species of the Ebola virus.[30] The epidemic came to an official end on February 20, 2008. 149 cases of this new strain were reported and 37 of those led to deaths. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Bundibugyo is a district in western Uganda, bordering the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Life Cycle

  • Virus attaches to host receptors through the GP (glycoprotein) surface peplomer and is endocytosed into vesicles in the host cell.
  • Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane occurs; nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm.
  • The encapsidated, negative-sense genomic ssRNA is used as a template for the synthesis ( 3' - 5') of polyadenylated, monocistronic mRNAs.
  • Translation of the mRNA into viral proteins occurs using the host cell's machinery.
  • Post-translational processing of viral proteins occurs. GP0 (glycoprotein precursor) is cleaved to GP1 and GP2, which are heavily glycosylated. These two molecules assemble, first into heterodimers, and then into trimers to give the surface peplomers. SGP (secreted glycoprotein) precursor is cleaved to SGP and delta peptide, both of which are released from the cell.
  • As viral protein levels rise, a switch occurs from translation to replication. Using the negative-sense genomic RNA as a template, a complementary +ssRNA is synthesized; this is then used as a template for the synthesis of new genomic (-)ssRNA, which is rapidly encapsidated.
  • The newly-formed nucleocapsides and envelope proteins associate at the host cell's plasma membrane; budding occurs, and the virions are released.

A peplomer is a glycoprotein spike on a viral capsid. ...

See also

Ngoy Mushola is a doctor from Bumba, Zaire. ... Needle removers are devices that physically remove a needle from a syringe. ... Syringe with needle Sharps waste is a form of medical waste composed of used sharps, which includes any device or object used to puncture or lacerate the skin. ... Bolivian Haemorrhagic Fever (Malpucho) is more commonly known as Black Typhus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Matthew Lukwiya Dr. Matthew Lukwiya (24 November 1957-5 December 2000) was a Ugandan physician and the supervisor of St. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Ebola Cases and Outbreaks - CDC Special Pathogens Branch. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  2. ^ BMJ website. Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  3. ^ Rouquet, P; et al. (2005). "Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003". Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 283-290. 
  4. ^ Bardi, Jason Socrates (2002). "Death Called a River". Scribbs Research Institute 2 (1). Retrieved on 2006-12-08. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Molecular and Cellular Biology. Wymondham, Norfolk: Horizon Bioscience. ISBN 0954523237. 
  6. ^ "New subtype of Ebola suspected in Uganda", USA Today, 2007-11-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  7. ^ Isaacson, Margaretha; et al.. "Two Belgian nurses died of Ebola".
  8. ^ Ebola Cote d'Ivoire Outbreaks
  9. ^ World Health Organization (2008-02-20). "End of Ebola outbreak in Uganda". Press release.
  10. ^ Cocks, Tim. "Uganda confirms 113 suspected Ebola cases", Reuters, 2007-12-11. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  11. ^ a b c WHO Fact Sheet Ebola haemorrhagic fever
  12. ^ Bray, Mike; Geisbert, Thomas W (2005). "Ebola virus: The role of macrophages and dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever". International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37 (8): 1560-1566. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.02.018. 
  13. ^ Harden, Blaine. "Dr. Matthew's Passion", New York Times Magazine, 2001-02-18. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  14. ^ "USAMRIID press release". Press release.
  15. ^ Jones, Steven; et al. (2005). "Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses". Nature Medicine 11 (7): 786-790. doi:10.1038/nm1258. 
  16. ^ Hevey, M; et al. (1998). "Marburg Virus Vaccines Based upon Alphavirus Replicons Protect Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates". Virology 251 (1): 28-37. doi:10.1006/viro.1998.9367. 
  17. ^ Sullivan, Nancy; et al. (2003). "Accelerated vaccination for Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever in non-human primates". Nature 424 (6949): 681-684. doi:10.1038/nature01876. 
  18. ^ National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2003-11-18). "NIAID Ebola Vaccine Enters Human Trial". Press release.
  19. ^ a b c Pourrut, Xavier; et al. (2005). "The natural history of Ebola virus in Africa". Microbes and Infection 7 (7-8): 1005-1014. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.04.006. 
  20. ^ Morvan, Jaques; et al. (1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the Central African Republic". Microbes and Infection 1 (14): 1193-1201. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(99)00242-7. 
  21. ^ "Fruit bats may carry Ebola virus", BBC News, 2005-12-11. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  22. ^ Swanepoel, R; et al. (1996). "Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus". Emerging Infectious Diseases 2: 321-325. 
  23. ^ Leroy, Eric; et al. (2005). "Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus". Nature 438: 575-576. doi:10.1038/438575a. 
  24. ^ Hoenen, Thomas; et al. (2006). "Ebola virus: unravelling pathogenesis to combat a deadly disease". Trends in Molecular Medicine 12 (5): 206-215. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2006.03.006. 
  25. ^ . "Chronology of Aum Shinrikyo's CBW Activities". Monterey Institute for International Studies.
  26. ^ Capcom.co.jp "Wesker's Report II". Retrieved on 2008-04-12.
  27. ^ Jesusfreakhideout.com "Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life" Movie Review. Retrieved on 2008-03-11.
  28. ^ "Ebola Outbreak Confirmed in Congo", NewScientist.com, 2007-09-11. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  29. ^ "Mystery DR Congo fever kills 100", BBC News, 2007-08-31. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 
  30. ^ "Uganda: Deadly Ebola Outbreak Confirmed - UN", UN News Service, 2007-11-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Overviews

Outbreaks The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorises and organises the taxonomic classification of viruses. ...

Life Cycle Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Biomarker Database - information on Ebola

Infectivity

  • U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases: Gene-Specific Ebola Therapies Protect Nonhuman Primates from Lethal Disease
  • Lethal experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus by the oral and conjunctival route of exposure PubMed, February 1996, Jaax et al.
  • Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola and marburg virus PubMed, August 1995
  • Marburg and Ebola viruses as aerosol threats PubMed, 2004, USAMRIID
  • Other viral bioweapons: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhag fever PubMed, 2004
  • Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory PubMed, December 1993
  • What is the probability of a dangerous strain of Ebola mutating and becoming airborne? ­ Brett Russel, retrieved 2006-07-10.
The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the disease. ... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... This article is about the organ. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus is a genus of viruses of the family Caliciviridae. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever - MSN Encarta (682 words)
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a zoonosis—that is, a disease that animals spread to humans.
Each outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever has been traced to what is known as an index case, a person who became infected by coming into contact with an animal involved in the life cycle of the Ebola virus.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is diagnosed using a laboratory technique called enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) that searches blood samples for specific antigens (viral proteins) or antibodies made by the infected patient.
WHO | Ebola haemorrhagic fever (1319 words)
Ebola is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
The Ebola virus was first identified in a western equatorial province of Sudan and in a nearby region of Zaïre (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1976 after significant epidemics in Yambuku, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Nzara, southern Sudan.
From 1989 to 1996, several outbreaks caused by the Ebola Reston subtype occurred in monkeys imported from the Philippines to the USA (Reston in Virginia, Alice in Texas and Pennsylvania) and to Italy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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