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Encyclopedia > Eastern white pine
Eastern White Pine
Group of trees
Group of trees
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: Strobus
Species: P. strobus
Binomial name
Pinus strobus
L.

Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the extreme north of Georgia. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Families Pinaceae, pine family Araucariaceae, araucaria family Podocarpaceae, yellow-wood family Phyllocladaceae Sciadopityaceae, umbrella-pine family Cupressaceae, cypress family Cephalotaxaceae, plum-yew family Taxaceae, yew family The Order Pinales in the Division Pinophyta, Class Pinopsida comprises all the extant conifers. ... Genera Subfamily Pinoideae     Pinus - pines (about 115 species) Subfamily Piceoideae     Picea - spruces (about 35 species) Subfamily Laricoideae     Cathaya (one species)     Larix - larches (about 14 species)     Pseudotsuga - douglas-firs (five species) Subfamily Abietoideae     Abies - firs (about 50 species)     Cedrus - cedars (two to four species)     Pseudolarix - golden larch (one species)     Keteleeria (three... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... There are three main subgenera of Pinus, the subgenus Strobus (White pines or soft pines), the subgenus Ducampopinus (Pinyon, Bristlecone and Lacebark pines), and the subgenus Pinus (Typical pines, or yellow or hard pines). ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... North American redirects here. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...

Contents

Description

Foliage
Foliage

It is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, and like all members of that group, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five (rarely 3 or 4), with a deciduous sheath. They are flexible,bluish-green, finely serrated, and 5-13 centimeters (2-5 in) long, and persist for usually about 18 months. The cones are slender, 8-16 centimeters (3-6 in) long (rarely slightly longer) and 4-5 centimeters (1.5-2 in) broad when open, and have scales with a rounded apex and slightly reflexed tip. The seeds are 4-5 millimeters (3/16 in) long, with a slender 15-20 mm (3/4 in) wing, and are wind-dispersed. Cone production peaks every 3 to 5 years. Mature trees can easily be 200 years old and 250 is not unusual. Some white pines live over 400 years. A tree growing near Syracuse, New York was dated to 458 years in the mid-1990s and trees in Wisconsin and Michigan have approached 500 years in age. White pines prefer well-drained soil and cool, humid climates, but also grow in boggy areas and rocky highlands. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1073 KB)Needles of a young Eastern White Pine - Photo by Schzmo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1073 KB)Needles of a young Eastern White Pine - Photo by Schzmo. ... There are three main subgenera of Pinus, the subgenus Strobus (White pines or soft pines), the subgenus Ducampopinus (Pinyon, Bristlecone and Lacebark pines), and the subgenus Pinus (Typical pines, or yellow or hard pines). ... This article deals with the tree; for the e-mail client see Pine email client Species About 115. ... There are three main subgenera of Pinus, the subgenus Strobus (White pines or soft pines), the subgenus Ducampopinus (Pinyon, Bristlecone and Lacebark pines), and the subgenus Pinus (Typical pines, or yellow or hard pines). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Range and dimensions

The Eastern White Pine has the distinction of being the tallest tree in eastern North America. White pine forests originally covered much of northeastern North America, though only one percent of the original trees remain untouched by extensive logging operations in the 1700s and 1800s. In natural pre-colonial stands it is reported to have grown to as tall as 70 meters (230 ft) tall, at least on rare occasions. Even greater heights have been attributed to the species, but the accounts are unverifiable. The current tallest pines reach to between 50 and 55 meters (160-180 ft). Within the Northeast, currently, 7 sites located in 4 states have been confirmed to have trees over 48 m (160 ft) in height. The southern Appalachians have even more locations and the tallest pines. Three locations in the Southeast and one site in the Northeast have been identified with white pines to 55 meters (180 ft) tall. One survivor is a specimen known as the "Boogerman Pine" in the Cataloochee Valley, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. At 57.15 m (187.5 ft) tall, it is the tallest accurately measured tree in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. It has been climbed and measured by tape drop by the Eastern Native Tree Society (ENTS). Before it lost its top in Hurricane Opal in October 1995, the Boogerman Pine was 63 m (207 ft) tall. The current height champion white pine of the Northeast is the Longfellow Pine in Cook Forest State Park, PA. It also has been climbed and measured by tape drop. Its current height is 55.8 m (183.1 ft). Within New England, a tree in the Mohawk Trail State Forest known as the Jake Swamp Tree is 51.5 m (169 ft) tall as of June 2007. The Jake Swamp tree is the tallest in New England. It was climbed and tape drop-measured in November 1998 and again in October 2001. Precise measurements are maintained on this tree by ENTS. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... Cataloochee Cataloochee is a valley in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, located in the Southeastern United States. ... Cades Cove panorama The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is a United States National Park that straddles the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge Mountains which are a division of the larger Appalachian Mountain chain. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Hurricane Opal was a major hurricane that formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1995. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Diameters of the larger pines range from 1.0-1.6 m (3-5 ft). However, singled-trunk white pines in both the Northeast and Southeast with diameters over 1.45 m (4.75 ft) are exceedingly rare. Notable big pine sites of 40 ha (100 acres) or less will often have no more than 2 or 3 trees in the 1.2 to 1.4 m (4-4.5 ft) diameter class. A typical large white pine will be in the 3.0 to 3.7 m (10-12 ft) circumference range. Undocumented reports from colonial America reported diameters of virgin white pines of up to 8 feet in diameter (Ling, 2003).

Eastern White Pine in Arrowhead Provincial Park along Big East River
Eastern White Pine in Arrowhead Provincial Park along Big East River

Total trunk volumes of the largest white pines are around 28 cubic meters (1,000 cubic feet) with some past giants reaching a possible 37 or 40 m³ (1,300 or 1,400 cu ft). Photographic analysis of giant pines suggests volumes closer to 34 m³ (1,200 cu ft). Outside the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, other areas with known remaining virgin stands include[citation needed] Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario; Algoma Highlands, Ontario; Huron Mountains, Michigan (Upper Peninsula); Estivant Pines in Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula; Hartwick Pines State Park; Menomonie Indian Reservation, northeastern Wisconsin; Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Minnesota; and White Pines State Park, Illinois, Cook Forest State Park, Hearts Conent Natural Area, and Anders Run, all in Pennsylvania; Linville Gorge, North Carolina. Small groves of old-growth pines are found: (1) on numerous sites within New York's Adirondack Park. Old-growth pines are found in the Ordway Pines, Maine; Ice Glen, Massachusetts. Many sites with conspicuously large pines represent advanced old field succession. The tall white pine stands in Mohawk Trail State Forest and on the William Cullen Bryant homestead in Cummington, both in Massachusetts, are examples. Mohawk Trail State Forest includes 83 white pines reaching 45 m (150 ft) in height or more, of which six exceed 48.8 m (160 ft). This is the largest collection of 45 m (150 foot) class white pines in New England. The largest trees in Hartwick Pines State Parks are in the 45–48 m range (150-160ft). Cook Forest State Park has the largest collection of 45 m (150 foot) trees in the Northeast. At present one hundred ten trees have been measured to heights of 45 m (150 feet) or more. A private property in Claremont New Hampshire has about sixty white pines in the 45 m (150 ft) height class. Beyond the three mentioned properties, sites with 45 m (150 foot) trees typically have from one to fifteen, with most of the sites having less than ten. Eastern White Pine - my own photo Eastern White Pine in Arrowhead Provincial Park along Big East River File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eastern White Pine - my own photo Eastern White Pine in Arrowhead Provincial Park along Big East River File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Algonquin Provincial Park is a provincial park located between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River in central Ontario. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Huron Mountains are in the U.S. state of Michigan, located mostly in Powell Township, Marquette County overlooking Lake Superior on the Upper Peninsula. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is the northern of the two major land masses that comprise the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Hartwick Pines State Park is a 9,672-acre (39. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Canoes on Saganaga Lake The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW or BWCA, sometimes simply the bee-dub) is a 1. ... White Pines Forest State Park, also known as White Pines State Park, is an Illinois state park in Ogle County, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


Because the tree is somewhat resistant to fire, mature survivors are able to re-seed burned areas. In pure stands mature trees usually have no branches on the lower half of the trunk. In mixed forests, this dominant tree towers over all others, including the large hardwoods. It provides food and shelter for forest birds such as the Common Crossbill and small mammals such as squirrels. The white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi) and White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola), an introduced fungus, can damage or kill these trees. Binomial name Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch. ...


Mortality from Pine Blister in mature pine groves was often 50-80% during the early 20th Century. The fungus must spend part of its life cycle on alternate hosts: gooseberry or wild currant. Foresters reasoned correctly that if all the alternate host plants were removed that White Pine Blister Rust might be eliminated. A very determined campaign was mounted and all land owners in commercial pine growing regions were encouraged to uproot and kill all wild gooseberry and wild currant plant (Ling, 2003. Today wild currants are relatively rare plants in New England and planting wild currants or wild gooseberries is strongly discouraged or may even be illegal. As an alternative new strains of commercial currants have been developed which are highly resistant to White Pine Blister Rust. Planting these new strains is a good compromise and will keep you in good standing with your neighbors and the local authorities. Possibly due to hard work of the foresters mortality in white pines from rust is only about 3% today. But alas wild currant and gooseberry pies are items found only in memories (Lombard and Bofinger, 1999).

An illustration dated 1902 from the Seventh Report of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of the State of New York, showing a variety of insect pests affecting white pine
An illustration dated 1902 from the Seventh Report of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of the State of New York, showing a variety of insect pests affecting white pine

it is not going to grow.

Uses and symbolism

A large Eastern White Pine cone
A large Eastern White Pine cone

During the age of sail, the tall trees with their high quality wood were valued for masts, and many trees were marked in colonial times with the broad arrow, reserving them for the British Royal Navy. An unusual large, lone, white pine was found in colonial times, in coastal South Carolina along the Black River (far south of its normal range), and the king's mark was put upon this particular tree, giving rise to the town of Kingstree. The wood was often squared immediately after felling to fit in the holds of ships better (Ling, 2003). Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 324 KB)Large Eastern White Pine cone (Photo by Schzmo) File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern White Pine Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 324 KB)Large Eastern White Pine cone (Photo by Schzmo) File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern White Pine Categories: GFDL images ... Traditional wooden cutter under sail. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The Black River originates at the conjunction of several minor swamps just to the south of the city of Bishopville, South Carolina, flowing southeasterly on the coastal plain of South Carolina to empty into the Pee Dee River north of Georgetown, South Carolina. ... Williamsburg County Courthouse, Designed by Robert Mills Kingstree, South Carolina Kingstree is a town located in Williamsburg County, South Carolina. ...


The British soon built special barge-like vessels which could carry up to 50 pine trunks destined to be ship masts. A 100’ mast was about 3’X3’ at the butt and 2’X2’ at the top, while a 120’ mast was a giant 4’X4’ at the bottom and 30” at the top. The original masts on the US Constitution (Old Ironsides) were single trees but later they were laminated to better withstand cannon balls. During the American Revolution it became a great sport for the patriots to see how many of the King’s trees one could cut down and haul off (Nizalowski, 1997; Sloane, 1965).


Eastern White Pine is now widely grown in plantation forestry within its native area. Several cultivars have been developed for garden use, many of them dwarf with very slow growth. The species was imported into England by Captain George Weymouth in 1620, who planted it widely for a future timber crop, but the stand had little success because of White Pine Blister Rust disease. This article is about crop plantations. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Old growth pine in the Americas was a highly desired wood since huge, knot free, boards were the rule rather than the exception. Pine was common and easy to cut, thus many colonial homes used pine for paneling, floors and furniture. Pine was also a favorite tree of loggers since pine logs can still be processed in a lumber mill a year or more after being cut down. In contrast, most hardwood trees such as cherry, maple, oak, and ash must be cut into 1” thick boards immediately after felling or large cracks will develop in the trunk which can render the wood worthless (Ling, 2003).


Freshly cut white pine is creamy white or a pale straw color but pine wood which has aged many years tends to darken to a deep rich tan. Occasionally one can find light brown pine boards with unusual yellowish-golden or reddish brown hues. This is the famous pumpkin pine. It is generally thought that slow growing pines in virgin forests accumulate colored products in the heartwood but genetic factors and soil conditions may also play a role in rich color development (Nizalowski, 1997).


Although white pine was frequently used for flooring in buildings constructed before the Civil War, the wood is soft and consequently you will find cup shaped depressions from normal wear and tear on almost every old white pine floor. George Washington realized this would happen and wisely made his Mount Vernon floors out of yellow pine which is much harder (Ling, 2003).



Eastern White Pine is the provincial tree of Ontario and the state tree of Maine and Michigan and its "pine cone and tassel" is the "state flower" of Maine. Sprigs of Eastern White Pine were worn as badges as a symbol of Vermont identity during the Vermont Republic and appears in a stained glass window at the Vermont State House, on the Flag of Vermont and the naval ensign of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is occasionally known as White Pine, Northern White Pine, or Soft Pine. It is also known as Weymouth Pine, especially in Britain. In addition, this tree is known to the Haudenosaunee Native Americans as the Tree of Great Peace. This list of Provincial tree emblems of Canada includes the official trees of the Provinces and Territories of Canada. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... The Vermont State House The Vermont State House, located in Montpelier, Vermont, is the capitol and seat of government of the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. state flags ... A naval ensign is the flag used by a countrys navy on their ships. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


It is now naturalizing in the mountains of southern Poland and the Czech Republic having spread from ornamental trees. In biology, naturalisation is the process when foreign or cultivated plants have spread into the wild, where they multiply by natural regeneration. ... An ornamental plant is a plant species or cultivar that is grown indoors, or in gardens and parks for its amenity value, or for beauty (in its end use), rather than commercial or other value. ...


White Pine needles contain five times the amount of Vitamin C (by weight) of lemons and make an excellent tisane. The cambium is edible. It is also a source of resveratrol. Caterpillars of Lusk's Pinemoth (Coloradia luski) have been found to feed only on Eastern White Pines. This article is about the nutrient. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Herbal tea A tisane, ptisan or herbal tea is any herbal infusion other than from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem: The vascular cambium is the source of both the secondary xylem (inwards) and the secondary phloem (outwards), and hence is located between these tissues in the stem. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ...


The name “Adirondack” is an Iroquois word which means tree-eater and referred to their neighbors (more commonly known as the Algonquians) who collected the inner bark during times of winter starvation. The white soft inner bark (cambial layer) was carefully separated from the hard, dark brown bark and dried. When pounded this product can be used as flour or added to stretch other starchy products. Linnaeus noted in the 1700’s that cattle and pigs fed pine bark bread grew well but he personally did not like the taste. The young staminate cones were stewed by the Ojibwe Indians with meat and were said to be sweet and not pitchy. In addition, the seeds are sweet and nutritious but not as good as those of some of the western nut pines (Fernald, 1943).


Pine resin has been used to waterproof baskets, pails and boats and the sap can be processed to make turpentine. In addition, the sap apparently has a number of quite efficient antimicrobials. The Chippewa even used it successfully to treat gangrenous wounds. Generally a wet pulp from the inner bark is applied to the wounds or pine tar can be mixed with beeswax or butter and used as a salve to prevent infection. Pine tar mixed with beer can be used to remove tapeworms (flat worms) or nematodes (round worms) and pine tar mixed with sulfur is useful to treat dandruff. Pine tar is produced by slowly burning pine roots, branches, or small trunks in a partially smothered flame (Erichsen-Brown, 1979).

See also

Hartwick Pines State Park is a 9,672-acre (39. ... Interlochen State Park is a state park in Michigan. ...

References

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pinus strobus
The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is the proposed name for a collaborative bio-encyclopedia, written by experts[1][2], which aims to build an encyclopedia of separate articles for all known species, including video, sound, images, graphics, and text. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Eastern White Pine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (678 words)
Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeasternmost Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the extreme north of Georgia.
Eastern White Pine is the tallest tree in eastern North America.
Eastern White Pine is the Provincial tree of Ontario and the State tree of Maine and Michigan.
Pinus Strobus: Eastern White Pine (763 words)
Thus, white pine is considered to be the largest of all pine species found in the United States.
White pine has a broad geographic range, growing from Newfoundland to Manitoba, and through the northern United States to northern and eastern Ohio, and then southward along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and North and South Carolina.
White pine is intermediate in shade tolerance, and is commonly associated with Eastern hemlock and various northern hardwoods.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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