FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Eastern philosophy

Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... A blend of Confucianism, neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto and Daoism Routledge encyclopedia Categories: Japan-related stubs ... There has been a continuous history of philosophy in Korea, that goes back more than two thousand years. ...


The usefulness of dividing philosophy into Western philosophy and other philosophies, in contrast to the notion that philosophy is universal rather than divided, is open to challenge, partly because it could appear to be condescending to non-Western philosophies.[citation needed] To say this is not to deny that there are important traditions in philosophy that are intimately bound up with historical and geographical circumstances. At the same time however, there are examples of philosophers who are persecuted by the majority in their geographical circumstances and stand against the common opinions and practices of their specific time and place. Many claim that geographical and time notions of "Western" and "Eastern" philosophy is too vague and imprecise, committing the fallacy of overgeneralization. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When the term "philosophy" is used in an academic context, it typically refers to the philosophical tradition begun with the ancient Greeks that provided us with an abundance of manuscripts and archeological sites to study and research. The "Eastern philosophical" manuscripts and archeological sites are often overlooked in many North American and European universities, just as ancient "Western" and monotheistic claims are also overlooked in the last few decades, unlike in the early 1900s.[citation needed] Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ...

Contents

Regional philosophies

Indian philosophy

Main article: Indian philosophy

The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya...

Chinese philosophy

Main article: Chinese philosophy

Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ...

Persian philosophy

Main article: Iranian philosophy

Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ...

Japanese philosophy

Main article: Japanese philosophy

A blend of Confucianism, neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto and Daoism Routledge encyclopedia Categories: Japan-related stubs ...

Korean philosophy

Main article: Korean philosophy

There has been a continuous history of philosophy in Korea, that goes back more than two thousand years. ...

Philosophical and religious traditions

The following is an overview of the Eastern philosophic traditions listed in alphabetical order. Each tradition has a separate article with more detail on sects, schools, etc. (c.f.)rencyism


Dharmic philosophies

Further information: Dharmic religion

The image above is proposed for deletion. ...

Hindu philosophy

Main article: Hindu philosophy

Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; Sanātana Dharma, roughly Perennial Faith) is generally considered to be the oldest major world religion[1] and first among Dharma faiths. Hinduism is characterized by a diverse array of belief systems, practices and scriptures. It has its origin in ancient Vedic culture at least as far back as 3000 BC. It is the third largest religion with approximately 1.05 billion followers worldwide, 96% of whom live in the Indian subcontinent. Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ... The image above is proposed for deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Hinduism rests on the spiritual bedrock of the Vedas, hence Veda Dharma, and their mystic issue, the Upanishads, as well as the teachings of many great Hindu gurus through the ages. Many streams of thought flow from the six Vedic/Hindu schools, Bhakti sects and Tantra Agamic schools into the one ocean of Hinduism, the first of the Dharma religions. Also, the sacred book Bhagavad Gita is one of the most revered texts among Hindus. Veda redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... The Sri Yantra This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


What can be said to be common to all Hindus is belief in Dharma, reincarnation, karma, and moksha (liberation) of every soul through a variety of moral, action-based, and meditative yogas. Still more fundamental principles include ahimsa (non-violence), the primacy of the Guru, the Divine Word of Aum and the power of mantras, love of Truth in many manifestations as gods and goddesses, and an understanding that the essential spark of the Divine (Atman/Brahman) is in every human and living being, thus allowing for many spiritual paths leading to the One Unitary Truth. For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... “Om” redirects here. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ...


See Also: Hinduism -- Hindu scripture -- Samkhya -- Yoga -- Nyaya -- Vaisesika -- Vedanta -- Bhakti -- Carvaka -- Indian logic Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Bhakti (DevanāgarÄ«: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Carvaka (also spelled Charvaka, Sanskrit ) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ...


Buddhist philosophy

Main article: Buddhist philosophy

Buddhism is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince later known as the Buddha, or one who is Awake - derived from the Sanskrit 'bud', 'to awaken'. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion, one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or non-existence of a God or gods. The Buddha himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration, and said that anyone, anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had. The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems. Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Image:StandngBuddha. ... Media:Example. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ...


The Buddhist soteriology is summed up in the Four Noble Truths: The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ...

  1. Dukkha: All worldly life is unsatisfactory, disjointed, containing suffering.
  2. Samudaya: There is a cause of suffering, which is attachment or desire (tanha) rooted in ignorance.
  3. Nirodha: There is an end of suffering, which is Nirvana.
  4. Marga: There is a path that leads out of suffering, known as the Noble Eightfold Path.

However, Buddhist philosophy as such has its foundations more in the doctrines of: Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress...

Most Buddhist sects believe in karma, a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. One effect of karma is rebirth. At death, the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence. The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad), end the cycle of rebirth and suffering, and attain Nirvana, usually translated as awakening or enlightenment. In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ...


See also: BuddhismSchools of Buddhism A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ...


Chan/Zen Buddhism
Main article: Zen

Chan (Chinese) or Zen (Japanese) is a fusion of the Dhyana school of Mahayana Buddhism with Taoist principles. Bodhidharma was a semi-legendary Indian monk who traveled to China in the 5th century. There, at the Shaolin Temple, he began the Ch'an school of Buddhism, known in Japan and in the West as Zen Buddhism. Zen philosophy places emphasis on existing in the moment, right now. Zen teaches that the entire universe is a manifestation of mind, and encourages the practitioner to confirm this for themselves through direct insight satori. Zen schools have been historically divided between those which encourage the pursuit of enlightenment as a sudden event (Rinzai), or as a fruit of "gradual cultivation" (Soto). For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Shaolin temples (少林寺; pinyin: Shàolín Sì, Wade-Giles: Shao-lin Ssŭ) are a group of Chinese Buddhist monasteries famed for their long association with Chán (Japanese Zen) Buddhism and martial arts. ... Satori (æ‚Ÿ Japanese satori; Chinese: wù - from the verb Satoru) is a Japanese Buddhist term for enlightenment. ...


Zen practitioners engage in zazen (sitting) meditation, as other schools do, but Zen is noted for shikantaza (just sitting) as opposed to following the breath or mantra use. The Rinzai school is noteworthy for the use of koans, riddles designed to force the student to abandon futile attempts to understand the nature of the universe through logic. Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen Zazen (坐禅) is at the heart of Zen Buddhist practice. ... Shikantaza (只管打坐) is literally translated as only focused on doing sitting. More often it is called: just sitting or silent illumination. It is the main meditation technique of the Soto school of Zen Buddhism. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ...


See also: Chinese BuddhismBuddhism in JapanKorean Buddhism This article explores how Buddhism, a Indian origin, has affected and been affected by Chinese culture, politics, literature and philosophy. ... The Buddha in Kamakura (1252). ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ...


Sikh philosophy

Diagram showing some of the important Sikh beliefs - Click here to enlarge
Diagram showing some of the important Sikh beliefs - Click here to enlarge
  • Simran and Sewa: These are the Foundation of Sikhism. It is the duty of every Sikh to practise Naam Simran (meditation on the Lord's name) daily and engage in Sewa (Selfless Service) whenever there is a possibility- in Gurdwara (Sikh place of worship); in community centre; old people's homes; care centres; major world disasters, etc
  • Kirat Karni: - To live honestly and earn by ones physical and mental effort while accepting Gods gifts and blessings. A Sikh has to live as a householders carrying out his or her duties and responsibilities to the full.
  • Vand Chakna: - The Sikhs are asked to share their wealth within the community and outside by giving Dasvand and practising charity (Daan). To “Share and consume together”.
  • Kill the Five Thieves: The Sikh Gurus tell us that our mind and spirit are constantly being attacked by the Five Evils – Kam (Lust), Krodh (Rage), Lobh (Greed), Moh (Attachment) and Ahankar (Ego). A Sikh needs to constantly attack and overcome these five vices; be always vigilant and on guard to tackle these five thieves all the time.
  • Positive Human Qualities: The Sikh Gurus taught the Sikhs to develop and harness positive human qualities which lead the soul closer to God and away from evil. These are: Sat (Truth); Daya (Compassion); Santokh (Contentment); Nimrata (Humility); and Pyare (Love).

See also sikhnet.com The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (603x768, 79 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (603x768, 79 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The term Simran refers to the vocal repetition or recital of the God Names - Naam or of the Holy Text from the Two Granths of the Sikhs - the Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Dasam Granth. ... SEWA is the Self-Employed Womens Association of India, a trade union founded in 1972 after a split in the Textile Labour Association. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The term Nām refers to the act of worship of God by Hindus and is also adopted by Sikhs. ... The term Simran refers to the vocal repetition or recital of the God Names - Naam or of the Holy Text from the Two Granths of the Sikhs - the Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Dasam Granth. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... SEWA is the Self-Employed Womens Association of India, a trade union founded in 1972 after a split in the Textile Labour Association. ... Selfless is Godfleshs third official album. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Nām Japō (Punjabi: ), refers to the meditation, vocal singing of Hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or of the various Names of God, specially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means Wonderful Lord. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kirat Karni is one of three primary pillars of Sikhism. ... ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Dasvand means to donate 10% percent of ones harvest to the Gurdwara. ... FIVE EVILS or five thieves or pancadokh or panj vikar as they are referred to in Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, are, according to Sikhism, the five major weaknesses of the human personality at variance with its spiritual essence. ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ... KRODH is derived from the Sanskrit word krodha which means wrath or Rage. ... Lobh is a Gurmukhi word which translates in English to greed. ... MOH or Moh may refer to: MOH, Method of Hardness of a tile. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... Sat which means Truth is one of the most important virtues which Sikhs try to develop during their life. ... Daya (大雅, Taiwanese: Tāi-ngé) is a rural township in central Taichung County, Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. ... Santokh means Contentment and is one of five virtues that is vigorously promoted by the Sikh Gurus. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Pyare means Love for the Lord and His creation. ...

  • Sikhism - Brief account of this religion.

Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... // Ek Onkar There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Diagram showing some of the important Sikh beliefs The Basic Tenets of Sikhism can be summarised as follows: // Nam Japna - Rise in the Amrit Vela and meditate on Gods Name. ... // There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ...

Jainism

Main article: Jainism

Jainism was founded by Mahavira, a teacher and religious leader who lived around the same time as the Buddha. The word Jaina comes from the title Jina, or victorious one, referring to those who have achieved victory over their own passions. Jainism teaches asceticism - acts of self-discipline, self-deprivation, and self-denial - as the way to enlightenment. The original Jains were among the world's first monks, retreating from ordinary life to devote themselves to fasting and meditation. The Jain population is concentrated in India and has crossed 10 million. Jains are among the most prosperous of business communities in India. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ...


Carvaka

Main article: Carvaka

Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, was a materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. It proposed a system of ethics based on rational thought. However, this school has been dead for more than a thousand years. Carvaka (also spelled Charvaka, Sanskrit ) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ...


Confucianism

Main article: Confucianism

Confucianism(儒学), developed around the teachings of Confucius(孔子) and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts. It was the mainstream ideology in China and the Sinosphere since the Han Dynasty and may still be considered a major underlying element of Far-East culture. It could be understood as a social ethic and humanist system focusing on human beings and their relationships. Confucianism emphasizes formal rituals in every aspect of life, from quasi-religious ceremonies to strict politeness and deference to one's elders, specifically to one's parents and to the state in the form of the Emperor. Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... Greater China, Singapore, and countries culturally linked to Chinese culture. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities...


Neo-Confucianism

Main article: Neo-confucianism

Neo-Confucianism is a later further development of Confucianism but also went much more differently from the origin of Confucianism. It started developing from the Song Dynasty and was nearly completed in late Ming Dynasty. Its root can be found as early as Tang Dynasty. It has a great influence on the East Asia including such as China, Japan and Korea. Zhu Xi is considered as the biggest master of Song Neo-Confucianism and Wang Yangming is the one of Ming's. But there are conflicts between Zhu's school and Wang's. Neo-Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... Neo-Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For other uses, see Ming. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... Wang Yangming (王陽明, Japanese ÅŒ Yōmei, 1472–1529) was a Ming Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian scholar–official. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


Islamic esoteric philosophy

The rise of Islam led to emergence of various philosophical schools of thought. Amongst them sufism established esoteric philosophy, mu'tazilah (later influenced by Hellenistic philosophy) reconstructed rationalism while asharites cast significant impact on the non-reliability of reason and reshaped logical and rational interpretation of God, justice, destiny and universe. Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam which encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... The Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy were instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development drastically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For other uses of Fate, see Fate Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


Al-Mu'tazilah (المعتزلة) or Mu'tazilite is a popular theological school of philosophy during early Islam. They called themselves Ahl al-'Adl wa al-Tawhid ("People of Justice and Monotheism"). They were the first who advocated free will and expanded rationalism in Islamic society, and developed Kalam based on dialectic. They ascended dramatically during 8th and 9th century due to support of intellectual and elites, but could not appeal to the masses. Later in the 13th century, they lost official support and most of their valuable works were destroyed, in favour of the rising Ash'ari school. Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See Also: Mu'taziliAsh'ariSufism Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam which encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


Sufi philosophy

Main article: Sufi philosophy

Sufism (تصوف taṣawwuf) is a school of esoteric philosophy in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. In order to attain this supreme truth, Sufism has marked Lataif-e-Sitta (the six subtleties), Nafs, Qalb, Sirr, Ruh (spirit), Khafi and Akhfa. Apart from conventional religious practices, they also perform Muraqaba (meditation), Dhikr (Zikr or recitation), Chillakashi (asceticism) and Sama (esoteric music and dance). // Cosmology Subtle bodies Rooh ( Soul ) Nasma ( Astral Body ) Physical body Concepts in Gnosis Fana Baqa Haal Maqaam Other concepts Haqiqa Marifa Ihsan Categories: Sufi philosophy | Mystic philosophy ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam which encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...


Taoic religions

Taoism

Main article: Taoism

Taoism is the traditional foil of Confucianism in China. Taoism's central books are the Dao De Jing (Tao-Te-Ching), traditionally attributed to Laozi (Lao Tzu), and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu). The core concepts of Taoism are rooted in prehistoric Chinese mysticism, and linked also with the Book of Changes (Yi Jing or I Ching), a divinatory set of 64 geometrical figures describing states and evolutions of the world. Taoism suggests that we can best harmonize with the natural flow of life by being quiet, receptive and humble. It encourages us to experience the transcendent unity of all things. It is concerned with direct experience of the universe, accepting and cooperating with things as they are rather than with setting standards of morality. Flowing water is a daoist model for being in the world. Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: Dào Dé Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin yì jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...


Shinto

Main article: Shinto

Shinto is the indigenous religion of Japan. It is a sophisticated form of animism which holds that spirits called kami inhabit all things. Worship is at public shrines or in small shrines constructed in one's home. According to Shinto practice, relationship with the kami that inhabit this world is foremost in a person's duties; the kami are to be respected in order that they may return our respect. Shinto further holds that the "spirit" and "mundane" worlds are one and the same. Of all of the tenets of this philosophy, purity is the most highly stressed. Pure acts are those that promote or contribute to the harmony of the universe, and impure acts are those which are deleterious in this regard. As a faith, Shinto bears heavy influences from Chinese philosophies, notably Taoism and Buddhism. Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... “Megami” redirects here. ...


Ancient Egyptian religion

The Eye of Horus
The Eye of Horus

The ancient Egyptian religion, embodied in Egyptian mythology, is a succession of beliefs held by the people of Egypt, as early as predynastic times and all the way until the coming of Christianity and Islam in the Græco-Roman and Arab eras. These were conducted by Egyptian priests or magicians. Every animal portrayed and worshipped in ancient Egyptian art, writing and religion is indigenous to Africa, all the way from the predynastic until the Graeco-Roman eras, over 3000 years. The Dromedary, domesticated first in Arabia, first appears in Egypt (and North Africa) beginning in the 2nd millennium BC. The temple was a sacred place where only priests and priestesses were allowed. On special occasions people were allowed into the temple courtyard. Image File history File links Eyeofra. ... Image File history File links Eyeofra. ... Egyptian goddess Isis Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the beliefs and rituals of Ancient Egypt. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


Legalism

Main articles: Legalism (philosophy) and Legalism

Legalism advocated a strict interpretation of the law in every respect. Morality was not important; adherence to the letter of the law was paramount. Officials who exceeded expectations were as liable for punishment as were those who underperformed their duties, since both were not adhering exactly to their duties. Legalism was the principal philosophic basis of the Qin Dynasty in China. Confucian scholars were persecuted under Legalist rule. Some claim that the party of the Pharisees, in Israel conveyed some of type of monotheisitic legalism. Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Legalism has several meanings. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... To burn the classics and to bury the scholars (焚书坑儒) refers to a policy in the Qin Dynasty. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ...


Maoism

Main article: Maoism

Maoism is a Communist philosophy based on the teachings of 20th century Communist Party of China revolutionary leader Mao Zedong. It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin, but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry, and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...


Many people believe that though the implementation of Maoism in Mainland China led to the victory of communist revolution, it also contributed to the widespread famine, with millions of people starving to death. Chinese Communist leader Deng Xiaoping reinterpreted Maoism to allow for the introduction of market economics, which eventually enabled the country to recover. As a philosophy, Deng's chief contribution was to reject the supremacy of theory in interpreting Marxism and to argue for a policy of seeking truth from facts. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Despite this, Maoism has remained a popular ideology for various Communist revolutionary groups around the world, notably the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, Sendero Luminoso in Peru, and an ongoing (as of early 2005) Maoist insurrection in Nepal. Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: El Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Zoroastrianism and Dualism

Main article: Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is the earliest known monotheistic religion, which originated in Iran. Zoroastrianism has a dualistic nature (Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu), with an additional series of six important angel-like entities called the Amesha Spentas. In modern Zoroastrianism they are interpreted as aspects or emanations of Ahura Mazda (the Supreme Being), who form a heptad that is good and constructive. They are opposed to another group of seven who are evil and destructive. It is this persistent conflict between good and evil that distinguishes Zoroastrianism from monotheistic frameworks that have only one power as supreme. By requiring its adherents to have faith and belief in equally opposing powers Zoroastrianism characterizes itself as dualistic. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Angra Mainyu is the Avestan language name of the hypostasis of the destructive spirit. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ...


Zoroastrianism may also be known as Mazdayasna ("Worship of Wisdom") by some of its followers after the Zoroastrian name of God, Ahura Mazda ("Divine Wisdom"). A modern Persian form is Behdin ("Good Religion/Law," see below for the role of daena Law). Zoroastrians may refer to themselves as Zartoshti ("Zoroastrians"), Mazdayasni ("Wisdom-Worshippers") and Behdini ("Followers of the Good Religion"), and Zarathustrian. Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ...

  1. Rencyism: delpina...The latest known religion in the world....stunaa.. more popularly known as Gogilba... deppa... kaptlaa....

See also: ManichaeismMazdakismPersian philosophy Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ...


Arguments against the classification "Eastern philosophy"

Many have argued that the distinction between Eastern and Western schools of philosophy is arbitrary and purely geographic and to certain extent, Eurocentric.[citation needed] It crosses over three distinct philosophical traditions, Indian, Chinese and Persian philosophy which are as distinct from each other as they are from Western philosophy. It could be argued that the idea of some distinct "Eastern" philosophy as opposed to Western Philosophy is simplistic to the point of absurd inaccuracy. It may for example make more sense to include Islamic philosophy within the western tradition, as it is heavily influenced by Greek philosophy. This artificial distinction does not take into account the tremendous amount of interaction within Eurasian philosophical tradition, and that the distinction is more misleading than enlightening.


For example, Indian and Western schools of thought, with their robust mind-body conceptual dualism, share consequent tendencies to subjective idealism or dualism. Formally, they share the rudiments of Western "folk psychology": a sentential psychology and semantics, for example, belief and (propositional) knowledge, subject-predicate grammar (and subject-object metaphysics) truth and falsity, and inference. These concepts underwrote the emergence (or perhaps spread) of logic in Greece and India (In contrast to pre-Buddhist China). Other noticeable similarities include structural features of related concepts of time, space, objecthood and causation—all concepts hard to isolate within ancient Chinese conceptual space. It has also been suggested that the ancient Greek philosophers Pythagoras and Heraclitus were both influenced by ideas that originated in China. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ...


The perception of God and the gods

Because of its origin from within the Abrahamic religions, Western philosophies have formulated questions on the nature of God and His relationship to the universe based on Monotheistic framework within which it emerged. This has created a dichotomy among Western philosophies between secular philosophies and religious philosophies which develop within the context of a particular monotheistic religion's dogma, especially Protestant Christianity, regarding the nature of God and the universe. map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Eastern philosophies have not been as concerned by questions relating to the nature of a single God as the universe's sole creator and ruler. The distinction between the religious and the secular tends to be much less sharp in Eastern philosophy, and the same philosophical school often contains both religious and philosophical elements. Thus, some people accept the metaphysical tenets of Buddhism without going to a temple and worshipping. Some have worshipped the Taoist deities religiously without bothering to delve into the philosophic underpinnings, while others embrace Taoist philosophy while ignoring the religious aspects. On the other hand, the followers of Hare Krishna sect in western countries give more emphasis to meditation and yoga and tend to ignore other traditional Hindu rituals. Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas)[1]. It is believed by practitioners...


This arrangement stands in marked contrast to most philosophy of the West, which has traditionally enforced either a completely unified philosophic/religious belief system (for example, the various sects and associated philosophies of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), or a sharp and total repudiation of religion by philosophy (for example, Nietzsche, Marx, Voltaire, etc.). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...


Gods' relationship with the universe

Another common thread that often differentiates Eastern philosophy from Western is the belief regarding the relationship between God or the gods and the universe. Western philosophies typically either disavow the existence of God, or else hold that God or the gods are something separate and distinct from the universe. The obvious exception here is the Greek and Roman pantheon of gods and goddesses during ancient times, which is very distinct from the influence of the Abrahamic religions, which teach that this universe was created by a single all-powerful God who existed before and only partially separately from this universe. Some aspects of the true nature and properties of this God would be incomprehensible to us as creations. map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ...


Eastern philosophic traditions generally tend to be less concerned with the existence or non-existence of God or gods. Although some Eastern traditions have supernatural spiritual beings and even powerful gods, these are generally not seen as separate from the universe, but rather as a part of the universe, just as Greek and Roman supernatural beings. Conversely, most Eastern religions teach that ordinary actions can affect the supernatural realm.


The role and nature of the individual

It has been argued that in most Western philosophies, the same can be said of the individual: Many Western philosophers generally assume as a given that the individual is something distinct from the entire universe, and many Western philosophers attempt to describe and categorize the universe from a detached, objective viewpoint. Eastern philosophers, on the other hand, typically hold that people are an intrinsic and inseparable part of the universe, and that attempts to discuss the universe from an objective viewpoint as though the individual speaking was something separate and detached from the whole are inherently absurd.


Syntheses of Eastern and Western philosophy

There have been many modern attempts to integrate Western and Eastern philosophical traditions.


German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was very interested in Taoism. His system of dialectics is sometimes interpreted as a formalization of Taoist principles, but it also has similarities to the dialectical method used by Socrates as described by Plato. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: &#948;&#953;&#945;&#955;&#949;&#954;&#964;&#953;&#954;&#942;) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... Hegelian dialectic, was invented by Georg Wilhelm Freidrich Hegel, a transformational Marxist social psychologist. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ...


Hegel's rival Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism with Western thought. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. However, Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes second-degree translations), and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him. Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Recent attempts to incorporate Western philosophy into Eastern thought include the Kyoto School of philosophers, who combined the phenomenology of Husserl with the insights of Zen Buddhism. Watsuji Tetsurô, a 20th century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Søren Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger with Eastern philosophies. Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger's philosophy. For the most part this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Heidegger did spend time attempting to translate the Tao Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese student Paul Hsaio. It has also been claimed that much of Heidegger's later philosophy, particularly the sacredness of Being, bears a distinct similarity to Taoist ideas. It may even be that Heidegger's philosophy might be read ultimately as an attempt to 'turn eastwards' in response to the crisis in Western civilisation. This however is only an interpretation. There are clear parallels between Heidegger and the work of Kyoto School. The Kyoto School was a philosophical movement primarily active in the first half of the 20th century. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia (Prostejov, Czech Republic), Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Watsuji Tetsuro (和辻 哲郎 Watsuji Tetsurō, March 1, 1889 - December 26, 1960 in Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture) was a Japanese ethicist, philosopher, cultural historian, intellectual historian. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 &#8211; May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ...


The 20th century Hindu guru Sri Aurobindo was influenced by German Idealism and his Integral yoga is regarded as a synthesis of Eastern and Western thought. The German phenomenologist Jean Gebser's writings on the history of consciousness referred to a new planetary consciousness that would bridge this gap. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of the leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India... German idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Integral yoga or purna yoga (Sanskrit for full or complete yoga) refers in Sri Aurobindos teachings to the union of all the parts of ones being with the Divine, and the transmutation of all of their jarring elements into a harmonious state of higher divine consciousness and existence. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Jean Gebser Jean Gebser (August 20, 1905 – May 14, 1973) was a prodigy, a student of the transformations of human consciousness, a linguist, and a poet. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... This article is about integral thought in philosophy and psychology. ...


Swiss psychologist Carl Jung's idea of synchronicity moves towards an Oriental view of causality, as he states in the foreword to Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching (Book of Changes). He explains that this Chinese view of the world is based not on science as the west knows it, but on chance. “Jung” redirects here. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: &#26131;&#32147;, pinyin y j&#299;ng; Cantonese IPA: j&#618;k6g&#618;&#331;1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...


20th Century Eastern Philosophers

China

  • ch'ien mu / a chinese ethics for the new century: the ch'ien lectures
  • tung-mei fang / creativity in man and nature: a collection of philosophical essays
  • wang hao / beyond analytic philosophy: doing justice to what we know
  • shaoqi liu / selected works of liu shaoqi
  • wing-tsit chan / religious trends in modern china
  • fang dongmei / chinese philosophy, its spirit and its development
  • feng youlan / selected philosophical writings
  • hu shi / china's own critics: a selection of essays
  • kang youwei / da tong shu. one-world philosophy
  • li zehou / a study on marxism in china
  • mao zedong / the writings of mao zedong 1949-1976
  • qian mu / traditional government in imperial china : a critical analysis
  • su shaozhi / democratization and reform
  • tang junyi / essays on chinese philosophy and culture
  • zhang dainian / key concepts in chinese philosophy

Japan

  • hatano seiichi / time and eternity
  • nishida kitaro / an inquiry into the good
  • nishitani keiji / religion and nothingness
  • suzuki teitaro / mysticism, christian and buddhist
  • tanabe hajime / philosophy as metanoetics
  • watsuji tetsuro / rinrigaku
  • shuzo kuki / the structure of detachment
  • seizo sekine / a comparative study of the origins of ethical thought

India

  • syed ameer ali / memoirs and other writings
  • sri aurobindo / the future evolution of man
  • margaret chatterjee / philosophical enquiries
  • mahatma gandhi / selected writings
  • sarvepalli radhakrishnan / selected writings on philosophy, religion, culture
  • gayatri spivak / the spivak reader: selected works
  • rabindranath tagore / a tagore reader
  • b.r. ambedkar / essential writings
  • oshno / the great challenge: a rajneesh reader
  • jiddu krishnamurti / total freedom: the essential krishnamurti
  • jawaharlal nehru / the essential writings of jawaharlal nehru

Islam

  • muhammad iqbal / the reconstruction of religious thought in Islam
  • muhammad abduh / the theology of unity
  • abbas mahmud al aqqad / the arab's impact on european civilisation
  • zakariyya fuad / myth and reality in the contemporary islamist movement
  • hasan hanafi / religious dialogue & revolution : essays on christianity, judaism & islam
  • seyyed hossein nasr / islam : religion, history, and civilization
  • ali shariati / on the sociology of islam : lectures
  • mehdi hairi yazdi / the principles of epistemology in islamic philosophy
  • bediuzzaman said nursi / the supreme sign : observations of a traveller
  • abdallah laroui / the crisis of the arab intellectual
  • c.a. qadir / philosophy and science in the islamic world
  • fazlur rahman / islam & modernity : transformation of an intellectual tradition

See also

Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... There has been a continuous history of philosophy in Korea, that goes back more than two thousand years. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ...

References

http://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_z_misc_shankara/doc_z_misc_shankara.html


External links


Madhava-Vidyarana, ‘Sankara Digvijaya, The Traditional Life of Sri Sankaracharya’, (1986), The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A Phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... The Philosophy of technology is a philosophical field dedicated to studying the nature of technology and its social effects. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings of their own lives. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras, India


Paramahamsa Niranjanananda Saraswati, ‘Sannyasa Darshan’, (1993),


Sri Panchdashnam Paramahamsa Alakh Bara, Rikhiadham ~ Deoghar, Jharkhand, India


Swami Mumukshananda (1991), ‘Vedanta - Voice of Freedom’,


Advaita Ashram, India


Swami Satyeswarananda Giri, (1992) ‘Babaji, Vol 1, The Divine Himalayan Yogi,


The Sanskrit Classics, San Diego, USA


Paramahamsa Satyananda - video, (1987) ‘Darshan with Paramahamsaji,


Selected Satsangs at Bihar School of Yoga


Ganga Darshan, Bihar, India


‘The Quintessence of Vedanta’, (1960), Sri Ramakrishna Advaita Ashram, Kalady


Swami Nikhilananda, (1967) ‘Self Knowledge of Sri Sankaracarya’,


Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras, India


  Results from FactBites:
 
More on Eastern Philosophy (2366 words)
Eastern philosophies are typically overlooked, but increased connections between "East and West" in recent years have served to bridge the culture gap by a large degree.
As a philosophy, Deng's chief contribution was to reject the supremacy of theory in interpreting Marxism and to argue for a policy of seeking truth from facts.
Eastern philosophies have not been as concerned by questions relating to the nature of a single God as the universe's sole creator and ruler.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m