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Encyclopedia > Eastern bloc
A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989.

During the Cold War, the term Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were its allies in Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and—until the early 1960s—Albania). Image File history File links Eastern_bloc. ... Image File history File links Eastern_bloc. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


The label "Eastern Bloc" was also used to collectively denote member states of the Warsaw Pact (a Soviet-dominated military organisation) or the Comecon (an international economic organization of Communist states). Soviet allies outside of Eastern Europe, such as Mongolia and often China, Cuba, Vietnam, Ethiopia, and North Korea were sometimes included in the term Eastern Bloc as well. Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...


The terms Eastern Bloc and Soviet Union are sometimes confused. Although the Soviet Union had much political and economic influence over its Eastern Bloc possessions, the other countries in the Eastern Bloc were never constituent republics of the Soviet Union.

Contents

Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania

Yugoslavia was never part of the Eastern Bloc or the Warsaw Pact. Although it claimed it was a Communist state, its leader, Marshal Tito, came to power through his efforts as a partisan resistance leader during World War II. Since he was not installed by the Soviet Red Army, he owed the Soviet leadership no allegiance. The Yugoslav government established itself as a neutral state during the Cold War, and the country was one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Tito redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


Similarly, the Stalinist Albanian government also came to power independently of the Red Army as a consequence of Albanian partisan resistance during World War II. Albania broke with the Soviet Union in the early 1960s as a result of the Sino-Soviet split, aligning itself instead with the People's Republic of China and its anti-revisionist stance. For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... In the communist or Marxist-Leninist movement, an anti-revisionist is one who favors a strict Stalinist or Maoist interpretation of Marxist-Leninist ideology. ...


Romania was a bit of an anomaly, since the Communist Party came into power with the help of the Soviet Union. However, after Nicolae Ceauşescu came into power, he pursued a policy more independent of the Soviet Union. For example, Romania was the only country in the Eastern Bloc to condemn the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia.[1][2] Though Romania did not break with the USSR as a result of the Sino-Soviet split, it nevertheless maintained good relations with China. Similarly, the Russian language was taught less in schools, Romania entered into foreign relations with several Western countries because of this independent line, and on a lesser note, the Bucharest Metro did not use the cars that were typical of Eastern Bloc metro systems. This independent line, which promoted Ceauşescu's megalomaniac visions, also resulted in a revolution against the Communist government and the execution of the Ceauşescus, as opposed to the usurpation of power in the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... A Bucharest Metro train at Pipera station The Bucharest Metro (Metroul BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is an underground urban railway network that serves the capital of Romania, Bucharest. ...


Use of force

Several countries in Eastern Bloc were turned communists by the use of force and physical elimination of all political opposition to Soviet rule over them. Afterwards nations within the Eastern Bloc were held in the Soviet sphere of influence through military force. Hungary was invaded by the Soviet Army in 1956 after it had overthrown its pro-Soviet government and replaced it with one that sought a more democratic communist path independent of Moscow; when Polish communist leaders tried to elect Władysław Gomułka as First Secretary they were issued an ultimatum by Soviet military that occupied Poland ordering them to withdraw election of Gomulka for the First Secretary or be "crushed by Soviet tanks"[1]. Czechoslovakia was invaded in 1968 after a period of liberalization known as the Prague Spring. The latter invasion was codified in formal Soviet policy as the Brezhnev Doctrine. For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it...


Decline

During the late 1980s, the weakened Soviet Union gradually stopped interfering in the internal affairs of Eastern Bloc nations. Mikhail Gorbachev's abrogation of the Brezhnev Doctrine in favor of the so-called "Sinatra Doctrine" had dramatic effects across Central and Eastern Europe during this period. The Eastern Bloc eventually came to an end with the collapse of the Soviet controlled governments in Eastern Europe in 1989 (see Revolutions of 1989). The collapse of those governments led to the rapid transition to market economy in countries like Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Sinatra Doctrine was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... Hungarian National Bank After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet satellites had to transition from a one party, centrally planned economy to a market economy with a multi party political system. ...


Even before this period, all the countries in the Warsaw Pact did not always act as a unified bloc. For instance, the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia was condemned by Romania, which refused to take part in it.


Central and Eastern Europe

After 1989, the term Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) rather than Eastern Bloc came into wide use—from governmental cooperation, development organizations to businesses.


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.roembus.org/english/romanian_links/history_of_romanians.htm
  2. ^ http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-11316.html

See also

Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Map showing states that had communist governments during the Cold War in bright red, and other states the USSR believed to be moving toward socialism in dark red Soviet Empire was a controversial, politically charged and pejorative term used to critically describe the actions and nature of the Soviet Union. ... Occident redirects here. ...

External links

  • Photographs of Russia in 1967
  • Candid photos of the Eastern Bloc September–December 1991, in the last months of the USSR
  • Photographic project "Eastern Bloc" “Eastern Bloc” examines the specificities and differences of living in totalitarian and post totalitarian countries. The project is divided into chapters, each dedicated to one of the Eastern European countries—Slovak Republic, Poland, ex-GDR, Hungary, Czech Republic and ex-Yugoslavia.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Eastern bloc information - Search.com (424 words)
During the Cold War, the term Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and its allies in Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and - until the early 1960s - Albania).
The "Eastern Bloc" is also used as another name for the Warsaw Pact (a Soviet-led military alliance) or the Comecon (an international economic organization of Communist states).
The Eastern Bloc eventually came to an end with the collapse of the pro-Soviet regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989 (see Revolutions of 1989).
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Eastern Bloc (549 words)
During the Cold War, the term Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and its allies in Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and—until the early 1960s—Albania).
The label "Eastern Bloc" was also used to collectively denote member states of the Warsaw Pact (a Soviet-led military alliance) or the Comecon (an international economic organization of Communist states).
Nations within the Eastern Bloc were sometimes held in the Soviet sphere of influence through military force.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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