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Encyclopedia > Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. Photo by Alexander Gardner.
President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. Photo by Alexander Gardner.

This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x850, 104 KB) Summary (Photo from Lib of Congress cropped and lightened by Hal Jespersen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x850, 104 KB) Summary (Photo from Lib of Congress cropped and lightened by Hal Jespersen. ... Two photographers having lunch in the Bull Run area before the second battle, 1862. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Combatants United States of America Union Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000...

Contents


Theater of operations

The Eastern Theater included the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina. (Operations in the interior of the Carolinas in 1865 are considered part of the Western Theater.) Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq. ... Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq. ... ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq. ... It has been suggested that Cackalacky be merged into this article or section. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ...


The Eastern Theater included the campaigns that are generally most famous in the history of the war, if not for their strategic significance, but for their proximity to the large population centers, the major newspapers, and the capital cities of the opposing parties. The imaginations of both Northerners and Southerners were captured by the epic struggles between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, under Robert E. Lee, and the Union Army of the Potomac, under a series of less successful commanders. The bloodiest battle of the war (Gettysburg) and the bloodiest single day of the war (Antietam) were both fought in this theater. The capitals of Washington, D.C., and Richmond were both attacked or besieged. It has been argued that the Western Theater was more strategically important in defeating the Confederacy, but it is inconceivable that the civilian populations of both sides could have considered the war to be at an end without the resolution of Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865. The Northern United States or simply The North, is a region in the United States of America. ... Southern United States. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 83,289 75,054 Casualties 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing) 28,000 (3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing) The Battle of Gettysburg... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ... Nickname River City Motto Sic Itur Ad Astra Location Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 62. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The court house The Appomattox Court House is a historic court house located in Appomattox, Virginia famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the American Civil War. ...


The theater was bounded by the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. By far, the majority of battles occurred in the 100 miles between the cities of Washington and Richmond. This terrain favored the Confederate defenders because a series of rivers ran primarily west to east, making them obstacles rather than avenues of approach and lines of communication for the Union. This was quite different than the early years of the Western theater, and since the Union Army had to rely solely on the primitive road system of era for its primary transportation, it limited winter campaigning for both sides. The Union advantage was control of the sea and major rivers, which would allow an army that stayed close to the ocean to be reinforced and supplied. A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1500...


The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service[1] is more fine-grained than the one used in this article. Some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 160 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described. Boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


Principal commanders of the Eastern Theater

Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, USA
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, USA
Maj. Gen. John Pope, USA
Maj. Gen. John Pope, USA
Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, USA
Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, USA
Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, USA
Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, USA
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, USA
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, USA


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (974x1570, 166 KB)Lt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (974x1570, 166 KB)Lt. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... George McClellan (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... George McClellan (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general, second commander of the Army of the Potomac, and the General-in-Chief of the Union Army during the first years of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (988x1551, 190 KB)General John Pope source This image comes from the National Archives and Records Administration, the vast majority of whose images and documents are in the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (988x1551, 190 KB)General John Pope source This image comes from the National Archives and Records Administration, the vast majority of whose images and documents are in the public domain. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 830 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ambrose Burnside Sideburns Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 830 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ambrose Burnside Sideburns Categories: U.S. history images ... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Joseph Hooker File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Joseph Hooker File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... General George Meade, engraving from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... General George Meade, engraving from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ...

Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA
Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, CSA
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, CSA
Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson, CSA
Enlarge
Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson, CSA
Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early, CSA
Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early, CSA


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x1024, 122 KB) Summary Description: Portrait of Gen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x1024, 122 KB) Summary Description: Portrait of Gen. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1053x1434, 408 KB)Gen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1053x1434, 408 KB)Gen. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Download high resolution version (1076x1425, 224 KB)Mid 19th century photograph of General Joseph E. Johnston. ... Download high resolution version (1076x1425, 224 KB)Mid 19th century photograph of General Joseph E. Johnston. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Download high resolution version (489x763, 148 KB)Lieutenant General James Longstreet, CSA. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (489x763, 148 KB)Lieutenant General James Longstreet, CSA. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... Download high resolution version (2500x2987, 752 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stonewall Jackson Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (2500x2987, 752 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stonewall Jackson Categories: U.S. history images ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... 19th century photograph This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 19th century photograph This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Early operations (1861)

Blockade of the Chesapeake Bay
Sewell's PointAquia CreekBig Bethel
Operations in Western Virginia
PhilippiRich MountainKessler's Cross LanesCarnifex FerryCheat MountainGreenbrier RiverCamp Alleghany
Manassas Campaign
Hoke's RunBlackburn's FordManassas I
Blockade of the Potomac River
Cockpit Point
McClellan's Operations in Northern Virginia
Ball's BluffDranesville

After the fall of Fort Sumter in April 1861, both sides scrambled to create armies. President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion, which immediately caused the secession of four additional states, most importantly, Virginia. The United States Army had only around 16,000 men, with more than half spread out in the West. The army was commanded by the elderly Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, veteran of the War of 1812 and the Mexican War. On the Confederate side, only a handful of Federal officers and men resigned and went South; the formation of the Confederate States Army was a matter initially undertaken by the individual states. (The decentralized nature of the Confederate defenses, encouraged by the states' distrust of a strong central government, was one of the disadvantages suffered by the South during the war.) Battle of Sewells Point Conflict American Civil War Date May 18-19, 1861 Place Norfolk, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Sewells Point took place from May 18-19, 1861 in Norfolk, Virginia as part of the blockade of Chesapeake Bay during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Aquia Creek took place from May 29 - June 1, 1861 in Stafford County, Virginia as part of the blockade of Chesapeake Bay during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Big Bethel Conflict American Civil War Date June 10, 1861 Place York County and Hampton, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Big Bethel, also known as the Battle of Bethel Church or Great Bethel took place on June 10, 1861 in York County and Hampton, Virginia as... For the Roman Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi. ... Battle of Rich Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date July 11, 1861 Place Randolph County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Rich Mountain took place on July 11, 1861 in Randolph County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Kesslers Cross Lanes Conflict American Civil War Date August 26, 1861 Place Nicholas County, West Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Kesslers Cross Lanes, also known as the Battle of Cross Lanes, took place on August 26, 1861 in Nicholas County, West Virginia as part... Battle of Carnifex Ferry Conflict American Civil War Date September 10, 1861 Place Nicholas County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Carnifex Ferry took place on September 10, 1861 in Nicholas County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West Virginia during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Cheat Mountain, also known as the Battle of Cheat Mountain Summit, took place from September 12-15, 1861, in Pocahontas County, Virginia (now West Virginia) as part of the Operations in Western Virginia Campaign during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Greenbrier River Conflict American Civil War Date October 3, 1861 Place Pocahontas County, West Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Greenbrier River, also known as the Battle of Camp Bartow, took place on October 3, 1861 in Pocahontas County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West... Battle of Camp Alleghany Conflict American Civil War Date December 13, 1861 Place Pocahontas County, West Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Camp Alleghany, also known as the Battle of Alleghany Mountain, took place on December 13, 1861 in Pocahontas County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West... Battle of Hokes Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 2, 1861 Place Berkeley County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Hokes Run, also known as the Battle of Falling Waters or Hainesville, took place on July 2, 1861 in Berkeley County, West Virginia as part... The Battle of Blackburns Ford took place on July 18, 1861 in Prince William County and Fairfax County, Virginia as part of the Manassas Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle of Bull... Battle of Cockpit Point Conflict American Civil War Date January 3, 1862 Place Prince William County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Cockpit Point, also known as Batteries at Evansport, the Battle of Freestone Point, or the Battle of Shipping Point, took place on January 3, 1862 in Prince William... The Battle of Balls Bluff, also known as the Battle of Harrison’s Landing or the Battle of Leesburg, took place on October 21, 1861, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of Major General George B. McClellans operations in northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Dranesville Conflict American Civil War Date December 20, 1861 Place Fairfax County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Dranesville took place on December 20, 1861 in Fairfax County, Virginia as part of McClellans operations in northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 2 dead, 5 injured 0 The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861), a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, began... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed the Rail Splitter, Honest Abe and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The United States Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... The War of 1812 (in Britain, the American War of 1812 to 1815), was fought between the United States and British Empire from 1812 to 1815, on land in North America and at sea around the world. ... The Mexican-American War was a war fought between the United States and Mexico between 1846 and 1848. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ...


Some of the first hostilities occurred in western Virginia (now the state of West Virginia). Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, commanding the Department of the Ohio, ordered troops to march from Grafton and attack the Confederates under Col. George A. Porterfield. The skirmish on June 3, 1861, known as the Battle of Philippi, or the "Philippi Races", had little significance other than to raise public awareness of the young general. His victory at the Battle of Rich Mountain in July was instrumental in his promotion that fall to command the Army of the Potomac. As the campaign continued through a series of minor battles, General Robert E. Lee, who, despite his excellent reputation as a former U.S. Army colonel, had no combat command experience, gave a lackluster performance that earned him the derogatory nickname "Granny Lee". He was soon transferred to the Carolinas to construct fortifications. Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general, second commander of the Army of the Potomac, and the General-in-Chief of the Union Army during the first years of the American Civil War. ... Grafton is a city located in Taylor County, West Virginia. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For the Roman Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi. ... Battle of Rich Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date July 11, 1861 Place Randolph County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Rich Mountain took place on July 11, 1861 in Randolph County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... It has been suggested that Cackalacky be merged into this article or section. ...


The first significant battle of the war took place in eastern Virginia on June 10. Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler, based at Fort Monroe, sent converging columns from Hampton and Newport News against advanced Confederate outposts. At Big Bethel, near Fort Monroe, Colonel John B. Magruder won the first Confederate victory. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Satellite Photo of Fort Monroe Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... On September 17, 1861, Mrs. ... Newport News, Hampton, Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia from space, July 1996 (Newport News is seen in the lower left quadrant) Newport News is an independent city located in Virginia. ... Battle of Big Bethel Conflict American Civil War Date June 10, 1861 Place York County and Hampton, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Big Bethel, also known as the Battle of Bethel Church or Great Bethel took place on June 10, 1861 in York County and Hampton, Virginia as... John B. Magruder John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


First Bull Run

In early summer, the commander of Union field forces around Washington was Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, who was an inexperienced combat officer, but he commanded volunteer soldiers with even less experience, many of whom had enlisted for only 90 days, a period soon to expire. McDowell was pressured by politicians and major newspapers in the North to take immediate action, exhorting him "On to Richmond!" His plan was to march with 35,000 men and attack the 20,000 Confederates under Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard at Manassas. The second major Confederate force in the area, 12,000 men under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley, was to be held in place by Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson with 18,000 men menacing Harpers Ferry, preventing the two Confederate armies from combining against McDowell. General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Manassas is an independent city located in the state of Virginia. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Robert Patterson ( January 12, 1792- August 7, 1881) was an Irish immigrant and a noted soldier and businessman from Pennsylvania. ... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ...


On July 21, McDowell's Army of Northeast Virginia executed a complex turning movement against Beauregard's Confederate Army of the Potomac, beginning the First Battle of Bull Run (also known as First Manassas). Although the Union troops enjoyed an early advantage, driving the Confederates back, the tide turned that afternoon. Col. Thomas J. Jackson inspired his Virginia brigade to withstand a strong Union attack and he received his famous nickname, "Stonewall" Jackson. Timely reinforcements arrived by railroad from Johnston's army; Patterson had been ineffective in keeping them occupied. The green Union soldiers began to fall back and it turned into a panicky retreat, with many running almost as far as Washington. Civilian and political observers, some of whom had treated the battle as festive entertainment, were caught up in the panic. The army returned safely to Washington; Beauregard's army was too tired and inexperienced to launch a pursuit. The Union defeat at First Bull Run shocked the North and a new sense of grim determination swept the United States as military and civilians alike realized that they would need to invest significant money and manpower to win a protracted, bloody war. July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... The Confederate Army of the Potomac, whose name was short-lived, was the command under Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard, and whose only major combat action was the First Battle of Bull Run. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle of Bull... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ...


George B. McClellan was summoned east in August to command the newly forming Army of the Potomac, which would become the principal army of the Eastern Theater. As a former railroad executive, he possessed outstanding organizational skills well-suited to the tasks of training and administration. He was also strongly ambitious and by November 1, he had maneuvered around Winfield Scott and was named general-in-chief of all the Union armies, despite the embarrassing defeat of an expedition he sent up the Potomac River at the Battle of Balls Bluff in October. Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... The Battle of Balls Bluff, also known as the Battle of Harrison’s Landing or the Battle of Leesburg, took place on October 21, 1861, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of Major General George B. McClellans operations in northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ...




North Carolina coast (1861–65)

Blockade of the Carolina Coast
Hatteras Inlet Batteries
Burnside's North Carolina Expedition
Roanoke IslandElizabeth CityNew BerneFort MaconSouth MillsTranter's Creek
Goldsboro Expedition
KinstonWhite HallGoldsboro Bridge
Operations against Plymouth
Plymouth – Albemarle Sound
Operations Against Fort Fisher and Wilmington
1st Fort Fisher2nd Fort FisherWilmington

North Carolina was an important area to the Confederacy because of the vital seaport of Wilmington and because the Outer Banks were valuable bases for ships attempting to evade the Union blockade. Benjamin Butler sailed from Fort Monroe and captured the batteries at Hatteras Inlet in August 1861. In February 1862, Brig. Gen. Ambrose Burnside organized an amphibious expedition, also from Fort Monroe, that captured Roanoke Island, a little-known but important Union strategic victory. The Goldsboro Expedition in late 1862 marched briefly inland from the coast to destroy railroad tracks and bridges. Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries Conflict American Civil War Date August 28-29, 1861 Place Dare County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries, also known as the Battle of Forts Clark and Hatteras, took place from August 28-29, 1861 in Dare County, North Carolina... Battle of Roanoke Island Conflict American Civil War Date February 7-8, 1862 Place Dare County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Roanoke Island, also known as the Battle of Fort Huger, took place from February 7-8, 1862 in Dare County, North Carolina as part of Union... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Stephen C. Rowan William F. Lynch Strength 14 ships 6 ships Casualties 2 killed 7 wounded 5 killed 7 wounded 34 captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of Elizabeth City was a Union victory during the American Civil War as part of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Lawrence OB. Branch Strength Expeditionary Force of Fosters, Renos, and Parkes Brigades 5 regiments, militia Casualties 476 609 {{{notes}}} The Battle of New Bern (also known as the Battle of New Berne) was... The Battle of Fort Macon took place from March 23 - April 26, 1862 in Carteret County, North Carolina as part of Union Army General Ambrose E. Burnsides North Carolina expedition during the American Civil War. ... Battle of South Mills Conflict American Civil War Date April 19, 1862 Place Camden County, North Carolina Result Inconclusive (Federals withdrew. ... Battle of Tranters Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 5, 1862 Place Pitt County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Tranters Creek took place on June 5, 1862 in Pitt County, North Carolina as part of Union Army General Ambrose E. Burnsides North Carolina... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John G. Foster Nathan Evans Strength 10,000 Casualties 260 525 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Kinston was fought on December 14, 1862, in Lenoir County, North Carolina, near the town of Kinston, as part of the Goldsboro Expedition of the... Battle of White Hall Conflict American Civil War Date December 16, 1862 Place Wayne County, North Carolina Result Inconclusive The Battle of White Hall, also called the Battle of White Hall Ferry, took place on December 16, 1862 in Wayne County, North Carolina as part of the Union expedition to... Battle of Goldsboro Bridge Conflict American Civil War Date December 17, 1862 Place Wayne County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Goldsboro Bridge took place on December 17, 1862 in Wayne County, North Carolina as part of the Union expedition to Goldsboro, North Carolina during the American Civil... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Melancton Smith James W. Cooke Strength 9 ships 3 ships Casualties 31 57 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Albemarle Sound was an inconclusive battle during the American Civil War along the coast of North Carolina. ... First Battle of Fort Fisher Conflict American Civil War Date December 7-27, 1864 Place New Hanover County, North Carolina Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Fort Fisher was a failed attempt by Union forces to capture the fort guarding Wilmington, North Carolina, the Souths last major port... Second Battle of Fort Fisher Conflict American Civil War Date January 13-15, 1865 Place New Hanover County, North Carolina Result Union victory Sometimes referred to as the Gibraltar of the South and the last major stronghold of the Confederacy, Fort Fisher had tremendous strategic value during the American Civil... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John M. Schofield Braxton Bragg Strength 12,000 6,000 Casualties 305 845 The Battle of Wilmington was fought February 11–22, 1865, during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq. ... For other places called Wilmington, see Wilmington Wilmington is a city located in New Hanover County, North Carolina. ... North Carolinas Outer Banks separating the Atlantic Ocean (east) from Albemarle Sound (north) and Pamlico Sound (south). ... The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms... Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries Conflict American Civil War Date August 28-29, 1861 Place Dare County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries, also known as the Battle of Forts Clark and Hatteras, took place from August 28-29, 1861 in Dare County, North Carolina... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Battle of Roanoke Island Conflict American Civil War Date February 7-8, 1862 Place Dare County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Roanoke Island, also known as the Battle of Fort Huger, took place from February 7-8, 1862 in Dare County, North Carolina as part of Union...


The remainder of operations on the North Carolina coast began in late 1864, with Benjamin Butler's and David D. Porter's failed attempt to capture Fort Fisher, which guarded the seaport of Wilmington. Union forces at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher, led by Alfred H. Terry, Adelbert Ames, and Porter, in January 1865, were successful in defeating Gen. Braxton Bragg and Wilmington fell in February. During this period, the Western Theater armies of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman were marching up the interior of the Carolinas, where they would eventually force the surrender of the last major Confederate field army, under Joseph E. Johnston, in late April 1865. Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War Vice Admiral David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States naval officer who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... First Battle of Fort Fisher Conflict American Civil War Date December 7-27, 1864 Place New Hanover County, North Carolina Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Fort Fisher was a failed attempt by Union forces to capture the fort guarding Wilmington, North Carolina, the Souths last major port... Second Battle of Fort Fisher Conflict American Civil War Date January 13-15, 1865 Place New Hanover County, North Carolina Result Union victory Sometimes referred to as the Gibraltar of the South and the last major stronghold of the Confederacy, Fort Fisher had tremendous strategic value during the American Civil... Adelbert Ames Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 12, 1933) was a Union general in the American Civil War, a Mississippi politician, and a general in the Spanish-American War, as well as the father of the noted scientist Adelbert Ames, Jr. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ...




The Valley (1862)

Eastern Theater, 1862
Eastern Theater, 1862
Main article: Valley Campaign
Jackson's Operations Against the B&O Railroad
Hancock
Jackson's Valley Campaign
Kernstown IMcDowellFront RoyalWinchester ICross KeysPort Republic

In the spring of 1862, Confederate exuberance over First Bull Run declined quickly, following the early successes of the Union armies in the Western Theater, such as Fort Donelson and Shiloh. George B. McClellan's massive Army of the Potomac was approaching Richmond from the southeast in the Peninsula Campaign (see next section), Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's large corps was poised to hit Richmond from the north, and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army threatened the rich agricultural area of the Shenandoah Valley. Download high resolution version (750x601, 171 KB) Civil war map from NPS at site http://nps-vip. ... Download high resolution version (750x601, 171 KB) Civil war map from NPS at site http://nps-vip. ... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Hancock Conflict American Civil War Date January 5-6, 1862 Place Washington County, Maryland; Morgan County, West Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Hancock, also known as the Romney Campaign, took place from January 5_6, 1862 in Washington County, Maryland and Morgan County, West Virginia as part of... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... First Battle of Kernstown Conflict American Civil War Date March 23, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina Result Union victory The First Battle of Kernstown took place on March 23, 1862 in Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through... Battle of McDowell Conflict American Civil War Date May 8, 1862 Place Highland County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of McDowell, also known as the Battle of Sitlingtons Hill, took place on May 8, 1862 in Highland County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jackson... Battle of Front Royal Conflict American Civil War Date May 23, 1862 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Front Royal, also known as the Battle of Guard Hill or Cedarville, took place on May 23, 1862 in Warren County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General... First Battle of Winchester Conflict American Civil War Date May 25, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Winchester was a battle of the American Civil War that took place on May 25, 1862 in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia. ... Battle of Cross Keys Conflict American Civil War Date June 8, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cross Keys took place on June 8, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... Battle of Port Republic Conflict American Civil War Date June 9, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Port Republic took place on June 9, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... First Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 21, 1861 Place Fairfax County and Prince William County Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Bull Run, referred to as the First Battle of Manassas in the South, (July 21, 1861) was the first major land battle of... The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought February 12–16, 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ...


To the rescue of Southern morale came an eccentric former professor at VMI, Stonewall Jackson, bearing his nickname earned at First Bull Run. His command included the Stonewall Brigade and a variety of militia units insufficient for offensive operations. While Banks remain north of the Potomac River, Jackson's cavalry commander, Col. Turner Ashby, raided the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Turner Ashby (October 23, 1828 - June 6, 1862) was a Confederate cavalry commander, enlisting at rank of Capitan, then attaining rank of Colonel, and finally the rank of Brigadier General. ... Canal at Swains Lock The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, also known as the C&O Canal, operated from 1850 until 1924 parallel to the Potomac River in Maryland from Cumberland, Maryland to Washington, DC. The total length of the canal is about 184. ... 1876 map The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) is one of the oldest railroads in the United States, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland west to the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia and Parkersburg, West Virginia. ...


Banks reacted by crossing the Potomac in late February and moving south to protect the canal and railroad from Ashby. Jackson's command was operating as the left wing of Joseph E. Johnston's army and when Johnston moved from Manassas to Culpeper in March, Jackson's position at Winchester was isolated. On March 12, Banks continued his advance to the southwest ("up the Valley") and occupied Winchester. Jackson had withdrawn to Strasburg. Banks's orders, as part of McClellan's overall strategy, were to move farther south and drive Jackson from the Valley. After accomplishing this, he was to withdraw to a position nearer Washington. A strong advance force began the movement south from Winchester on March 17, about the same time that McClellan began his amphibious movement to the Virginia Peninsula. Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... Strasburg is a town located in Shenandoah County, Virginia. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ...


Jackson's orders from Johnston were to avoid general combat, because he was seriously outnumbered, but at the same time he was to keep Banks occupied enough to prevent the detachment of troops to reinforce McClellan on the Peninsula. Receiving incorrect intelligence, Banks concluded that Jackson had left the Valley and he proceeded to move east, back to the vicinity of Washington. Jackson was dismayed at this movement because Banks was doing exactly what Jackson had been directed to prevent.


At the First Battle of Kernstown (March 23, 1862), the Federals stopped Jackson's advance and then counterattacked, turning his left flank and forcing him to retreat, his only defeat during the campaign. Although a tactical defeat for Jackson, it was a strategic victory for the Confederacy, forcing President Lincoln to keep Banks's forces in the Valley and McDowell's 30,000-man corps near Fredericksburg, subtracting about 50,000 soldiers from McClellan's Peninsula invasion force. First Battle of Kernstown Conflict American Civil War Date March 23, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina Result Union victory The First Battle of Kernstown took place on March 23, 1862 in Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A corps (a word that immigrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: , but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body; plural same as singular) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or signals... Fredericksburg is an independent city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Virginia, 50 miles south of Washington, D.C., and 55 miles north of Richmond, Virginia. ...


Jackson, now reinforced to 17,000 men, decided to attack the Union forces piecemeal, rather than waiting for them to combine and overwhelm him. While marching on a devious route to mask his intentions, he was attacked at the Battle of McDowell on May 8, but was able to repulse the Union Army after severe fighting. Banks sent a division to reinforce Irvin McDowell's forces at Fredericksburg, leaving Banks only 8,000 troops, which he relocated to a strong position at Strasburg, Virginia. Battle of McDowell Conflict American Civil War Date May 8, 1862 Place Highland County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of McDowell, also known as the Battle of Sitlingtons Hill, took place on May 8, 1862 in Highland County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jackson... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Strasburg is a town located in Shenandoah County, Virginia. ...


On May 21, Jackson marched his command east from New Market and proceeded northward. Their speed of forced marching was typical of the campaign and earned his infantrymen the nickname of "Jackson's foot cavalry". He sent his horse cavalry directly north to make Banks think that he was going to attack Strasburg, but his plan was to defeat the small outpost at Front Royal and quickly attack Banks's line of communication at Harpers Ferry. May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ...


On May 23, at the Battle of Front Royal, Jackson's army surprised and overran the pickets of the 1,000-man Union garrison. Jackson’s victory forced Banks at Strasburg into a rapid retreat towards Winchester. Although Jackson attempted to pursue, his troops were exhausted and looted Union supply trains, slowing them down immensely. On May 25, at the First Battle of Winchester, Banks’s army was attacked by converging Confederate columns and was soundly defeated. They withdrew north across the Potomac River. Jackson attempted pursuit, but was unsuccessful. May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Battle of Front Royal Conflict American Civil War Date May 23, 1862 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Front Royal, also known as the Battle of Guard Hill or Cedarville, took place on May 23, 1862 in Warren County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... First Battle of Winchester Conflict American Civil War Date May 25, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Winchester was a battle of the American Civil War that took place on May 25, 1862 in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia. ...


In Washington, President Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton decided that the defeat of Jackson was an immediate priority (even though Jackson's orders were solely to keep Union forces occupied away from Richmond). They ordered Irvin McDowell to send 20,000 men to Front Royal and Frémont to move to Harrisonburg. If both forces could converge at Strasburg, Jackson's only escape route up the Valley would be cut. The immediate repercussion of this move was to abort McDowell's coordinated attack with McClellan on Richmond. The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... Map Political Statistics Founded 1737 County Independent city Mayor Larry M. Rogers Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 45. ...


On June 2, two columns of Union forces pursued Jackson. His army took up defensive positions in Cross Keys and Port Republic, where he was able to defeat Frémont and Shields, respectively, on June 8 and June 9. June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... Battle of Cross Keys Conflict American Civil War Date June 8, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cross Keys took place on June 8, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... Battle of Port Republic Conflict American Civil War Date June 9, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Port Republic took place on June 9, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...


Union forces were withdrawn from the Valley. Jackson joined Robert E. Lee on the Peninsula for the Seven Days Battles (where he delivered an uncharacteristically lethargic performance, perhaps due to the strains of the Valley Campaign). He had accomplished his mission, withholding over 50,000 needed troops from McClellan. With the success of his audacious Valley Campaign, Stonewall Jackson became the most celebrated soldier in the Confederacy (until he was eventually eclipsed by Lee) and lifted the morale of the public. In a classic military campaign of surprise and maneuver, he pressed his army to travel 646 miles in 48 days of marching and won five significant victories with a force of about 17,000 against combined foes of 60,000. Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ...




Peninsula and the Seven Days (1862)

Main articles: Peninsula Campaign and Seven Days Battles
Peninsula Campaign
Hampton RoadsYorktownWilliamsburgEltham's LandingDrewry's BluffHanover CourthouseSeven PinesSeven Days Battles (Oak GroveBeaver Dam CreekGaines' MillGarnett's & Golding's FarmSavage's StationWhite Oak SwampGlendaleMalvern Hill)

George B. McClellan spent the winter of 1861–62 training his new Army of the Potomac and fighting off calls from President Lincoln to advance against the Confederates. Lincoln was particularly concerned about the army of General Joseph E. Johnston at Centreville, just 30 miles from Washington. McClellan greatly overestimated Johnston's strength and shifted his objective from that army to the Confederate capital of Richmond. He proposed to move by water to Urbanna on the Rappahannock River and then overland to Richmond before Johnston could move to block him. Although Lincoln favored the overland approach, because it would shield Washington from any attack while the operation was in progress, McClellan argued that the road conditions in Virginia were intolerable, that he had arranged adequate defenses for the capital, and that Johnston would certainly follow him if he moved on Richmond. This plan was discussed for three months in the capital until Lincoln approved McClellan's proposal in early March. By March 9, however, Johnston withdrew his army from Centreville to Culpeper, making McClellan's Urbanna plan impracticable. Little Mac then proposed to sail to Fort Monroe and then up the Virginia Peninsula (the narrow strip of land between the James and York rivers) to Richmond. Lincoln reluctantly agreed. McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... ... The Battle of Yorktown (1862) was a battle of the American Civil War that was part of the Union offensive called the Peninsular Campaign. ... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Elthams Landing Conflict American Civil War Date May 7, 1862 Place New Kent County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Eltham’s Landing, also known as the Battle of Barhamsville, or West Point, took place on May 7, 1862 in New Kent County, Virginia as part of... The Battle of Drewry’s Bluff, also known as the Battle of Fort Darling or Fort Drewry, took place on May 15, 1862 in Chesterfield County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Hanover Courthouse Conflict American Civil War Date May 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Hanover Courthouse, also known as the Battle of Slash Church, took place on May 27, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Corps Corps Casualties 516 541 The Battle of Oak Grove, also known as the Battle of French’s Field or King’s School House, took place on June 25, 1862 in Henrico County... Battle of Beaver Dam Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 26, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson’s Mill, took place on June 26, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part of... Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... Battle of Garnetts & Goldings Farm Conflict American Civil War Date June 27-28, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Garnetts & Goldings Farms took place from June 27-28, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American... Battle of Savages Station Conflict American Civil War Date June 29, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Savage’s Station took place on June 29, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of White Oak Swamp Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of White Oak Swamp took place on June 30, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Glendale Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union withdrawal continued. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general, second commander of the Army of the Potomac, and the General-in-Chief of the Union Army during the first years of the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Centreville is an unincorporated place located in Fairfax County, Virginia. ... Urbanna is a town located in Middlesex County, Virginia. ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... Culpeper is a town located in Culpeper County, Virginia. ... Satellite Photo of Fort Monroe Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately 40 mi (64 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ...


Before departing for the Peninsula, McClellan moved the Army of the Potomac to Centreville on a "shakedown" march. He discovered there how weak Johnston's force and position had really been, and faced mounting criticism. On March 11, Lincoln relieved McClellan of his position as general-in -chief of the Union armies, so that he could devote his full attention to the difficult campaign ahead of him. Lincoln himself, with the assistance of Secretary of War Stanton and a War Board of officers, assumed command of the Union armies for the next four months. The Army of the Potomac began to embark for Fort Monroe on March 17. The departure was accompanied by a newfound sense of concern. On March 89, the world awoke to the first combat of ironclad ships as the CSS Virginia and the USS Monitor fought the inconclusive Battle of Hampton Roads. The concern for the Army was that their transport ships would be attacked by this new weapon directly in their path. And the U.S. Navy failed to assure McClellan that they could protect operations on either the James or the York, so his idea of amphibiously enveloping Yorktown was abandoned and he ordered an advance up the Peninsula to begin April 4. On April 5, McClellan was informed that Lincoln had canceled the movement of Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's corps to Fort Monroe, taking this action because McClellan had failed to leave the number of troops previously agreed upon at Washington and because Jackson's Valley Campaign was causing concern. McClellan protested vociferously that he was being forced to lead a major campaign without his promised resources, but he moved ahead anyway. March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... USS Monitor was an ironclad warship (the first ever) of the United States Navy. ... ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... York Hall is a government building on Yorktowns historic Main Street. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ...


Up the Peninsula

The Union forces advanced to Yorktown and, after a lengthy delay building up siege resources, McClellan defeated the Confederates in a skirmish, the Battle of Yorktown. During the campaign, the Union Army also seized Hampton Roads and occupied Norfolk. As the Union forces chased withdrawing Confederate forces up the Peninsula (northwest) in the direction of Richmond, the inconclusive single-day Battle of Williamsburg took place at and around Fort Magruder, one mile east of the old colonial capital. The Battle of Yorktown (1862) was a battle of the American Civil War that was part of the Union offensive called the Peninsular Campaign. ... Hampton Roads, from state map of pre-civil war Virginia circa 1858 Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water and the land areas which surround it in southeastern Virginia in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Fort Magruder was an earthen fortification alongside the road between Yorktown and Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, just outside the latter city (and former Virginia state capital) during the American Civil War. ...


By the end of May, the Union forces had successfully advanced to within several miles of Richmond, but progress was slow. McClellan had planned for massive siege operations and brought immense stores of equipment and siege mortars. Poor weather and inadequate roads kept his advance to a crawl. And McClellan was by nature a cautious general. He was nervous about attacking a force he believed was twice his in size. In fact, his imagination and his intelligence operations failed him; the proportions were roughly the reverse of that. During Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston's slow retreat up the Peninsula, his forces practiced deceptive operations. In particular, the division under John B. Magruder, who was an amateur actor before the war, was able to fool McClellan by ostentatiously marching small numbers of troops past the same position multiple times, appearing to be a larger force. Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... John B. Magruder John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


As the Union Army drew towards the outer defenses of Richmond, it became divided by the Chickahominy River, weakening its ability to move troops back and forth along the front. The Battle of Seven Pines (also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks) took place on May 31June 1, 1862, as the Confederates struck at the smaller Union force south of the river. The battle was tactically inconclusive, but there were two strategic effects. First, Johnston was wounded during the battle and was replaced by the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee, who would lead this Army of Northern Virginia to many victories in the war. Second, General McClellan chose to abandon his offensive operations to lay siege and await reinforcements he had requested from President Lincoln. He never regained his strategic momentum. Chickahominy is a river in southeast Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


Lee used the month-long pause in McClellan's advance to fortify the defenses of Richmond. On the south side of the James River, defensive lines were built south to a point below Petersburg. The total length of the new defensive line was about 30 miles. To buy time to complete the new defensive line and prepare for an offensive, Lee repeated the tactic of making a small number of troops seem more numerous than they really were. McClellan was also unnerved by Confederate J.E.B. Stuart's audacious (but otherwise militarily pointless) cavalry ride completely around the Union army (June 1315). Map Political Statistics County Independent city Mayor Annie M. Mickens Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 60. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ...


Seven Days

Lee then moved onto the offensive, conducting a series of battles that lasted seven days (June 25July 1) and pushed McClellan back to a safe, but nonthreatening, position on the James River. June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


The first major battle of the Seven Days was Mechanicsville or Beaver Dam Creek, on June 26. Lee observed that McClellan had positioned his army straddling the Chickahominy River and could be defeated in detail. He struck McClellan's right flank on the northern bank and was repulsed with heavy casualties. Despite being a Union tactical victory, it was the start of a strategic debacle. McClellan withdrew to the southeast. Battle of Beaver Dam Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 26, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson’s Mill, took place on June 26, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part of... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Chickahominy is a river in southeast Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ...


Lee continued his offensive at the Battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27, launching the largest Confederate attack of the war. (It occurred in almost the same location as the 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor and had similar numbers of casualties.) The attack was poorly coordinated and the Union lines held for most of the day, but Lee eventually broke through and McClellan withdrew again, heading for a secure base at Harrison's Landing on the James River. Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 soldiers 62,000 soldiers Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ...


Glendale on June 30 was a bloody battle in which three Confederate divisions converged on the retreating Union forces in the White Oak Swamp, near Frayser's Farm, another name for the battle. Due to a tired and lackluster performance by Stonewall Jackson, Lee's army failed in its last attempt to cut off the Union army before it reached the James. Battle of Glendale Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union withdrawal continued. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ...


The final battle of the Seven Days, July 1, consisted of reckless Confederate assaults against the impregnable Union defenses—buttressed by masterful artillery placements—on Malvern Hill. Lee's army suffered over 5,000 casualties in this wasted effort. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of...


The Seven Days Battles ended the Peninsula Campaign. McClellan withdrew to the safety of the James River, protected by fire from Union gunboats. The Army of the Potomac stayed there until August, when they were withdrawn by order of President Lincoln in the run-up to the Second Battle of Bull Run. Although McClellan retained command of the Army of the Potomac, Lincoln showed his displeasure by appointing Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck to McClellan's previous position as general-in-chief of all the Union armies on July 11, 1862. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run or... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The cost to both sides was dreadful. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia suffered almost 20,000 casualties out of a total of over 90,000 soldiers during the Seven Days, McClellan almost 16,000 out of 105,445.


After a successful start on the Peninsula that foretold an early end to the war, Northern morale was crushed by McClellan's retreat. Despite heavy casualties and Lee's clumsy tactical performance, Confederate morale skyrocketed and Lee was emboldened to continue his aggressive strategy through Northern Virginia and Maryland Campaigns.




Northern Virginia and Maryland (1862)

Main articles: Northern Virginia Campaign and Maryland Campaign
Northern Virginia Campaign
Cedar MountainRappahannock Station IManassas Station Ops.Thoroughfare GapManassas IIChantilly
Maryland Campaign
South MountainHarpers FerryAntietamShepherdstown

Following his success against McClellan on the Peninsula, Lee initiated two campaigns that can be considered one almost continuous offensive operation: defeating the second army that threatened Richmond and then continuing north on an invasion of Maryland. Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, or the Second Bull Run Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, was a series of battles fought in September, 1862—Robert E. Lees first invasion of the North—during the American Civil War. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, or the Second Bull Run Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Cedar Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date August 9, 1862 Place Culpeper County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cedar Mountain, also known as the Battle of Slaughters Mountain or Cedar Run, took place on August 9, 1862 in Culpeper County, Virginia as part of the... Battle of Rappahannock Station I Conflict American Civil War Date August 22-25, 1862 Place Culpeper County and Fauquier County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The First Battle of Rappahannock Station, also variously known as the Battle of Waterloo Bridge, White Sulphur Springs, Lee Springs, or Freemans Ford, took place from... Manassas Station Operations Conflict American Civil War Date August 25-27, 1862 Place Prince William County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Manassas Station Operations, also variously known as the Battle of Bristoe Station, Kettle Run, Bull Run Bridge, or Union Mills, took place from August 25-27, 1862 in Prince... Battle of Thoroughfare Gap Conflict American Civil War Date August 28, 1862 Place Fauquier County and Prince William County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, also known as the Battle of Chapmans Mill, took place on August 28, 1862 in Fauquier County and Prince William County... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run or... The Battle of Chantilly or Ox Hill took place on September 1, 1862, in Fairfax County, Virginia, as the concluding battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, was a series of battles fought in September, 1862—Robert E. Lees first invasion of the North—during the American Civil War. ... Battle of South Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date September 14, 1862 Place Frederick County and Washington County Result Union victory The Battle of South Mountain was a battle of the American Civil War, considered by some to be prelude to the Battle of Antietam. ... Battle of Harpers Ferry Conflict American Civil War Date September 12-15, 1862 Place Jefferson County Result Confederate victory The Battle of Harpers Ferry was fought during the American Civil War on September 12–15, 1862. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Battle of Shepherdstown Conflict American Civil War Date September 19-20, 1862 Place Jefferson County, West Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Shepherdstown, also known as the Battle of Botelers Ford, took place from September 19-20, 1862 in Jefferson County, West Virginia as part of the Maryland...


Army of Virginia

President Lincoln reacted to McClellan's failure by appointing John Pope to command the newly formed Army of Virginia. Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater and Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan. The Army of Virginia consisted of over 50,000 men in three corps. Three corps of McClellan's Army of the Potomac later were added for combat operations. Two cavalry brigades were attached directly to two of the infantry corps, a lack of centralized control that would have negative effects in the campaign. Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ...


Pope's mission was to fulfill two objectives: protect Washington and the Shenandoah Valley, and draw Confederate forces away from McClellan by moving in the direction of Gordonsville. Pope started on the latter by dispatching cavalry to break the railroad connecting Gordonsville, Charlottesville, and Lynchburg. The cavalry got off to a slow start and found that Stonewall Jackson had occupied Gordonsville with over 14,000 men. Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Gordonsville is a town located in Virginia. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1762 Incorporated Independent City Mayor David Brown Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 177. ... The Allied Arts Building in downtown Lynchburg, completed in 1931. ...


Lee perceived that McClellan was no further threat to him on the Peninsula, so he felt no compulsion to keep all of his forces in direct defense of Richmond. This allowed him to relocate Jackson to Gordonsville to block Pope and protect the railroad. Lee had larger plans in mind. Since the Union Army was split between McClellan and Pope and they were widely separated, Lee's offensive spirit saw an opening to destroy Pope before returning his attention to McClellan. Believing that Ambrose Burnside's troops from North Carolina were being shipped to reinforce Pope, and wanting to take immediate action before those troops were in position, Lee committed Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men, while distracting McClellan to keep him immobilized. Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ...


On July 29, Pope moved some of his forces to a position near Cedar Mountain, from where he could launch raids on Gordonsville. Jackson advanced to Culpeper on August 7, hoping to attack one of Pope's corps before the rest of the army could be concentrated. On August 9, Nathaniel Banks's corps attacked Jackson at Cedar Mountain, gaining an early advantage. A Confederate counterattack led by A.P. Hill drove Banks back across Cedar Creek. By now Jackson had learned that Pope's corps were all together, foiling his plan of defeating each in separate actions. He remained in position until August 12, when he withdrew to Gordonsville. July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Culpeper is a town located in Culpeper County, Virginia. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Battle of Cedar Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date August 9, 1862 Place Culpeper County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cedar Mountain, also known as the Battle of Slaughters Mountain or Cedar Run, took place on August 9, 1862 in Culpeper County, Virginia as part of the... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


On August 13, Lee sent Maj. Gen. James Longstreet to reinforce Jackson, and on the following day, sent all of his remaining forces, except for two brigades, after he was certain that McClellan was leaving the Peninsula. Lee himself arrived at Gordonsville to take command on August 15. His plan was to defeat Pope before McClellan's army could arrive to reinforce it, by cutting bridges in Pope's rear and then attacking his left flank and rear. Pope withdrew to the line of the Rappahannock River. He was aware of Lee's plan because a Union cavalry raid captured a copy of the written order. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ...


A series of skirmishes August 2225 kept the attention of Pope's army along the river. By this time three corps from the Army of the Potomac had arrived from the Peninsula to reinforce Pope. Lee's new plan in the face of all these additional forces outnumbering him was audacious—to send Jackson and Stuart with half of the army on a flanking march to cut Pope's line of communication, the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. Pope would be forced to retreat and could be defeated while moving and vulnerable. August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ...


On the evening of August 26, after passing around Pope's right flank, Jackson's wing of the army struck the railroad at Bristoe Station and before daybreak August 27 marched to capture and destroy the massive Union supply depot at Battle of Manassas Station Operations | Manassas Junction]]. This surprise movement forced Pope into an abrupt retreat from his defensive line along the Rappahannock. During the night of August 2728, Jackson marched his divisions north to the First Bull Run (Manassas) battlefield, where he took position behind an unfinished railroad grade. Longstreet's wing of the army marched through the Thoroughfare Gap to join Jackson, uniting the two wings of Lee's army. August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Manassas Station Operations Conflict American Civil War Date August 25-27, 1862 Place Prince William County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Manassas Station Operations, also variously known as the Battle of Bristoe Station, Kettle Run, Bull Run Bridge, or Union Mills, took place from August 25-27, 1862 in Prince... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... First Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 21, 1861 Place Fairfax County and Prince William County Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Bull Run, referred to as the First Battle of Manassas in the South, (July 21, 1861) was the first major land battle of...


Second Bull Run

In order to draw Pope's army into battle, Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on August 28, beginning the Second Battle of Bull Run, the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign. The fighting lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate. Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson's position along the unfinished railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field and took position on Jackson's right flank. On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault, Longstreet's wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest simultaneous mass assault of the war. The Union left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run. Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Bull Run disaster. Pope's retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless. The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit. August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run or... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... First Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 21, 1861 Place Fairfax County and Prince William County Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Bull Run, referred to as the First Battle of Manassas in the South, (July 21, 1861) was the first major land battle of... Centreville is an unincorporated place located in Fairfax County, Virginia. ...


Making a wide flanking march, Jackson hoped to cut off the Union retreat. On September 1, Jackson sent his divisions against two Union divisions in the Battle of Chantilly. Confederate attacks were stopped by fierce fighting during a severe thunderstorm. Recognizing that his army was still in danger, Pope ordered the retreat to continue to Washington. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... The Battle of Chantilly or Ox Hill took place on September 1, 1862, in Fairfax County, Virginia, as the concluding battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


Invasion of Maryland

Lee decided that his army, despite heavy losses during the spring and summer, was ready for a great challenge: an invasion of the North. His goal was to reach the major Northern states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, and cut off the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad line that supplied Washington. He also needed to supply his army and knew the farms of the North had been untouched by war, unlike those in Virginia. And he wished to affect Northern morale, believing that an invading army playing havoc inside the North might force Lincoln to negotiate an end to the war, particularly if he would be able to incite an uprising in the slave-holding state of Maryland. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad or B&O was a 19th century railroad which operated in the east coast of the United States and was the first railroad to offer commercial transportation of both people and freight. ...


The Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River and reached Frederick, Maryland, on September 7. Lee's specific goals were thought to be an advance towards Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, cutting the east-west railroad links to the Northeast, followed by operations against one of the major eastern cities, such as Philadelphia. News of the invasion caused panic in the North, and Lincoln was forced to take quick action. George B. McClellan had been in military limbo since returning from the Peninsula, but Lincoln restored him to command of all forces around Washington and ordered him to deal with Lee. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1745 Incorporated County Frederick County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Jennifer Dougherty Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 59. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Map Location in Pennsylvania Political Statistics Founded c. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ...


Lee divided his army. Longstreet was sent to Hagerstown, while Jackson was ordered to seize the Union arsenal at Harpers Ferry, which commanded Lee's supply lines through the Shenandoah Valley; it was also a tempting target, virtually indefensible. McClellan requested permission from Washington to evacuate Harpers Ferry and attach its garrison to his army, but his request was refused. In the Battle of Harpers Ferry, Jackson placed artillery on the heights overlooking the town, forcing the surrender of the garrison of more than 12,000 men on September 15. Jackson led most of his soldiers to join the rest of Lee's army, leaving A.P. Hill's division to complete the occupation of the town. Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded Incorporated County Washington County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor vacant Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 27. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... Battle of Harpers Ferry Conflict American Civil War Date September 12-15, 1862 Place Jefferson County Result Confederate victory The Battle of Harpers Ferry was fought during the American Civil War on September 12–15, 1862. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ...


McClellan moved out of Washington with his 87,000-man army in a slow pursuit, reaching Frederick on September 13. There, he received a miraculous break: Two Union soldiers discovered a mislaid copy of the detailed campaign plans of Lee's army—General Order Number 191—wrapped around three cigars. The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat in detail. McClellan waited 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence, a delay that almost squandered his golden opportunity. That night, the Army of the Potomac moved toward South Mountain, where elements of the Army of Northern Virginia waited in defense of the mountain passes. At the Battle of South Mountain on September 14, the Confederate defenders were driven back by the numerically superior Union forces, and McClellan was in a position to destroy Lee's army before it could concentrate. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... South Mountain, Texas is a town in Texas. ... Battle of South Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date September 14, 1862 Place Frederick County and Washington County Result Union victory The Battle of South Mountain was a battle of the American Civil War, considered by some to be prelude to the Battle of Antietam. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ...


Lee, seeing McClellan's uncharacteristic aggression, and learning through a Confederate sympathizer that his order had been compromised, frantically moved to concentrate his army. He chose not to abandon his invasion and return to Virginia yet, because Jackson had not completed the capture of Harpers Ferry. Instead, he chose to make a stand at the little western Maryland town of Sharpsburg. Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ...


Antietam

On September 16, McClellan confronted Lee near Sharpsburg, defending a line to the west of Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, the Battle of Antietam began, with Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's corps mounting a powerful assault on Lee's left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across the Miller Cornfield and the woods near the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road ("Bloody Lane") eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not pressed. In the afternoon, Burnside's corps crossed a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolled up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill's division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside's men and saving Lee's army from destruction. Although outnumbered two to one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three quarters of his army. This enabled Lee to shift brigades and concentrate on each individual Union assault. At over 23,000 casualties, it remains the bloodiest single day in American history. Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley. Despite being tactically inconclusive, the battle of Antietam is considered a strategic victory for the Union. Lee's strategic initiative to invade Maryland was defeated. But more importantly, President Lincoln used this opportunity to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, after which, the prospect of European powers intervening in the war on behalf of the Confederacy was significantly diminished. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential order in 1863 that freed most (but not all) of the slaves in the United States. ...




Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville (1862–63)

Eastern Theater, 1863
Eastern Theater, 1863
Main articles: Battle of Fredericksburg and Battle of Chancellorsville
Fredericksburg Campaign
Fredericksburg I
Longstreet's Tidewater Operations
Fort AndersonWashingtonSuffolk (Norfleet House)Suffolk (Hill's Point)
Cavalry Operations along the Rappahannock
Kelly's Ford
Chancellorsville Campaign
ChancellorsvilleFredericksburg IISalem Church

On November 7, 1862, President Lincoln relieved McClellan of command because of his failure to pursue and defeat Lee's retreating army from Sharpsburg. Ambrose Burnside, despite his indifferent performance as a corps commander at Antietam, was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac. Once again, Lincoln pressured his general to launch an offensive as quickly as possible. Burnside rose to the task and planned to drive directly south toward Richmond. He hoped to outflank Robert E. Lee by quickly crossing the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg and placing himself in between the Confederate army and their capital. Unfortunately for Burnside, administrative difficulties prevented the pontoon bridging boats from arriving on time and his army was forced to wait across the river from Fredericksburg while Lee took that opportunity to strongly fortify a defensive line on the heights behind the city. Rather than giving up or finding another way to advance, Burnside stubbornly crossed the river and on December 13, launched massive frontal assaults against Marye's Heights on Lee's left flank. His attacks were more successful on Lee's right, but he did not follow up and persisted in pounding the fortified heights with wave after wave of futile attacks. The Union Army lost over 12,000 men that day; Confederate casualties were significantly less. Image File history File links NPS_CW_at_a_Glance_Eastern_1863. ... Image File history File links NPS_CW_at_a_Glance_Eastern_1863. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 16,839 (1,574 killed, 9,554 wounded, 5,711 missing) 13,156 (1,683 killed, 9,277 wounded, 2,196 missing) The Battle of Chancellorsville was... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Battle of Fort Anderson Conflict American Civil War Date March 13-15, 1863 Place Craven County, North Carolina Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Anderson, also known as the Battle of Deep Gully, took place from March 13_15, 1863 in Craven County, North Carolina as part of Confederate Army... Battle of Washington Conflict American Civil War Date March 30 - April 20, 1863 Place Beaufort County, North Carolina Result Inconclusive (Confederates withdrew. ... Battle of Suffolk (Norfleet House) Conflict American Civil War Date April 13-15, 1863 Place Suffolk, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Suffolk at the Norfleet House Battery took place from April 13-15, 1863 in Suffolk, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General James Longstreets Tidewater operations during... Battle of Suffolk (Hills Point) Conflict American Civil War Date April 11 - May 4, 1863 Place Suffolk, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Suffolk at Hills Point, also known as the Battle of Fort Huger, took place from April 11 - May 4, 1863 in Suffolk, Virginia as part... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William W. Averell Fitzhugh Lee Strength 3,000 total (US and CS) 3,000 total (US and CS) Casualties 200 total (US and CS) 200 total (US and CS) The Battle of Kellys Ford, also known as the Battle... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 16,839 (1,574 killed, 9,554 wounded, 5,711 missing) 13,156 (1,683 killed, 9,277 wounded, 2,196 missing) The Battle of Chancellorsville was... Battle of Fredericksburg II Conflict American Civil War Date May 3, 1863 Place Fredericksburg, Virginia Result Union victory The Second Battle of Fredericksburg, also known as the Battle of Marye’s Heights, took place on May 3, 1863 in Fredericksburg, Virginia as part of the Chancellorsville Campaign of the American... Battle of Salem Church Conflict American Civil War Date May 3-4, 1863 Place Spotsylvania County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Salem Church, also known as the Battle of Banks Ford, took place from May 3_4, 1863 in Spotsylvania County, Virginia as part of the Chancellorsville Campaign of... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ... Fredericksburg is an independent city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Virginia, 50 miles south of Washington, D.C., and 55 miles north of Richmond, Virginia. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite the terrific defeat and the dismay felt in Washington, Burnside was not yet relieved from command. He planned to resume his offensive south of Fredericksburg, but it went amiss in January 1863 in the humiliating Mud March. Following this, a cabal of his subordinate generals made it clear to the government that Burnside was incapable of leading the army. One of those conspirators was Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, who was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac on January 26, 1863. Hooker, who had an excellent record as a corps commander in previous campaigns, spent the remainder of the winter reorganizing and resupplying his army, paying special attention to health and morale issues. And being known for his aggressive nature, he planned a complex and audacious spring campaign against Robert E. Lee. The Mud March was an abortive attempt at a winter offensive in January, 1863, by Major General Ambrose Burnside in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ...


Both armies remained in their positions before Fredericksburg. Hooker planned to send his cavalry, under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman, deep into the Confederate rear to disrupt supply lines. While one corps remained to fix Lee's attention at Fredericksburg, the others were to slip away and make a stealthy flanking march that would put the bulk of Hooker's army behind Lee, catching him in a vise. Lee, who had dispatched a corps of his army, under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, to forage in southern Virginia, was outnumbered 57,000 to 97,000. Categories: Stub | 1822 births | 1894 deaths | Governors of California ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ...


The plan began executing well and the bulk of the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and was in position on May 1. However, after minor initial contact with the enemy, Hooker began to lose his confidence and rather than striking the Army of Northern Virginia in its rear as planned, he withdrew to a defensive perimeter around Chancellorsville. On May 2, Robert E. Lee executed one of the boldest maneuvers of the war. Having already split his army to address both wings of Hooker's attack, he now split again, sending 20,000 men under Stonewall Jackson on a lengthy flanking march to hit Hooker's unprotected right flank. Achieving almost complete surprise, Jackson's corps routed the Union XI Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard. Following this stunning success came tragedy for the Confederates—Jackson, scouting in front of his army, was mortally wounded by friendly fire. The Rapidan River is a river in Virginia that flows from the Blue Ridge Mountains into the Rappahannock River. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... Portrait of Oliver O. Howard by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Friendly fire (or non-hostile fire) is a term originally adopted by the United States military in reference to an attack on friendly forces by other friendly forces, which may be deliberate (e. ...


While Lee pounded the Chancellorsville defense line with repeated, costly assaults on May 3, the Union VI Corps, under Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, finally achieved what Ambrose Burnside could not, by successfully assaulting the reduced forces on Marye's Heights in Fredericksburg. The corps began moving westward, once again threatening Lee's rear. Lee was able to deal with both wings of the Army of the Potomac, keeping the stunned Hooker in a defensive posture and dispatching a division to deal with Sedgwick's tentative approach. By May 7, Hooker withdrew all of his forces north of the Rappahannock. It was an expensive victory for Lee, who lost 13,000 men, or 25% of his army. Hooker lost 17,000, a lower casualty rate. May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Major General John Sedgwick John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ...




Gettysburg and fall maneuvering (1863)

Main articles: Gettysburg Campaign, Bristoe Campaign, and Mine Run Campaign
Gettysburg Campaign
Brandy StationWinchester IIAldieMiddleburgUppervilleHanoverGettysburgHunterstownWilliamsportBoonsboroManassas Gap
Bristoe Campaign
Auburn IAuburn IIBristoe StationBuckland Mills – Rappahannock Station II
Averell's Raid on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad
Droop Mountain
Mine Run Campaign
Mine Run

In June 1863, Robert E. Lee decided to capitalize on his stunning victory at Chancellorsville by repeating his strategy of 1862 and once again invading the North. He did this to resupply his army, give the farmers of Virginia a respite from war, and threaten the morale of Northern civilians, possibly by seizing an important northern city, such as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or Baltimore, Maryland. The Confederate government agreed to this strategy only reluctantly because Jefferson Davis was concerned about the fate of Vicksburg, Mississippi, the river fortress being threatened by Ulysses S. Grant's Vicksburg campaign. Following the death of Jackson, Lee organized the Army of Northern Virginia into three corps, led by Lt. Gens. James Longstreet, Richard S. Ewell, and A.P. Hill. Eastern Theater operations in 1863, showing Chancellorsville and the Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3) The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July, 1863, during the American Civil War. ... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Mine Run Conflict American Civil War Date November 27–December 2, 1863 Place Orange County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Mine Run, also known as Paynes Farm, or New Hope Church, or the Mine Run Campaign (November 27 – December 2, 1863), was conducted in Orange County... Eastern Theater operations in 1863, showing Chancellorsville and the Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3) The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July, 1863, during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest cavalry engagement on the North American continent. ... Battle of Winchester II Conflict American Civil War Date June 13-15, 1863 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Winchester took place from June 13– 15, 1863, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil... The Battle of Aldie took place on June 17, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Middleburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 17-19, 1863 Place Loudoun County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Middleburg took place from June 17-19, 1863 in Loudoun County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Upperville Conflict American Civil War Date June 21, 1863 Place Loudoun County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Upperville took place on June 21, 1863 in Loudoun County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Hanover took place on June 30, 1863, in York County, Pennsylvania as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 83,289 75,054 Casualties 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing) 28,000 (3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing) The Battle of Gettysburg... The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor cavalry engagement in Adams County, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Williamsport Conflict American Civil War Date July 6-16, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Williamsport, also known as the Battle of Hagerstown or Falling Waters, took place from July 6-16, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of... Battle of Boonsboro Conflict American Civil War Date July 8, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Boonsboro took place on July 8, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Manassas Gap Conflict American Civil War Date July 23, 1863 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Manassas Gap, also known as the Battle of Wapping Heights, took place on July 23, 1863 in Warren County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... The First Battle of Auburn was fought on October 13, 1863, between Union and Confederate forces in the American Civil War. ... The Second Battle of Auburn was fought on October 14, 1863, between Union and Confederate forces in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Bristoe Station was fought on October 14, 1863 between Union and Confederate forces in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Buckland Mills was fought on October 19, 1863, between Union and Confederate forces in the American Civil War. ... The Second Battle of Rappahannock Station, a victory for Union forces in the Bristoe Campaign of the American Civil War, took place on November 7, 1863, near the village of Rappahannock Station (now Remington, Virginia), which was on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 70,000 45,000 Casualties 1,272 680 The Battle of Mine Run, also known as Paynes Farm, or New Hope Church, or the Mine Run Campaign (November 27 – December 2, 1863... Map Location in Pennsylvania Political Statistics Founded c. ... A view of the Baltimore skyline from above. ... Vicksburg is a city located in Warren County, Mississippi, 234 miles (377 km) north by west of New Orleans on the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. ... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ...


Lee began moving his army northwest from Fredericksburg and into the Shenandoah Valley, where the Blue Ridge Mountains would screen their northward movements. Joseph Hooker, still in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent cavalry forces to find Lee. On June 9, the clash at Brandy Station was the largest cavalry battle of the war, but ended inconclusively. Hooker started his entire army in pursuit, but on June 28, President Lincoln lost patience with him and relieved him of command, replacing him with V Corps commander, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade. June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest cavalry engagement on the North American continent. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ...


Lee was surprised to find that the Federal army was moving as quickly as it was. As they crossed the Potomac and entered Frederick, Maryland, the Confederates were spread out over a considerable distance in Pennsylvania, with Richard Ewell across the Susquehanna River from Harrisburg and James Longstreet behind the mountains in Chambersburg. His cavalry, under Jeb Stuart, was engaged in a wide-ranging raid around the eastern flank of the Union Army and was uncharacteristically out of touch with headquarters, leaving Lee blind as to his enemy's position and intentions. Lee realized that, just as in the Maryland Campaign, he had to concentrate his army before it could be defeated in detail. He ordered all units to move to the general vicinity of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1745 Incorporated County Frederick County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Jennifer Dougherty Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 59. ... The Susquehanna River is a river in the northeastern United States. ... Chambersburg is a borough located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg located in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ...


The Battle of Gettysburg was the greatest of the war, often considered its turning point. Meade defeated Lee in a three-day battle fought by 160,000 soldiers, with 51,000 casualties. It started as a meeting engagement on the morning of July 1, when brigades from Henry Heth's division clashed with Buford's cavalry, and then John F. Reynolds's I Corps. As the Union XI Corps arrived, they and the I Corps were smashed by Ewell's and Hill's corps arriving from the north and forced back through the town, taking up defensive positions on high ground south of town. On July 2, Lee launched a massive pair of assaults against the left and right flanks of Meade's army. Fierce battles raged at Little Round Top, Devil's Den, the Wheatfield, the Peach Orchard, East Cemetery Hill, and Culp's Hill. Meade was able to shift his defenders along interior lines and they repulsed the Confederate advances. On July 3, Lee launched Pickett's Charge against the Union center and almost three divisions were slaughtered. By this time, Stuart had returned and he fought an inconclusive cavalry duel to the east of the main battlefield, attempting to drive into the Union rear area. The two armies stayed in position on July 4 (the same day the Battle of Vicksburg ended in a stunning Union victory) and then Lee ordered a retreat back across the Potomac to Virginia. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 83,289 75,054 Casualties 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing) 28,000 (3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing) The Battle of Gettysburg... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863 Little Round Top is the smaller of two rocky hills south of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... // The Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863) saw Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempt to capitalize on his first days victory. ... Cemetery Hill is a small part of the battleground at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania that was distinguished because of its tactical value as having high ground over the city of Gettysburg. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in North America... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength Army of the Tennessee Army of Vicksburg Casualties 10,142 9,091 The Battle of Vicksburg or Siege of Vicksburg was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil...


Meade's pursuit of Lee was tentative and unsuccessful. He received considerable criticism from President Lincoln and others, who believed he could have ended the war in the aftermath of Gettysburg. His two final offensive campaigns in the fall of 1863, Bristoe and Mine Run, were inconsequential. In both cases, Lee repeatedly outmaneuvered Meade, who was reluctant to lose men on futile frontal assaults. The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Mine Run Conflict American Civil War Date November 27–December 2, 1863 Place Orange County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Mine Run, also known as Paynes Farm, or New Hope Church, or the Mine Run Campaign (November 27 – December 2, 1863), was conducted in Orange County...




Grant versus Lee (1864–65)

Enlarge
Overland Campaign, from the Wilderness to crossing the James River
Main articles: Overland Campaign, Bermuda Hundred Campaign, and Richmond-Petersburg Campaign
Demonstration on the Rapidan River
Morton's Ford
Kilpatrick–Dahlgren Raid
Walkerton
Crook-Averell Raid on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad
Cloyd's MountainCove Mountain
Bermuda Hundred Campaign
Port Walthall JunctionSwift CreekChester StationProctor's CreekWare Bottom Church
Grant's Overland Campaign
WildernessYellow TavernSpotsylvania Court HouseWilson's WharfNorth AnnaHaw's ShopTotopotomoy CreekOld ChurchCold HarborTrevilian StationSaint Mary's Church
Richmond–Petersburg Campaign
1st Petersburg2nd PetersburgJerusalem Plank Road – Staunton River Bridge – Sappony Church – 1st Ream's Station – 1st Deep Bottom – Crater – 2nd Deep Bottom – Globe Tavern2nd Ream's StationChaffin's FarmPeebles' Farm – Darbytown & New Market Roads – Darbytown Road – Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road – Boydton Plank RoadHatcher's RunFort Stedman

In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and command of all the Union armies. He devised a coordinated strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points, something President Lincoln had urged his generals to do from the beginning of the war. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his own headquarters to be with the Army of the Potomac (still commanded by George Meade) in Virginia, where he intended to maneuver Lee's army to a decisive battle; his secondary objective was to capture Richmond, but Grant knew that the latter would happen automatically once the former was accomplished. His coordinated strategy called for Grant and Meade to attack Lee from the north, while Benjamin Butler drove toward Richmond from the southeast; Franz Sigel to control the Shenandoah Valley; Sherman to invade Georgia, defeat Joseph E. Johnston, and capture Atlanta; George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia; and Nathaniel P. Banks to capture Mobile, Alabama. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1504x2325, 874 KB)Map of the Overland Campaign and start of Richmond-Petersburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1504x2325, 874 KB)Map of the Overland Campaign and start of Richmond-Petersburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee The Overland Campaign, or Grants Overland Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Siege of Petersburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 15, 1864–April 2, 1865 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Union victory The Siege of Petersburg (June 15, 1864 – April 2, 1865) was a ten-month long siege of Petersburg, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Mortons Ford was fought in 1864, and was a battle of the American Civil War To distract attention from a planned cavalry-infantry raid up the Peninsula on Richmond, the Federal army forced several crossings of the Rapidan River on February 6. ... Battle of Cloyds Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date May 9, 1864 Place Pulaski County, Virginia Result U.S. victory The Battle of Cloyds Mountain was a Union victory in western Virginia in 1864 that allowed the Union forces to destroy the last railroad running from Tennessee to... The Battle of Cove Mountain was a minor skirmish of the American Civil War. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Port Walthall Junction was fought on May 6–7, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Swift Creek was fought on May 9, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Chester Station was fought on May 10, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Proctors Creek was fought from May 12–16, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Ware Bottom Church was fought on May 20, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces. ... Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee The Overland Campaign, or Grants Overland Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 soldiers 61,025 soldiers Casualties 18,400 11,400 The Battle of the Wilderness was the first battle of Lieut. ... On May 11th, 1864, Confederate General Jeb Stuart was shot at Yellow Tavern by a Union sharpshooter at a distance of 30 feet (10 m). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 120,000 60,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Battle of Totopotomoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date May 24, 1864 Place Charles City, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Wilson’s Wharf (also called Fort Pocahontas) was a battle in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. ... Battle of Totopotomoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date May 23–26, 1864 Place Caroline County and Hanover County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of North Anna (also called Telegraph Road Bridge, Jericho Mill ( May 23), and Ox Ford, Quarles Mill, Hanover Junction ( May 24)) was a battle in Union... Battle of Totopotomoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date May 28, 1864 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Haws Shop (also called Enon Church) was a battle in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. ... Battle of Totopotomoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date May 28–30, 1864 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Totopotomoy Creek (also called Bethesda Church, Crumps Creek, Matadequin Creek, Shady Grove Road, and Hanovertown) was a battle in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate... Battle of Old Church Conflict American Civil War Date May 30, 1864 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Old Church (also called Matadequin Creek) was a battle in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 soldiers 62,000 soldiers Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... The Battle of Trevilian Station (also called Trevilians) was fought June 11–12, 1864, in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. ... Battle of Totopotomoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 24, 1864 Place Charles City, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Saint Marys Church (also called Nances Shop) was a battle in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength average of 86,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 7,850 in the trenches (see main battle articles for further casualties) unknown The Siege of Petersburg (June 15, 1864 – April 2, 1865) was... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Benjamin Butler P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 4,500 2,500 Casualties 250 150 The first Battle of Petersburg was a minor, unsuccessful Union assault against the city of Petersburg, Virginia, June 9, 1864. ... Assualts on Petersburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 15–18,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Inconclusive The second Battle of Petersburg, also known as the Assault on Petersburg, was the major attempt by the Union Army to take Petersburg, Virginia, before the main Confederate Army could reinforce the city. ... Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road Conflict American Civil War Date June 21–24,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union extended siege lines) The Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road, also known as the First Battle of the Weldon Railroad, was the first of a series of battles during the Siege... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength IX Corps elements of the Army of Northern Virginia Casualties 5,300 total 1,032 total {{{notes}}} The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the... Battle of Globe Tavern Conflict American Civil War Date August 18–21,1864 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Globe Tavern, also known as the Second Battle of the Weldon Railroad, saw the Confederate forces loose control of the vital Weldon Railroad to the Union army during... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Winfield S. Hancock Henry Heth Strength II Corps Heths Division, III Corps Casualties 2,750 814 {{{notes}}} The Second Battle of Reams Station was fought in the American Civil War on August 25, 1864, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. ... Map of Battle of Chaffins Farm The Battle of Chaffins Farm, also known as New Market Heights (September 29–30, 1864), was fought as part of the Siege of Petersburg in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Peebles Farm (or Poplar Springs Church) was the western part of a simultaneous Union offensive against the Confederate works guarding Petersburg, Virginia and Richmond, Virginia. ... The Battle of Darbytown Road was fought on October 7, 1864 between Union and Confederate forces. ... The Battle of the Boydton Plank Road (or First Hatchers Run) followed the successfull battle of Peebles Farm. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Battle of Fort Steadman Conflict American Civil War Date March 25, 1865 Place Petersburg Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Steadman occurred on March 25th, 1865, during the final days of the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Franz Sigel Franz Sigel (November 18, 1824 – August 21, 1902) was a German military officer and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Portrait of George Crook George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... William Woods Averell, (November 5, 1892 - February 3, 1900) United States army officer. ... Nathaniel Prentice Banks [sometimes spelled incorrectly Prentiss] (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Nickname The Azalea City Location Government Country  State   County United States  Alabama   Mobile Founded Incorporated 1702 1814 Mayor Sam Jones Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 412. ...


Unfortunately for Grant, most of these initiatives would fail, often due to the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butler's Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under P.G.T. Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May; in July he fought Jubal A. Early at Harpers Ferry, but soon afterwards was relieved of his command for "lack of aggression" and replaced by David Hunter. Banks was distracted by the Red River Campaign and failed to move on Mobile. On the positive side, Crook and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, and Sherman's Atlanta campaign was a success, although it dragged on through the fall. The Army of the James was a Union Army that was composed of unites from the Department of Virginia and North Carolina and served along the James River during the last opperations of the Civil War in Virginia. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of New Market was a battle fought on May 15, 1864, in Virginia during Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... David Hunter David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ...


Overland Campaign

The main show for the public was Grant versus Lee in the Overland Campaign. In early May, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania. There, in dense woods that nullified the Union army's advantages in artillery, Robert E. Lee surprised Grant and Meade with aggressive assaults. The two-day Battle of the Wilderness was tactically inconclusive, although very damaging to both sides. However, unlike his predecessors, Grant did not retreat after the battle, but sent his army to the southeast, beginning a campaign of maneuver that would keep Lee on the defensive through a series of bloody battles, moving closer and closer to Richmond. Grant knew that his larger army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee and the Confederacy could. And although Grant suffered horrific losses, approximately 55,000 casualties, during the campaign, Lee lost even higher percentages of his men, losses that could not be replaced. Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee The Overland Campaign, or Grants Overland Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 soldiers 61,025 soldiers Casualties 18,400 11,400 The Battle of the Wilderness was the first battle of Lieut. ...


In the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Lee was able to beat Grant to the crossroads town and established a strong defensive position. In a series of attacks over two weeks, Grant hammered away at the Confederate lines, mostly centered on a salient known as the "Mule Shoe". A massive assault by Winfield S. Hancock's II Corps on the "Bloody Angle" portion of this line, May 12, would foreshadow the breakthrough tactics employed against trenches late in World War I. Grant once again disengaged and slipped to the southeast. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 120,000 60,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First...


Intercepting Grant's movement, Lee positioned his forces behind the North Anna River in a salient that would force Grant to divide his army to attack it. Lee had the opportunity to defeat Grant in detail, but failed to attack in the manner necessary to spring the trap he had set, possibly because of an illness. Grant continued moving southeast. Battle of Totopotomoy Creek Conflict American Civil War Date May 23–26, 1864 Place Caroline County and Hanover County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of North Anna (also called Telegraph Road Bridge, Jericho Mill ( May 23), and Ox Ford, Quarles Mill, Hanover Junction ( May 24)) was a battle in Union...


On May 31, Union cavalry seized the vital crossroads of Old Cold Harbor while the Confederates arrived from Richmond and from the Totopotomoy Creek lines. Late on June 1, two Union corps reached Cold Harbor and assaulted the Confederate works with some success. By June 2, both armies were on the field, forming on a seven-mile front. At dawn on June 3, the II and XVIII Corps, followed later by the IX Corps, assaulted the line and were slaughtered at all points in the infamous Battle of Cold Harbor. Grant lost over 12,000 men in a battle that he regretted more than any other; subsequently, he was frequently referred to by the Northern newspapers as a "butcher". May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... IX Corps (Ninth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 soldiers 62,000 soldiers Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ...


On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank, marching to the James River. He was able to disguise his intentions from Lee and his army crossed the river on a bridge of pontoons that stretched over 2 miles. What Lee had feared most of all, that Grant would force him into a siege of the capital city, was poised to occur. June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ...


Petersburg

Grant had decided, however, that there was a more efficient way to get at Richmond and Lee. A few miles to the south, the city of Petersburg contained crucial rail links supplying the capital. If the Union army could seize it, Richmond was doomed. Unfortunately, Benjamin Butler had failed to capture it earlier and then indecisive advances by Grant's subordinates also failed to break through the thin lines manned by P.G.T. Beauregard's men, allowing Lee's army to arrive and erect serious defenses. Both sides settled in for a siege. Map Political Statistics County Independent city Mayor Annie M. Mickens Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 60. ...


In an attempt to break the siege, Union troops in Ambrose Burnside's corps mined a tunnel under the Confederate line. On July 30, they detonated the explosives, creating a crater some 135 feet in diameter that remains visible to this day. Almost 350 Confederate soldiers were instantly killed in the blast. Despite the ingenuity of the Union's plan, the lengthy, bloody Battle of the Crater, as it came to be called, was marred by poor tactical planning and was a decisive Confederate victory. July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... Post-shot subsidence crater and Huron King test chamber, which was less than 20 kilotons (1980) A subsidence crater is the crater left on the surface of an area which has had an underground (usually nuclear) explosion. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength IX Corps elements of the Army of Northern Virginia Casualties 5,300 total 1,032 total {{{notes}}} The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the...


Through the fall and winter, both armies constructed elaborate series of trenches, eventually spanning more than 30 miles, as the Union Army attempted to get around the right (western) flank of the Confederates and destroy their supply lines. Although the Northern public became quite dispirited by the seeming lack of progress at Petersburg, the dramatic success of Sherman at Atlanta helped ensure the reelection of Abraham Lincoln, which guaranteed that the war would be fought to a conclusion. Presidential electoral votes by state. ...




The Valley (1864–65)

Main article: Valley Campaigns of 1864
Lynchburg Campaign
New MarketPiedmontLynchburg
Early's Raid and Operations Against the B&O Railroad
Monocacy JunctionFort StevensCool SpringRutherford's FarmKernstown IIFolck's MillMoorefield
Sheridan's Valley Campaign
Guard Hill – Summit Point – Smithfield Crossing – Berryville – OpequonFisher's HillTom's BrookCedar Creek
Sheridan's Expedition to Petersburg
Waynesboro

The Shenandoah Valley was a crucial region for the Confederacy. Not only was it one of the most important agricultural regions in Virginia, it was also a prime invasion route against the North . Grant hoped that an army from the Department of West Virginia under Franz Sigel could seize control of the Valley, moving "up the Valley" (i.e., southwest to the higher elevations) with 10,000 men to destroy the railroad center at Lynchburg. Sigel immediately suffered an embarrassing defeat at the Battle of New Market and was soon replaced by David Hunter, who also failed in his mission. Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... The Battle of New Market was a battle fought on May 15, 1864, in Virginia during Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Piedmont Conflict American Civil War Date June 5-6, 1864 Place Augusta County Result Union victory Following Franz Sigels defeat at New Market on May 15, 1864, Union forces under Maj. ... The Battle of Lynchburg took place on June 17th 1864. ... Battle of Monocacy Junction Conflict American Civil War Date July 9, 1864 Place Frederick County, Maryland Result Confederate victory The Battle of Monocacy Junction was an American Civil War battle fought on July 9, 1864 between, Generals Lew Wallace and Jubal Early fought a battle south of Frederick, Maryland. ... Battle of Fort Stevens Conflict American Civil War Date July 11-12, 1864 Place District of Columbia Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Stevens was fought in Washington D.C. in Jubal Earlys attempt to seize the city of Washington. ... The Battle of Cool Spring, also known as Island Ford, Parkers Ford and Snickers Ferry, was a battle in the American Civil War fought in Clarke County, Virginia between July 17 and July 18, 1864. ... The Battle of Rutherfords Farm is an American Civil War Battle. ... The Second Battle of Kernstown was fought on July 24, 1864, outside Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... This history article needs to be wikified. ... The Battle of Moorefield was an American Civil War battle in Hardy County, West Virginia. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... The Battle of Opequon, also known as the Third Battle of Winchester, was a decisive victory for the Union army during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Fishers Hill Conflict American Civil War Date September 21- 22, 1864 Place Shenandoah County, Virginia Result Union victory In the Battle of Fishers Hill, Phil Sheridan had almost 30,000 men while Jubal Anderson Early had just under 10,000. ... The Battle of Toms Brook was fought on October 9, 1864, between Union cavalry and Confederate forces. ... Battle of Cedar Creek Conflict American Civil War Date October 19, 1864 Place Frederick County, Shenandoah County and Warren County Result Union victory The Battle of Cedar Creek, or The Battle of Belle Grove, October 19, 1864, was one of the last battles in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign (August-December... The Battle of Waynesboro, was fought on March 2, 1865, in Augusta County, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... The Allied Arts Building in downtown Lynchburg, completed in 1931. ... The Battle of New Market was a battle fought on May 15, 1864, in Virginia during Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... David Hunter David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Robert E. Lee, now besieged in Petersburg, was concerned about Hunter's advances and sent Jubal Early's corps to sweep Union forces from the Valley and, if possible, to menace Washington, D.C., hoping to compel Grant to dilute his forces around Petersburg. Early got off to a good start. He drove down the Valley without opposition, bypassed Harpers Ferry, crossed the Potomac River, and advanced into Maryland. Grant dispatched a corps under Maj. Gen. Horatio G. Wright and other troops under George Crook to reinforce Washington and pursue Early. Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ... Horatio G. Wright Horatio Gouverneur Wright ( March 6, 1820 – July 2, 1899) was an engineer and officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of George Crook George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ...


At the Battle of Monocacy (July 9, 1864), Early defeated a smaller force under Lew Wallace near Frederick, Maryland, but this battle delayed his progress enough to allow time for reinforcing the defenses of Washington. Early attacked a fort on the northwest defensive perimeter of Washington ( Fort Stevens (June 1112) without success and withdrew back to Virginia. He successfully fought a series of minor battles in the Valley through early August and prevented Wright's corps from returning to Grant at Petersburg. He also burned the city of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. Battle of Monocacy Junction Conflict American Civil War Date July 9, 1864 Place Frederick County, Maryland Result Confederate victory The Battle of Monocacy Junction was an American Civil War battle fought on July 9, 1864 between, Generals Lew Wallace and Jubal Early fought a battle south of Frederick, Maryland. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Lew Wallace Lewis Lew Wallace (April 10, 1827–February 15, 1905) was an American Civil War general, U.S. statesman and author, who is probably best remembered for his historical novel Ben-Hur. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1745 Incorporated County Frederick County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Jennifer Dougherty Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 59. ... Battle of Fort Stevens Conflict American Civil War Date July 11-12, 1864 Place District of Columbia Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Stevens was fought in Washington D.C. in Jubal Earlys attempt to seize the city of Washington. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Chambersburg is a borough located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ...


Grant finally lost patience with Early, particularly his burning of Chambersburg, and knew that Washington remained vulnerable if Early was still on the loose. He found a new commander aggressive enough to defeat Early: Philip Sheridan, the cavalry commander of the Army of the Potomac, who was given command of all forces in the area, calling them the Army of the Shenandoah. Sheridan initially started slowly, primarily because the impending presidential election of 1864 demanded a cautious approach, avoiding any disaster that might lead to the defeat of Abraham Lincoln. Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Shenandoah was a Union army during the American Civil War. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed the Rail Splitter, Honest Abe and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


Sheridan began moving aggressively in September. He defeated Early in the Third Battle of Winchester and the Battle of Fisher's Hill. At this point, with Early damaged and pinned down, the Valley lay open to the Union. And due to Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Lincoln's re-election now seemed assured. Sheridan pulled back slowly down the Valley and conducted a scorched earth campaign that would presage Sherman's March to the Sea in November. The goal was to deny the Confederacy the means of feeding its armies in Virginia, and Sheridan's army did so ruthlessly, burning crops, barns, mills, and factories. The Battle of Opequon, also known as the Third Battle of Winchester, was a decisive victory for the Union army during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Fishers Hill Conflict American Civil War Date September 21- 22, 1864 Place Shenandoah County, Virginia Result Union victory In the Battle of Fishers Hill, Phil Sheridan had almost 30,000 men while Jubal Anderson Early had just under 10,000. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta campaign fought during the American Civil War... Horses shot by the British at Winburg during the Second Boer War A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting Shermans March Shermans March to the Sea is the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign, conducted in late 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


The campaign was effectively concluded at the Battle of Cedar Creek (October 19, 1864). In a brilliant surprise attack, Early routed two thirds of the Union army, but his troops were hungry and exhausted and fell out of their ranks to pillage the Union camp; Sheridan managed to rally his troops and defeat Early decisively. Sheridan returned to assist Grant at Petersburg. Most of the men of Early's corps rejoined Lee at Petersburg in December, while Early remained to command a skeleton force until he was relieved of command in March 1865. Battle of Cedar Creek Conflict American Civil War Date October 19, 1864 Place Frederick County, Shenandoah County and Warren County Result Union victory The Battle of Cedar Creek, or The Battle of Belle Grove, October 19, 1864, was one of the last battles in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign (August-December... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...




Appomattox (1865)

Eastern Theater, 1865
Eastern Theater, 1865
Main articles: Richmond-Petersburg Campaign and Appomattox Campaign
Appomattox Campaign
Lewis's FarmWhite Oak RoadDinwiddie Court HouseFive Forks3rd PetersburgSutherland's StationNamozine Church – Amelia Springs – Sayler's Creek – Rice's Station – High BridgeCumberland ChurchAppomattox StationAppomattox Courthouse

In January 1865, Robert E. Lee became the general-in-chief of all Confederate armies, but this move came too late to help the Southern cause. Image File history File links NPS_CW_at_a_Glance_Eastern_1865. ... Image File history File links NPS_CW_at_a_Glance_Eastern_1865. ... Siege of Petersburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 15, 1864–April 2, 1865 Place Petersburg, Virginia Result Union victory The Siege of Petersburg (June 15, 1864 – April 2, 1865) was a ten-month long siege of Petersburg, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Lewiss Farm Conflict American Civil War Date March 29, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Lewiss Farm (also known as Quaker Road, Military Road, or Gravelly Road) was a one-day battle of the American Civil War in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. ... Battle of White Oak Road Conflict American Civil War Date March 31, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of White Oak Road set the stage for the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Five Forks the following day. ... Battle of Dinwiddie Court House Conflict American Civil War Date March 31, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Confederate victory On March 29, with the Cavalry Corps and the II and V Corps, Sheridan undertook a flank march to turn Gen. ... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... The third Battle of Petersburg, also known as the Breakthrough at Petersburg or the Fall of Petersburg, was a decisive Union assault on the Confederate trenches, ending the ten-month Siege of Petersburg and leading to the fall of Petersburg and Richmond. ... The Battle of Sutherlands Station was an American Civil War conflict fought on April 2, 1865 between Union and Confederate forces. ... The Battle of Namozine Church was a minor engagement on April 3, 1865, in Amelia County, Virginia during the American Civil Wars Appomattox Campaign. ... Battle of Saylers Creek Conflict American Civil War Date April 6, 1865 Place Amelia, Prince Edward & Nottoway Counties, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Saylers Creek (also known as Sailors Creek, Hillsman Farm, or Lockett Farm) was fought April 6, 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, in... The Battle of High Bridge was fought on April 6 and April 7 of 1865 between the Union army of Ulysses S. Grant and the Confederate army of Robert E. Lee. ... The Battle of Cumberland Church was fought in 1865 and was a battle of the American Civil War Near 2 pm on April 7, the advance of the Union II Corps encountered Confederate forces entrenched on high ground near Cumberland Church. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac, Army of the James Army of Northern Virginia Casualties 260 440 (27,805 paroled) The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse was the final engagement of Robert E. Lees Army...


As the siege of Petersburg continued, Grant attempted to break or encircle the Confederate forces in multiple attacks moving from east to west. By March, the siege had taken an enormous toll on both armies, and Lee decided to pull out of Petersburg. Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon then devised a plan to have the army attack Fort Stedman on the eastern end of the Union Lines, forcing the Union forces to shorten their lines. Although initially a success, his outnumbered corps was forced back. John Brown Gordon John Brown Gordon ( February 6, 1832 – January 9, 1904) served as one of Robert E. Lees most trusted generals during the Civil War. ... Battle of Fort Steadman Conflict American Civil War Date March 25, 1865 Place Petersburg Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Steadman occurred on March 25th, 1865, during the final days of the American Civil War. ...


Sheridan, now returned from the Valley, was tasked with flanking the Confederate army, which forced Lee to send forces under Maj. Gen. George Pickett to defend the flank. Grant then deployed a corps to cut off Pickett's forces, who were forced to withdraw to Five Forks on March 31. In the following days, the Union continued to press the attack, flanking Pickett's forces, and destroying the Confederate left. Portrait of George E. Pickett George Edward Pickett (January 28[1] or January 16, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a career U.S. Army officer who became a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ...


After the victory at Five Forks, Grant ordered an assault along the entire Confederate line, called the Third Battle of Petersburg, resulting in dramatic breakthroughs. In the following days, Lee pulled his forces out from Petersburg and Richmond, and headed west to Danville, the destination of the fleeing Confederate government, and then south to meet up with General Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina. The capital city of Richmond surrendered on the morning of April 3. The third Battle of Petersburg, also known as the Breakthrough at Petersburg or the Fall of Petersburg, was a decisive Union assault on the Confederate trenches, ending the ten-month Siege of Petersburg and leading to the fall of Petersburg and Richmond. ... Danville is an independent city located in Virginia, bounded by Pittsylvania County, Virginia and Caswell County, North Carolina. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ...


The campaign became a race between Lee and Sheridan, with Lee attempting to obtain supplies for his retreat and Sheridan attempting to cut him off. At Sayler's Creek on April 6, nearly a quarter of the Confederate army (about 8,000 men, the heart of two corps) was cut off and forced to surrender. Many of the Confederate supply trains were also captured. In Lee's final stand on April 9, John B. Gordon's depleted corps attempted to break the Union lines and reach the supplies in Lynchburg. They pushed back Sheridan's cavalry briefly, but found themselves faced with the full Union V Corps. They were surrounded on three sides and Lee surrendered his army to Grant at Appomattox Court House. Battle of Saylers Creek Conflict American Civil War Date April 6, 1865 Place Amelia, Prince Edward & Nottoway Counties, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Saylers Creek (also known as Sailors Creek, Hillsman Farm, or Lockett Farm) was fought April 6, 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, in... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... McLean house, April 1865. ...


There would be further minor battles and further surrenders of Confederate armies, but Lee's surrender on April 9, 1865, marked the effective end of the Civil War. The premier army of the Confederacy and its greatest general had been defeated and were offered generous and honorable terms of surrender. Lee, rejecting advice from some of his staff, wanted to ensure that his army did not melt away into the countryside to continue the war as guerrillas, helping immeasurably to heal the divisions of the country. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ...




See also

American Civil War - navigate through History:
Background & Theaters Key Campaigns Key Land Battles USA Leaders CSA Leaders See also

Prelude: Combatants United States of America Union Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000...

Combatants: The origins of the American Civil War lay in the complex issues of politics, competing understandings of federalism, slavery, expansionism, sectionalism, economics, modernization, states rights and competing nationalism of the Antebellum period. ... This is a timeline of significant events leading to the American Civil War. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... In a European context, the term Border states policy, and Border states in a specific sense, refer to attempts during the interbellum to unite the countries that had won their independence from Imperial Russia due to the Russian Revolution, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of Imperial...

Theaters: Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Navy Department Seal The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. ...

1862: Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military operations in the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War. ...

1863: The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, or the Second Bull Run Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, was a series of battles fought in September, 1862—Robert E. Lees first invasion of the North—during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Stones River Conflict American Civil War Date December 31, 1862 – January 3, 1863 Place Murfreesboro, Tennessee Result Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate Army withdrew The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from December...

1864: Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1863, showing Chancellorsville and the Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3) The Gettysburg Campaign was a series of battles fought in June and July, 1863, during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Hoovers Gap Conflict American Civil War Date June 24– 26, 1862 Place Bedford County, Tennessee and Rutherford County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Hoovers Gap was the principal battle fought in the Tullahoma Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ...

1865: The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ... Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee The Overland Campaign, or Grants Overland Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength average of 86,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 7,850 in the trenches (see main battle articles for further casualties) unknown The Siege of Petersburg (June 15, 1864 – April 2, 1865) was... The Franklin-Nashville Campaign, also known as Hoods Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles fought in the fall of 1864 in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War. ... Engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting Shermans March Shermans March to the Sea is the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign, conducted in late 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...

Military: Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... The Battles of the American Civil War can be organized in a variety of ways, including chronologically, alphabetically by state, by winner, by casualty statistics, etc. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta campaign fought during the American Civil War... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle of Bull... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run or... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 16,839 (1,574 killed, 9,554 wounded, 5,711 missing) 13,156 (1,683 killed, 9,277 wounded, 2,196 missing) The Battle of Chancellorsville was... The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (66,000) Casualties 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 soldiers 62,000 soldiers Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought February 12–16, 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Franklin II Conflict American Civil War Date November 30, 1864 Place Williamson County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Franklin was a major engagement of the American Civil War fought at Franklin, Tennessee on November 30, 1864. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 83,289 75,054 Casualties 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing) 28,000 (3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing) The Battle of Gettysburg... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George H. Thomas John Bell Hood Strength IV Corps, XXIII Corps, detachment of Army of the Tennessee, provisional detachment, and Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,900 approximately 13,000 The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle... The Battle of Perryville was an important but largely neglected encounter in the American Civil War. ... Troops in the Siege of Petersburg faced the usual siege armaments — projectiles of all shapes and sizes and attacks on fortifications — but the Union added underground explosives to the mix. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 120,000 60,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength Army of the Tennessee Army of Vicksburg Casualties 10,142 9,091 The Battle of Vicksburg or Siege of Vicksburg was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 soldiers 61,025 soldiers Casualties 18,400 11,400 The Battle of the Wilderness was the first battle of Lieut. ...

Political: Don Carlos Buell ( 23 March 1818- 19 November 1898) was an American assistant adjutant general who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... Andrew Hull Foote Andrew Hull Foote (September 12, 1806 – June 26, 1863) was an admiral in the United States Navy who served during the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general, second commander of the Army of the Potomac, and the General-in-Chief of the Union Army during the first years of the American Civil War. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... There have been at several notable men named John Pope: John Pope, (1770-1845), U.S. politician, Senator for Kentucky, Governor of Arkansas Territory John Pope, (1822-1892), U.S. Soldier, Union General in the Civil War John Pope, (born c. ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War Vice Admiral David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States naval officer who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ...

Military: Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed the Rail Splitter, Honest Abe and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ...

Political: Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ...

More information on American Civil War:

 American Civil War from Wiktionary
 ACW Textbooks from Wikibooks
 ACW Quotations from Wikiquote
 ACW Source texts from Wikisource
 ACW Images and media from Commons
 ACW News stories from Wikinews
For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Judah P. Benjamin Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 - May 6, 1884) was a British-American politician and lawyer, who served as a representative in the Louisiana State Legislature, as U.S. Senator for Louisiana, in three successive cabinet posts in the government of the Confederate States of America, and... This is a list of topics relating to the American Civil War. ... The American Civil War has been known by numerous alternative names that reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different groups and regions. ... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... Field Artillery played a crucial role in the American Civil War. ... Naval battles of the American Civil War were a common occurrence just as they are with many wars. ... Two photographers having lunch in the Bull Run area before the second battle, 1862. ... The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

Notes

  1.   U.S. National Park Service, Civil War Battle Studies by Campaign

The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...

References

  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Fuller, Maj. Gen. J. F. C., The Generalship of Ulysses S. Grant, Da Capo Press, 1929, ISBN 0-306-80450-6.
  • Hattaway, Herman, and Jones, Archer, How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War, University of Illinois Press, 1983, ISBN 0-252-00918-5.
  • Kennedy, Frances H., Ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6.

J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ...

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