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Encyclopedia > Eastern Rite Catholic churches
Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Holy Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
Holy Bible · Christian Theology
New Covenant · Supersessionism
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History of Christianity · Timeline Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... The Twelve Apostles (, apostolos, Liddell & Scott, Strongs G652, someone sent forth/sent out) were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the disciples (students) of Jesus for a mission. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. ... The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. ...

Holy Bible
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Decalogue · Sermon on the Mount
Birth · Resurrection · Great Commission
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Hermeneutics · LXX · English Translation Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Death of Jesus and the Resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... The biblical canon is a list of books written during the formative periods of the Jewish or Christian faiths. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Launcelot Lee Brentons English translation. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ...

Christian Theology
History of Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
Grace · Faith · Justification · Salvation
Sanctification · Theosis · Worship
Church · Sacraments · Future This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and gods. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys fall from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the existence of God, who created the universe. ... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis, meaning divinization (or deification or, to become god), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Catholic belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

History and Traditions
Early · Councils · Creeds · Missions
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Fourth-century inscription, representing Christ as the Good Shepherd. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... A Christian mission has been widely defined, since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, as that which is designed to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Reformation redirects here. ...


Eastern Christianity
Eastern Orthodoxy · Oriental Orthodoxy
Syriac Christianity · Eastern Catholicism
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ...


Western Christianity
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Evangelicalism · Baptist · Methodism
Restorationism · Liberalism · Adventism
Fundamentalism · Pentecostalism
Western Christianity comprises Catholicism, Anglicanism, Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups within Christianity, whose beliefs are centered on Jesus. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers [1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches (a loosely affiliated group of... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to religious practices and traditions which are found in conservative, almost always Protestant Christianity. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity that may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ...


Topics in Christianity
Denominations · Movements · Ecumenism
Preaching · Prayer · Music
Liturgy · Calendar · Symbols · Art A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ...

Important Figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe
Luther · Calvin · Wesley
Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The (Early) Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... This article covers the events of, reaction to, and historical legacy of Roman Emperor Constantine Is promotion, legitimization, and conversion to Christianity. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703–March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ...

Christianity Portal

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The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome. Distinct from the Western or Latin Church, these Churches worship according to Eastern Christian liturgical rites. Historically, these Churches were located in Eastern Europe, the Asian Middle East, Northern Africa and India, but are now also found in many parts of the world, with most of them having ecclesiastical structures, alongside Latin dioceses, in North and South America and in Australia. A Particular Church , in Roman Catholic theology and canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with the Church of Rome and thus make up the Catholic Communion. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The terms Byzantine Catholics and Greek Catholic are used of those who belong to Churches which use the Byzantine liturgical rite. The terms Oriental Catholic and Eastern Catholic includes these but is not limited to those in the Byzantine liturgical tradition but also includes Catholics which follow the Alexandrian, Antiochian, Armenian and Chaldean liturgical traditions. Most Eastern Catholic Churches have counterparts in other Eastern Churches: the Assyrian, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches. The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ...


While Eastern Catholics are Catholics in communion with the Pope, they are not Roman Catholics, as they trace their origins to Eastern liturgical traditions rather than to the Western (Roman, Gallican, Mozarabic) liturgical tradition, and they do not refer to themselves as Roman Catholics.[citation needed] However, they are part of the same Roman Catholic Church, no less than Latin Catholics are.[1] The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Gallican Rite is a historical sub-grouping of Christianity in western Europe; it is not a single rite but actually a family of rites within the Western Rite which comprised the majority use of most of Christianity in western Europe for the greater part of the 1st millennium AD... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... Latin liturgical rites used within that area of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin language once dominated (the Latin Rite or Western Catholic Church) were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ...

Contents

Juridical status

The term Eastern Catholic Churches refers to the 22 of the 23 autonomous particular Churches in communion with the Pope of Rome. These Churches follow different Eastern Christian liturgical traditions: Alexandrian, Antiochian, Armenian, Byzantine and Chaldean. Canonically, each Eastern Catholic Church is sui iuris or autonomous with respect to other Catholic Churches, whether Eastern or Latin, though all accept the spiritual and juridical authority of the Pope. Thus a Maronite Catholic is normally subject only to a Maronite bishop, not, for example to a Ukrainian or Latin Catholic bishop. However, if in a country the members of some particular Church are so few that no hierarchy of their own has been established there, their spiritual care is entrusted to a bishop of another ritual Church. This holds also for Latin Catholics: in Eritrea, they are placed in the care of bishops of the Ethiopic Catholic Church. Theologically, all the particular Churches can be viewed as "sister churches."[2] According to the Second Vatican Council these Eastern Churches, along with the larger Latin Church share "equal dignity, so that none of them is superior to the others as regards rite and they enjoy the same rights and are under the same obligations, also in respect of preaching the Gospel to the whole world (cf. Mark 16:15) under the guidance of the Roman Pontiff."[3] The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The east Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... Sui iuris is a Latin phrase that literally means “of one’s own right”. It is usually spelled sui juris in civil law, which uses the phrase to indicate legal competence, the capacity to manage one’s own affairs (Blacks Law Dictionary, Oxford English Dictionary). ... The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a sui iuris particular Catholic and Orthodox Church in full communion with the Holy See and of the Alexandrian, or Coptic, Rite. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ...


The Eastern Catholic Churches are in full communion of faith and of acceptance of authority of the see of Rome, but retain their distinctive liturgical rites, laws and customs, traditional devotions and have their own theological emphases. Terminology may vary: for instance, diocese and eparchy, vicar general and protosyncellus, confirmation and chrismation are respectively Western and Eastern terms for the same realities. The sacraments ("mysteries") of baptism and chrismation are generally administered, according to the ancient tradition of the Church, one immediately after the other. Infants who are baptized and chrismated are also given the Eucharist.[4] The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... For the death metal band from Sweden, see Eucharist (band) The Eucharist (or Communion or The Lords Supper etc. ...


Terminology

Part of the series on
Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity Portal

History
Byzantine Empire
Crusades
Ecumenical council
Great Schism
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Image File history File links HY002563. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ...

Traditions
Assyrian Church of the East
Oriental Orthodoxy
Syriac Christianity
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the...

Liturgy and Worship
Divine Liturgy
Iconography
The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Iconography usually refers to the design or creation of images and more specifically to the historical study of art which aims at the identification, description and the interpretation of the content of images. ...

Theology
Apophaticism - Filioque clause
Miaphysitism - Monophysitism
Nestorianism - Panentheism
Theosis Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Panentheism (from Greek: πάν (‘pan’ ) = all, en = in, and theos = God; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis, meaning divinization (or deification or, to become god), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...

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The term "rite"

The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches defines the terms autonomous Church and rite: "A group of Christian faithful linked in accordance with the law by a hierarchy and expressly or tacitly recognized by the supreme authority of the Church as autonomous is in this Code called an autonomous Church" (canon 27);[5] and "1. A rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its own manner of living the faith is manifested in each autonomous [sui iuris] Church. 2. The rites treated in this code, unless otherwise stated, are those which arise from the Alexandrian, Antiochene, Armenian, Chaldean and Constantinopolitan traditions" (canon 28)[6] In the past, the Eastern Catholic Churches have sometimes been referred to as "Eastern Rites." The Second Vatican Council spoke of them as "particular Churches or rites."[7] The older Latin Code of Canon Law, when speaking of the Eastern Churches, uses the terms "ritual Church"or "ritual Church sui iuris" (canons 111 and 112), and also speaks of "a subject of an Eastern rite"(canon 1015 §2), "Ordinaries of another rite" (canon 450 §1), "the faithful of a specific rite" (canon 476), etc. The use of the term "rite" to refer to the Eastern Churches, and the Western, has now become rare, however. A publication of the National Catholic Council of Catholic Bishops explains: "We have been accustomed to speaking of the Latin (Roman or Western) Rite or the Eastern Rites to designate these different Churches. However, the Church's contemporary legislation as contained in the Code of Canon Law and the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches makes it clear that we ought to speak, not of rites, but of Churches. Canon 112 of the Code of Canon Law uses the phrase 'autonomous ritual Churches' to designate the various Churches." [8] Another publication explains: "The Eastern Churches are still mistakenly called 'Eastern-rite' Churches, a reference to their various liturgical histories. They are most properly called Eastern Churches, or Eastern Catholic Churches."[9]


Care must indeed be taken to distinguish differing meanings of the word "rite." Apart from its reference to the patrimony of a particular Church, the word has been and sometimes, even if rarely, is still used of the particular Church itself. Thus, the term Latin rite can refer either to the Latin Church or to one or more of the Latin liturgical rites, which include the majority Roman Rite, but also the Ambrosian Rite, the Mozarabic Rite, and others. Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ... Latin liturgical rites used within that area of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin language once dominated (the Latin Rite or Western Catholic Church) were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ...


The term "Uniate"

The term Uniat or Uniate is applied to Eastern Catholics primarily by Eastern Orthodox, who sometimes give it pejorative overtones.[10] The term was also historically used, though less frequently, by Latin and Eastern Catholics, especially prior to the Second Vatican Council. [11] Official Catholic documents no longer use the term, due to its perceived negative overtones.[12] According to Eastern Orthodox Professor John Erickson of St Vladimir's Theological Seminary, "The term 'uniate' itself, once used with pride in the Roman communion, had long since come to be considered as pejorative. 'Eastern Rite Catholic' also was no longer in vogue because it might suggest that the Catholics in question differed from Latins only in the externals of worship. The Second Vatican Council affirmed rather that Eastern Catholics constituted churches, whose vocation was to provide a bridge to the separated churches of the East…"[13] A word or phrase is pejorative if it implies contempt or disapproval. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


Eastern and Western (Latin) Catholics

The domes of a Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania
The domes of a Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania

Most Eastern Catholic Churches arose when a group within an ancient Christian Church that was in disagreement with the see of Rome chose to enter into full communion with that see. However, the Maronite Church boasts of never having been separated from Rome, and has no counterpart Orthodox Church out of communion with the Pope. It is therefore inaccurate to refer to it as a "Uniate" Church. The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church has also never been out of communion with Rome, but, unlike the Maronite Church, it uses a liturgical rite, the Byzantine Rite, that originated in Constantinople and that is used by all the Churches that compose the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Syro-Malabar Church, based in Kerala,(India), also claims never to have been knowingly out of communion with Rome. Other Christians of Kerala, who were originally of the same East-Syrian tradition, passed instead to the West-Syrian tradition and now form part of Oriental Orthodoxy. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (596x794, 70 KB) Summary Copyright © 2005 by Andrew Stephen Damick Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (596x794, 70 KB) Summary Copyright © 2005 by Andrew Stephen Damick Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... Maronites (الموارنة) are Eastern Rite Catholics. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ...   (IPA: ; ) is a state on the Western Coast of south-western India. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ...


The canon law that the Eastern Catholic Churches have in common has been codified in the 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, while the Western or Latin particular Church is governed by the Code of Canon Law, a second edition of which was issued in 1983. Within the Roman Curia, the dicastery that works with the Eastern Catholic Churches is the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, which, by law, includes as members all Eastern Catholic patriarchs and major archbishops. The Roman Curia - usually (but simplistically) called the Vatican - is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Dicasteries (from Greek: δικαστ, judge/juror) are the central offices of the Roman Curia in which the stewardship of the Roman Catholic Church is entrusted. ... The Congregation for the Oriental Churches (Congregatio pro Ecclesiis Orientalibus) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for contact with the Oriental Catholic Churches for the sake of assisting their development, protecting their rights and also maintaining whole and entire in the one Catholic Church, alongside the liturgical, disciplinary...


All Catholics are subject to the bishop of the eparchy or diocese (the local particular Church) to which they belong. They are also subject directly to the Pope, as is stated in canon 43 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches and canon 331 of the Code of Canon Law. Most, but not all, Eastern Catholics are also directly subject to a patriarch, major archbishop, or metropolitan who has authority for all the bishops and the other faithful of his Rite or autonomous particular Church (canons 56 and 151 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches). Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a major archbishop is an Eastern Rite hierarch who has the same jurisdiction in his sui juris particular church that an Eastern rite patriarch does, but whose episcopal see is less prestigious than a patriarchal see. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, whose incumbent is usually called simply a metropolitan, apertains to the bishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... A Particular Church , in Roman Catholic theology and canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with the Church of Rome and thus make up the Catholic Communion. ...


The distinction between autonomous (sui iuris) particular Churches (cf. Second Vatican Council: Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 2),[2] and non-autonomous "particular or local Churches (cf. Second Vatican Council, Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church Christus Dominus, 11)[3] is dealt with more fully in the article Particular Church. A Particular Church , in Roman Catholic theology and canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with the Church of Rome and thus make up the Catholic Communion. ...


The Catholic patriarchs and major archbishops derive their titles from the sees of Alexandria (Copts), Antioch (Syrians, Melkites, Maronites), Babylonia (Chaldaeans), Cilicia (Armenians), Kyiv-Halyč (Ukrainians), Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabars), Trivandrum (Syro-Malankaras), and Făgăraş-Alba Iulia (Romanians). This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... The skyline of Ernakaulam Ernakulam (Malayalam : എറണാകുളം ) refers to the western part of the mainland of Kochi city in Kerala, India. ... Angamaly (Malayalam: ) is a rapidly growing town in Ernakulam district of Kerala, south India, famous as the intersection of Main central road and National Highway 47. ... Indian Coffee House Thiruvananthapuram or Thiruvanathapuram (formerly known as Trivandrum) is the capital (population - 889,191 (2001)) of the state of Kerala, India. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... County BraÅŸov County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Barbuti, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 40,126 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafeh r, German: Karlsburg) is a city in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,369, located on the Mureş river. ...


(Within the Latin Church, there are the titles of Patriarch of Jerusalem, Lisbon, Venice, East Indies and West Indies. All except the first — the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem — are merely honorary titles, and the last has fallen into disuse. They are irrelevant to the subject matter of this article.) The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ... The Patriarch of Lisbon is one of the few western Patriarchs in the Roman Catholic Church, an honorary title without actual authority except for the Patriarch of Rome, as Pope. ... Among the Patriarchates in the West, the Pope, as Bishop of Rome is the only truly independent Patriarch. ... The Patriarch of the East Indies in the Catholic hierarchy is the title of the Archbishop of Goa and Damao in India; another title of his is that of the Primate of the East. ... The Patriarch of the West Indies is the leader of one of the Latin Rite Patriarchates of the Roman Catholic hierarchy. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ...


Historical background

An Eastern Catholic cemetery in northeastern Pennsylvania, where many Eastern Catholics settled in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
An Eastern Catholic cemetery in northeastern Pennsylvania, where many Eastern Catholics settled in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

Communion between Christian Churches has been broken over matters of faith, when each side accused the other of heresy or departure from the true faith (orthodoxy). Communion has been broken also because of disputes that do not involve matters of faith, as when there is disagreement about questions of authority or the legitimacy of the election of a particular bishop. In these latter cases, each side accuses the other of schism, but not of heresy. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 338 KB) Summary Copyright © 2005 by Andrew Stephen Damick Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 338 KB) Summary Copyright © 2005 by Andrew Stephen Damick Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching, glorification), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ...


Major breaches of communion:

  1. The Churches that accepted the teaching of the 431 Council of Ephesus, which condemned the views of Nestorius, classified those who rejected the Council's teaching as heretics. Those who accepted it lived mostly in the Roman Empire and classified themselves as orthodox; they considered the others, who lived mainly under Persian rule, as Nestorian heretics. These had a period of great expansion in Asia. Monuments of their presence still exist in China. Now they are relatively few in numbers and are divided into three Churches, of which the Chaldaean Church, which is in communion with Rome, is the most numerous, while the others have recently split between the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East.
  2. Those who accepted the 451 Council of Chalcedon similarly classified those who rejected it as Monophysite heretics. The Churches that refused to accept the Council considered instead that it was they who were orthodox. The six present-day Churches that continue their tradition reject the description Monophysite, preferring instead Miaphysite. They are often called, in English, Oriental Orthodox Churches, to distinguish them from the Eastern Orthodox Churches. This distinction, by which the words oriental and eastern, words that in themselves have exactly the same meaning, are used as labels for two different realities, is impossible in most other languages and is not universally accepted even in English. These churches are also referred to as pre-Chalcedonian or, now more rarely, as non-Chalcedonian or anti-Chalcedonian. In languages other than English, other means are used to distinguish the two families of Churches. Some reserve the term "Orthodox" for those that are here called "Eastern Orthodox" Churches, but members of what are then called "Oriental/Eastern Orthodox" Churches consider this unfair.
  3. The East-West Schism between Rome and New Rome (Constantinople) arose over questions of authority, and was led up to by rivalry and by cultural differences (Greek was scarcely known any longer in the West and Latin in the East), not questions of doctrine, though controversy later arose over several matters such as the Western insertion of the Filioque clause in the Nicene Creed, the use of leavened or unleavened bread for the Eucharist, and discipline concerning marriage/divorce. Each side considered that the other no longer belonged to the Church that was orthodox and catholic. But with the passage of centuries, it became customary to refer to the Eastern side as the Orthodox Church and the Western as the Catholic Church, without either side thereby renouncing its claim to be the truly orthodox or the truly catholic Church. The Churches that sided with Constantinople are known collectively as the Eastern Orthodox Churches.

In each Church whose communion with the Church of Rome was broken by these three divisions, there arose, at various times, a group that considered it important to restore that communion. The see of Rome accepted them as they were: there was no question of requiring them to adopt the customs of the Latin Church. The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... The Ancient Church of the East is an offshoot of the Assyrian Church of the East which organized in 1968 in protest against hereditary succession of bishops and against calendar changes. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... Map of Constantinople. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... For the death metal band from Sweden, see Eucharist (band) The Eucharist (or Communion or The Lords Supper etc. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the...


At a meeting in Balamand, Lebanon in June 1993, the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church declared that these initiatives that "led to the union of certain communities with the See of Rome and brought with them, as a consequence, the breaking of communion with their Mother Churches of the East ... took place not without the interference of extra-ecclesial interests" (section 8 of the document); and that what has been called "uniatism" "can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking" (section 12). The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ...


At the same time, the Commission stated:

  • 3) Concerning the Eastern Catholic Churches, it is clear that they, as part of the Catholic Communion, have the right to exist and to act in response to the spiritual needs of their faithful.
  • 16) The Oriental Catholic Churches who have desired to re-establish full communion with the See of Rome and have remained faithful to it, have the rights and obligations which are connected with this communion.

As remarked earlier, the identity of the Maronite Church and of the Syro-Malabar Church is due to no such division within an Eastern Church.


Eastern Catholic Churches make up 2% of the membership of the Catholic Church, and less than 10% of all Eastern Christians.


List of Eastern Catholic Churches

The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio gives the following list of Eastern Catholic Churches and of countries (or other political areas) in which they possess an episcopal ecclesiastical jurisdiction (date of reunion in parenthesis): The Annuario Pontificio or Pontifical Yearbook is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

As is obvious from the above list, an individual autonomous particular Church may have distinct jurisdictions (local particular Churches) in several countries. The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... Maronites (الموارنة) are Eastern Rite Catholics. ... The Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant in full communion with the pope having practices and rites in common with the Jacobites. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... The east Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church is an autonomous Byzantine Rite particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church, whose members lives in Albania, and is not to be confused with the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church. ... The Belarusian Greek Catholic Church (Belaruskaya Hreka-Katalickaya Carkva, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Belarusian Byzantine Catholic Church, is the heir within Belarus of the Union of Brest. ... The Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church. ... The Eparchy of Križevci is the eparchy comprising the Croatian Byzantine Catholic Church, a Catholic Church sui iuris [1] of the Byzantine Eastern Rite. ... The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church is a particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Greek language. ... The Hungarian Greek Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church that uses Hungarian in the liturgy. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, called the Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular church within Roman Catholic Church and uses Macedonian in the liturgy. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: ‎, ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... The Russian Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Church. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Slovak Greek Catholic Church, or Slovak Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ...


The Ruthenian Catholic Church is organized in an exceptional way because of a constituent metropolia, the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh, which is referred to also, but not officially, as the Byzantine Catholic Church in America. Canon law treats it as if it held the rank of an autonomous ("sui iuris") metropolitan particular Church because of the circumstances surrounding its 1969 erection as an ecclesiastical province.
The Byzantine Catholic Metropolia of Pittsburgh is a Byzantine Rite autonomous jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church, originally serving members of the Ruthenian Catholic Church and their decendants in the United States. ...


At that time, conditions in the Rusyn homeland, known as Carpatho-Rus, admitted no other solution because the Byzantine Catholic Church had been forcibly suppressed by the Soviet authorities. When Communist rule ended, the Eparchy of Mukacheve (founded in 1771) re-emerged.
Rusyn can refer to: Rusyns Rusyn language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


It has some 320,000 adherents, greater than the number in the Pittsburgh metropolia. In addition, an apostolic exarchate established in 1996 for Catholics of Byzantine rite in the Czech Republic is classed as another part of the Ruthenian Catholic Church.


On an EWTN website the Apostolic Exarchate for Byzantine-rite Catholics in the Czech Republic is mentioned in a list of Eastern Churches, of which all the rest are autonomous particular Churches. This appears to be a mistake, since recognition within the Catholic Church of the autonomous status of a particular Church can only be granted by the Holy See (cf. canon 27 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches), which instead classifies this Church as one of the constituent local particular Churches of the autonomous (sui iuris) Ruthenian Catholic Church.


Byzantine-rite Catholics of Georgian nationality or descent

Main article: Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics

Some have treated Byzantine-rite Catholics within the Georgian Catholic Church as a separate particular Church with a reunion date of either 1861 or 1917. Stating that, in the 1930s, they had an Exarch, two interrelated websites,[3] [4] which misname him as Fr. Shio Batmanishviii, thus implicitly claim that Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics had by then been formed into an apostolic exarchate. Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics (Catholics of Georgian nationality or origin who are of Byzantine or Greek rite) are estimated at only 500 worldwide. ...


The book, The Forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet Union Empire from Lenin through Stalin, by Father Christopher Zugger (Syracuse University Press 2001) states: "By 1936, the Byzantine Catholic Church of Georgia had two communities, served by a bishop and four priests, with 8,000 believers", and identifies the bishop as Shio Batmalashvili (pages 224 and following).


These sources thus claim that a Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholic Church existed, even if only as a local particular Church. However, since the establishment of a new hierarchical jurisdiction must be published in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, and no mention of the erection of such a jurisdiction for Byzantine Georgian Catholics exists in that official gazette of the Holy See, the claim appears to be unfounded.


Until 1994, the annual publication Catholic Almanac used to go further, listing "Georgian" among the Byzantine Rites or autonomous particular Churches. Until corrected in 1995, it appears to have been making a mistake similar to that which the equally unofficial EWTN site is now making about the Czech Byzantine-rite Catholics.


Since the Annuario Pontificio of the 1930s does not mention Shio Batmalashvili, he may have been one of the priests secretly ordained bishops of titular sees for the service of the Church in the Soviet Union by French Jesuit Bishop Michel d'Herbigny, who was head of the Pontifical Commission "Pro Russia" from 1925 to 1934. Rather than exarch of a Georgian Byzantine exarchy, he will then have been apostolic administrator of the whole of the Latin diocese of Tiraspol, to which Georgian Catholics even of Byzantine rite belonged (cf. Oriente Cattolico (1974), page 194).


In the circumstances then prevailing, the Holy See would have been incapable of and would not even have thought of setting up new dioceses or exarchates within the Soviet Union, especially not of Byzantine rite, since Byzantine-rite Catholics were being forced to become officially members of the Russian Orthodox Church. The Russian Orthodox Church (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


There was also a short-lived Byzantine Catholic movement among the ethnic Estonians in the Orthodox Church in Estonia during the inter-war period of the twentieth century, consisting of two to three parishes. This group was liquidated by the Soviet regime and is now extinct.


Biritualism

Catholic clergy are obliged to celebrate the sacraments according to their own rites.[14] Some may be given permission to celebrate the liturgy of another rite. Thus a priest of one Eastern Rite may be authorized to say Mass occasionally or even habitually according to another rite, Eastern or Western, whose faithful he serves, and a Roman-Rite priests may be authorized similarly to use an Eastern rite. Biritual permission, when given, is usually limited to one specific rite in addition to the priest's native rite.


One exception is that if a priest is ordained in a Rite in which he was not baptised, and a change-of-rite or act-of-accommodation was not performed, then he may celebrate his native and adopted Rites freely, as one is always allowed to celebrate in the Rite in which one was baptised without serious exception.[citation needed]


The Pope, as head of all the Churches, can and does say Mass according to any rite. For a just cause and with the permission of the local bishop, priests of different rites may freely concelebrate Mass together, following faithfully the rite of the principal celebrant and preferably wearing the vestments of their own rite.[15]


Clerical celibacy

Eastern and Western Christian churches have different traditions concerning clerical celibacy. These differences and the resulting controversies have played a role in the relationship between the two groups in some Western countries. Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ...


Most Eastern Churches distinguish between "monastic" and "non-monastic" clergy. Monastics do not necessarily live as monks or in monasteries, but have spent at least part of their period of training in such a context. Their monastic vows include a vow of celibate chastity.


Bishops are normally selected from the monastic clergy, and in most Eastern Churches a large percentage of priests and deacons also are celibate, while a portion of the clergy (typically, parish priests) may be married. If a future priest or deacon is to be married, his marriage must take place before ordination to the diaconate. While in some countries the marriage continues usually to be arranged by the families, cultural changes sometimes make it difficult for such seminarians to find women prepared to be the wife of a priest, necessitating a hiatus in their studies.


In countries where Eastern traditions prevail among Christians, a married clergy caused little controversy; but it aroused opposition in other countries to which Eastern Catholics immigrated. In response to requests from the Latin bishops of those countries, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith set out rules in a letter of 2 May 1890 to the Archbishop of Paris,[16] which the Congregation applied on 1 May 1897 to the United States,[17] stating that only celibates or widowed priests coming without their children should be permitted in the United States. This rule was restated with special reference to Catholics of Ruthenian Rite by the 1 March 1929 decree Cum data fuerit, which was renewed for a further ten years in 1939. Dissatisfaction by many Ruthenian Catholics in the United States gave rise to the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese. The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, North facade on Piazza di Spagna by architect Bernini, the southwest facade seen here by Borromini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761 [1] The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsibile for... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese is a diocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate with about 75 parishes in the United States and Canada, led by Metropolitan Nicholas (Smisko) of Amissos. ...


Some Eastern Catholic Churches have decided to adopt mandatory clerical celibacy, as in the Latin Church. They include the Syriac Catholic Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church and the Ethiopic Catholic Church. The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ...


See also

The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of the newly... Leo Allatius (circa 1586 - January 19, 1669) was an energetic Greek Catholic scholar and theologian. ...

References

  1. ^ In the papal encyclicals Divini illius Magistri and Humani generis the term "Roman Catholic Church" refers to the whole Church in communion with the see of Rome, including Eastern Catholics. It is repeatedly used in this sense in official documents concerning dialogue between the Church as a whole (not just the Western part) and groups outside her fold. Examples of such documents can be found at the links on the Vatican website under the heading Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. In fact, the Holy See never uses "Roman Catholic Church" to refer only to the Western or Latin Church. In the First Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution de fide catholica, the phrase the Holy, Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman Church (in Latin, Sancta catholica apostolica Romana ecclesia) also refers to something other than the Latin-Rite or Western Church. It has been said of the Eastern Catholics of the Maronite Church that, "surrounded by Mussulmans, schismatics, and heretics, they are proud to call themselves Roman Catholics."[1]
  2. ^ "Note on the Expression Sister Churches", Section 11. Available online at: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20000630_chiese-sorelle_en.html
  3. ^ Decree on the Eastern Catholic Churches, Section 3
  4. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church Section 1233
  5. ^ Canon 27 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches In the original Latin the word for autonomous is "sui iuris": Coetus christifidelium hierarchia ad normam iuris iunctus, quem ut sui iuris expresse vel tacite agnoscit suprema Ecclesiae auctoritas, vocatur in hoc Codice Ecclesia sui iuris
  6. ^ Canon 28 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
  7. ^ Second Vatican Council’s Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches Orientalium Ecclesiarum, section 2
  8. ^ Eastern Catholics in the United States of America available from the NCCB at: http://www.usccbpublishing.org/productdetails.cfm?sku=5-287&disccode=sum0625
  9. ^ Catholic Update: What All Catholics Should Know About Eastern Catholic Churches
  10. ^ See "The Word 'Uniate'" from www.oca.org
  11. ^ The term was used by the Holy See (e.g., in the Ex Quo of Pope Benedict XIV). Available online at: http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/pope0247m.htm. The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) consistently used the term "Uniat" to refer to Eastern Catholics, stating: "The Uniat Church is therefore really synonymous with Eastern Churches united to Rome, and Uniats is synonymous with Eastern Christians united with Rome. Available online at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06752a.htm
  12. ^ "It should be mentioned that in the past the Eastern Catholic churches were often referred to as 'Uniate' churches. Since the term is now considered derogatory, it is no longer used." "The Catholic Eastern Churches" from the website of CNEWA: A Papal Agency for Humanitarian and Pastoral Support
  13. ^ ”Orthodoxy and Parallel Monologues” in the March 2002 issue of First Things
  14. ^ canon 40 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
  15. ^ canon 701 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
  16. ^ Acta Sanctae Sedis, vol. 1891/92, p.390
  17. ^ Collectanea No. 1966

The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 – May 3, 1758 in Rome), was Pope from 17 August 1740 to 3 May 1758. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eastern Rite - definition of Eastern Rite - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (780 words)
The Eastern Rites are the rites used by many of the ancient Christian churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that are in the Roman Catholic Church but do not follow the Latin Rite.
Latin-Rite Catholic bishops are subject directly to the Pope, but most Eastern-rite Catholic bishops are subject indirectly to the pope via one of six Catholic "patriarchs of the east", who sit in Alexandria, Antioch, Antelias, Baghdad, Beirut, and Damascus but who acknowledge the primacy of the Pope.
According to Catholic Tradition, the Catholic Church, in the fullest meaning of the term, includes apostolic churches (those having their authority handed down by the apostles) who are in communion with the Bishop of Rome (the Pope).
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches (12187 words)
Eastern Churches depend originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople; they are those that either find their centre in the patriarchate of that city (since the centralization of the fourth century) or have been formed by schisms which in the first instance concerned Constantinople rather than the Western world.
Eastern Church, 326); the ludicrous scandal at Monastir, in Macedonia, when they fought over a dead man's body and set the whole town ablaze because some wanted him to be buried in Greek and some in Rumanian (op.
In 1853 the Catholic Rumanians were given a bishop of their own Rite, and in the Allocution made on that occasion, as well as in the one to the Armenians on 2 February, 1854, he again insists on the same principle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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