The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jėn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. The dynasty was founded by the Sima family, 司馬 pinyin Sīmǎ.
The first of the two periods, the Western Jin Dynasty (ch. 西晉, 265-316), was founded by Emperor Wu. Although providing a brief period of unity after conquering the Kingdom of Wu in AD 280, the Jin could not contain the invasion and uprising of nomadic peoples after the devastating War of the Eight Princes. The capital was Luoyang until 311 when Emperor Huai was captured by the forces of Han Zhao. Successive reign of Emperor Min lasted four years in Chang'an until its conquest by Former Zhao in 316.
Meanwhile remnants of the Jin court fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court at Jiankang, which was located south-eastward of Luoyang and Chang'an and near modern-day Nanjing, under Prince of Longya. Prominent local families of Zhu, Gan, Lu, Gu and Zhou supported the proclamation of Prince of Longya as Emperor Yuan of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (ch. 東晉 317-420) when the news of the fall of Chang'an reached the south.
Militaristic authorities and crises plagued the Eastern Jin court throughout its 104 years of existence. It survived the rebellions of Wang Dun and Su Jun. Huan Wen died in 373 before proclaiming himself emperor. Battle of Fei turned out to be a victory of Jin under a short-lived cooperation of Huan Chong, brother of Huan Wen and the Prime Minister (or Imperial Secretariat) Xie An. Huan Xuan, son of Huan Wen, usurped and changed the name of the dynasty to Chu. He was toppled by Liu Yu, who ordered the hanging of the reinstated but retarded Emperor An. The last emperor and brother of Emperor An, Emperor Gong, was installed in 419. Abdication of Emperor Gong in 420 in favor of Liu Yu, then Emperor Wu, ushered in the Song Dynasty and the Southern Dynasties.
Meanwhile North China was ruled by the Sixteen Kingdoms, many of which were founded by the Wu Hu, the non-Han Chinese ethnicities. The conquest of the Northern Liang by the Northern Wei Dynasty in 439 ushered in the Northern Dynasties.
Sovereigns of Jin Dynasty
|Posthumous names ||Family name and given names ||Durations of reigns ||Era names and their according range of years |
|Chinese convention: "Jin" + posthumous name + "di" |
|Western Jin Dynasty 265-316 |
|Wu ||Sima Yan ||265-290 ||Taishi 265-274 |
Taixi January 28, 290-May 17, 290
|Hui ||Sima Zhong ||290-307 ||Yongxi May 17, 290-February 15, 291 |
Yongping February 16-April 23, 291
Yuankang April 24, 291-February 6, 300
Yongkang February 7, 300-February 3, 301
Yongning June 1, 301-January 4, 303
Taian January 5, 303-February 21, 304
Yongan February 22-August 15, 304; December 25, 304-February 3, 305
Jianwu August 16-December 24, 304
Yongxing February 4, 305-July 12, 306
Guangxi July 13, 306-February 19, 307
|unknown ||Sima Lun ||301 ||Jianshi February 3-June 1, 301 |
|Huai ||Sima Chi ||307-311 ||Yongjia 307-313 |
|Min ||Sima Ye ||313-316 ||Jianxing 313-317 |
|Eastern Jin Dynasty 317-420 |
|Yuan ||Sima Rui ||317-323 ||Jianwu 317-318 |
|Ming ||Sima Shao ||323-325 ||Taining 323-326 |
|Cheng ||Sima Yan ||325-342 ||Xianhe 326-335 |
|Kang ||Sima Yue ||342-344 ||Jianyuan 343-344 |
|Mu ||Sima Dan ||344-361 ||Yonghe 345-357 |
|Ai ||Sima Pi ||361-365 ||Longhe 362-363 |
|Fei ||Sima Yi ||365-372 ||Taihe 365-372 |
|Jianwen ||Sima Yu ||372 ||Xianan 372-373 |
|Xiaowu ||Sima Yao ||372-396 ||Ningkang 373-375 |
|An ||Sima Dezong ||396-419 ||Longan 397-402 |
|Gong ||Sima Dewen ||419-420 ||Yuanxi 419-420 |