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Encyclopedia > Eastern Front (World War II)
Eastern Front
Part of World War II
Date 1941–1945
Location Central and Eastern Europe
Result Decisive Soviet victory
Belligerents
Soviet Union[1]

Polish Secret State
Polish Committee of National Liberation
Finland (from 1944)
Romania (from 1944)
Bulgaria (from 1944)
Czechoslovak Republic Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.svg‎ pl: Flaga Armi Krajowej en: Flag of the Armia Krajowa File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polish contribution to World War II Armia Krajowa History of Poland (1939–1945... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... A propaganda photo of a citizen reading the PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was the provisional Communist Polish government created under the direction and auspices of Moscow. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bulgarian_Homeland_Front. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Flag of Yugoslavia Yugoslav partisans Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski...

Flag of Germany Germany[2]

Finland (to 1944)
Romania (to 1944)
Flag of Italy Italy (to 1943)
Hungary
Slovakia
Croatia
Bulgaria (September 5-8, 1944)
Volunteers Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_First_Slovak_Republic_1939-1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Eastern front Battles Military operations Commanders Technology Atlas of the World Battle Fronts Manhattan project Aerial warfare Home front Collaboration Resistance Aftermath Casualties Further effects War crimes Consequences of Nazism Depictions During World War II Nazi Germany occupied all or parts of the...

Commanders
Joseph Stalin

Aleksei Antonov
Nikandr Chibisov
Ivan Konev
Rodion Malinovsky
Ivan Bagramyan
Ivan Fedyuninsky
Valerian Frolov
Vasiliy Gordov
Leonid Govorov
Mikhail Kirponos
Mikhail Khozin
Fyodor Kuznetsov
Ivan Maslennikov
Kirill Meretskov
Ivan Petrov
Markian Popov
Maxim Purkayev
Alexander Rodimtsev
Konstantin Rokossovsky
Pavel Rotmistrov
Vasiliy Sokolovsky
Semyon Timoshenko
Fyodor Tolbukhin
Aleksandr Vasilevsky
Nikolai Vatutin
Kliment Voroshilov
Andrei Yeremenko
Matvei Zakharov
Georgy Zhukov
Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski
Zygmunt Berling
Michał Żymierski
Karol Świerczewski
Ludvík Svoboda Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Russia-related stubs | People stubs | Military of the Soviet Union ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Russian: ) (28 December [O.S. 16 December] 1897 – May 21, 1973), was a Soviet military commander, who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, liberated much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hovhannes Khachatury Bagramyan (Armenian: ; Russian: ; December 2 [O.S. November 20] 1897 – September 21, 1982) was a Soviet Armenian military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ivan Ivanovich Fedyuninsky (Russian: Иван Иванович Федюнинский) (July 30, 1900 - October 17, 1977) was a Soviet military leader and Hero of the Soviet Union (1939). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov (Russian Леонид Александрович Говоров) (February 22, 1897 - March 19, 1955), Soviet military commander, was born in the village of Butyrki in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (January 12, 1892 — September 20, 1941) was a Ukrainian-born general of the Red Army. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fyodor Kuzetsov may refer to Fyodor Andreyevich Kuznetsov, physicist, academician, Soviet Union Fyodor Isodorovich Kuznetsov, military, Soviet Union Fyodor Fedotovich Kuznetsov, military, Soviet Union This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov (Russian: Кирилл Афанасьевич Мерецков) (June 7, 1897 - December 30, 1968) was a Soviet military commander. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ivan Petrov, a Soviet Army General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov (Russian: Иван Ефимович Петров; September 30, 1896, Trubchevsk — April 7, 1958, Moscow) was a Russian and Soviet commander, Army General from 1944. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Markian Mikhailovich Popov (Маркиан Михайлович Попов) (1902-1969) was a Soviet military commaner, Army General (1953), Hero of the Soviet Union (1965). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Maksim Alexeyevich Purkayev (Russian: ) (August 14(26), 1894, in the village Nalitovo, DubenskyUyezd, VolynskayaGuberniya of the Russian Empire (now Mordovia) - January 1, 1953, Moscow) was a Soviet military leader, reaching service rank of Army General. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alexander Rodimtsev Aleksandr Ilich Rodimtsev (1905 - 1977, Russian: Александр Ильич Родимцев) was a colonel general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1937, 1945). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskiy (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish: Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Chief Marshal of Armoured Troops Pavel Rotmistrov (Russian: ) (06 July 1901 – 06 April 1982) was a commander of armoured troops in the Red Army during and following World War II. // Pre-War Rotmistrov joined the Red Army in 1919, and served during the Russian Civil War when he was involved... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sokolowsky on a Soviet Postage stamp Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Василий Данилович Соколовский) (July 21, 1897 - May 10, 1968), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno, near BiaÅ‚ystok in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Fedor Tolbukhin Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (June 16, 1894 - October 17, 1949) (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Толбухин), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in the rural province of Yaroslavl, north-east of Moscow. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Russian: , September 30, 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Soviet military commander, promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... now. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...   (Russian: ), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Russian: ) (February 4 [O.S. January 23] 1881 – December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and politician. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, born in Markovka in the province of Kharkov in Ukraine to a peasant family. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Matvei Zakharov Matvei Vasilevich Zakharov (August 17, 1898- January 31, 1972) Marshal of the Soviet Union, Chief General Staff, Deputy Defense Minister, born in Kalinin (now Tver) northwest of Moscow, to peasant parents. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.svg‎ pl: Flaga Armi Krajowej en: Flag of the Armia Krajowa File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polish contribution to World War II Armia Krajowa History of Poland (1939–1945... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... General Zygmunt Berling Zygmunt Henryk Berling (27 April 1896 - 11 July 1980), Polish general and politician, best known as the commander of the 1st Polish Army during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... MichaÅ‚ Rola-Å»ymierski (Potsdam Conference, July 24, 1945) MichaÅ‚ Å»ymierski (true name MichaÅ‚ ŁyżwiÅ„ski, pseudonym Rola; 1890-1989) was an avowed communist, Polish military officer and communist regime Marshal of Poland since 1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Karol Åšwierczewski, Marian Spychalski and Michal Rola-Zymierski Karol Åšwierczewski, (callsign Walter) (22 February 1897 in Warsaw – 28 March 1947 at JabÅ‚onki near Baligród) was a military officer, general in service of Poland, Russia and Spain and a communist activist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Ludvík Svoboda Ludvík Svoboda (November 25, 1895 in Hroznatín, Moravia - September 20, 1979 in Prague) was a Czechoslovak national hero who fought in both World Wars and later the president of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. ...


Flag of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Tito redirects here. ...

Flag of Germany Adolf Hitler

Flag of Germany Ernst Busch
Flag of Germany Heinz Guderian
Flag of Germany Ewald von Kleist
Flag of Germany Günther von Kluge
Flag of Germany Georg von Küchler
Flag of Germany Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb
Flag of Germany Wilhelm List
Flag of Germany Erich von Manstein
Flag of Germany Walter Model
Flag of Germany Friedrich Paulus
Flag of Germany Gerd von Rundstedt
Flag of Germany Ferdinand Schörner
Flag of Germany Erhard Raus
Flag of Germany Walther von Reichenau
Flag of Italy Giovanni Messe, CSIR
Flag of Italy Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR
Petre Dumitrescu, 3rd Army
Constantin Constantinescu, 4th Army
Karl Lennart Oesch
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Gusztáv Vitéz Jány, 2nd Army
Ferenc Szombathelyi
Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Ernst Busch (6 July 1885 - 17 July 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Essen-Steele, Germany, and was educated at the Groß Lichterfelde Cadet Academy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Field Marshal Georg von Küchler Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (May 30, 1881 - May 25, 1968) was a German field marshal during World War II. Born in Philippsruhe castle near Hanau, Küchler led the German German Eighteenth Army in 1940 in the invasion of neutral Holland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb in a photo from 1946 Wilhelm Ritter[1] von Leeb (September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German Field Marshal during World War II. // Born in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria as Wilhelm Leeb, he joined the Bavarian Army in 1895 as an officer cadet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Wilhelm List (Siegmund Wilhelm von List) (May 14, 1880 - August 17, 1971), was a German Field Marshal during World War II. He entered the Army in 1898 and served as a staff officer in the First World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Erich von Manstein (November 24, 1887–June 9, 1973) served the German military as a lifelong professional soldier. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Friedrich Paulus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Erhard Raus (January 8, 1889 - 1956) was born in Wolframitz (Moravia), which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Giovanni Messe Giovanni Messe (December 10, 1883 - December 19, 1968) was an Italian soldier, politician and quite possibly the most distinguished Italian Field Marshal. ... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Italo Gariboldi (born 20 April 1879, Lodi; died 3 February 1970, Rome) was a senior officer in the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) before and during World War II. In 1935, Gariboldi commanded an Italian division on the northern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. ... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Petre Dumitrescu Petre Dumitrescu (February 18, 1882 - January 15, 1950) was a Romanian general during World War II, who led the Romanian Third Army on its campaign against the Soviet Union in the southwest. ... The Romanian Third Army was a field army that fought as part of the German Army Group B during World War II. It along with the Romanian Fourth Army bore the brunt of the Soviet Operation Uranus which saw the German Sixth Army encircled and destroyed during the Battle of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Constantin Constantinescu-Claps (1884—1961) was a Romanian state figure and a Corps General from January 24, 1942. ... The Romanian Fourth Army was a field army that fought on the Axis side as part of the German Army Group B and later it fought on the Alliess side as part of the Soviet First Ukrainian Front during World War II. In August 1944, the Red Army entered... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Karl Lennart Oesch (8 August 1892, Pyhäjärvi, Karelian Isthmus - 28 March 1978, Helsinki) was one of the leading Finnish generals during the World War II. He held a string of high staff assignments and front commands, and at the end of the Continuation War fully two-thirds of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Gusztáv Vitéz Jány (21 October 1883, Rajka – 16 November 1947, Budapest) was a Hungarian Officer during World War II. Iron Cross (1939) 2nd and 1st Class Knights Cross of the Iron Cross (31 March 1943) Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ...

Casualties and losses
10,651,000 Soviet Military
11,400,000 Soviet civilians
3,480,000 annexed civilians
1,000,000+ Soviet Jews in Holocaust
4,168,000+ annexed Jews in Holocaust



See below for details
5,178,000 Axis Military










See below for details

The Eastern Front of World War II (German: die Ostfront 1941-1945 [3], der Rußlandfeldzug 1941-1945 (Russian campaign) or der Ostfeldzug 1941-1945 (Eastern Campaign)[4]) was a theatre of war between the German Reich and the Soviet Union which encompassed central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. Nazi propaganda dubbed the conflict The Crusade against Bolshevism. In all Soviet and the majority of Russian sources, the conflict in Europe is referred to as the Great Patriotic War, but sometimes that phrase also includes operations against Japan in 1945. Some scholars of the conflict use the term Russo-German War, while others use Soviet-German War, Nazi-Soviet War, German-Soviet War, or Axis-Soviet War. Belligerents Soviet Union[1] Polish Secret State Polish Committee of National Liberation Finland (from 1944) Romania (from 1944) Bulgaria (from 1944) Czechoslovak Republic Yugoslav partisans Germany[2] Finland (to 1944) Romania (to 1944) Italy (to 1943) Hungary Slovakia Croatia Bulgaria (September 5-8, 1944) Volunteers Commanders Joseph Stalin Aleksei Antonov... Belligerents Soviet Union[1] Polish Secret State Polish Committee of National Liberation Finland (from 1944) Romania (from 1944) Bulgaria (from 1944) Czechoslovak Republic Yugoslav partisans Germany[2] Finland (to 1944) Romania (to 1944) Italy (to 1943) Hungary Slovakia Croatia Bulgaria (September 5-8, 1944) Volunteers Commanders Joseph Stalin Aleksei Antonov... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... The Black Sea Campaigns (1941-44) describes operations of the Axis naval forces in the Black Sea and its coastal regions during the Second World War, including in support of the land forces, and non-combat operations. ... Belligerents Germany Finland[1][2][3] Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6] Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Leonid Govorov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties and losses Wehrmacht (est. ... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Case Blue (German: ) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko... Belligerents Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties and losses 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... Operation Mars, or 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive was a World War II strategic offensive launched in November-December of 1942 by Soviet forces against a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Belligerents Soviet Union Nazi Germany Romania Commanders Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Erich von Manstein Romano Eroscú Strength 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes Casualties and losses 373,000 killed 1... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown The Baltic Offensive, also formally referred to as the Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation[1][2][3][4] as it was called by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes the battle between... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Poland Commanders Ferdinand Schörner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Army Group South Ukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Lublin‐Brest Offensive is covered in... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Romania Commanders Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Johannes Friessner Petre Dumitrescu Strength 1,341,200 personnel, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Budapest Offensiv, together with other Soviet Balkan offensivesm is covered by the green area in the south. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Prussian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Pomeranian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 Eastern Front Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – Finland – Leningrad and Baltics – Crimea and Caucasus – Moscow – 1st Rzhev-Vyazma – 2nd Kharkov – Blue – Stalingrad – Velikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk – 2nd Smolensk – Dnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hubes Pocket – Baltic – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – Balkans (Iassy-Kishinev) – Balkans... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Rudolf von Bünau Wilhelm Bittrich Fyodor Tolbukhin Vladimir Stoychev Strength One army (understrength) Local irregulars,total 28,000 Four armies (full strength),total 400,000 Casualties and losses 19,000 18,000 The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 2005 memorial, Moscow Kremlin The term Great Patriotic War (Russian: , Velikaya Otechestvennaya Voyna[1]) is the term used in Russia and some other states of the former Soviet Union to describe the war of 1941 to 1945 between Nazi Germany and its Axis allies and the Soviet Union. ...


It was the largest theatre of war in history and was notorious for its unprecedented ferocity, destruction, and immense loss of life. More people fought and died on the Eastern Front than in all other theatres of World War II combined. With over 30 million dead, many of them civilians, the Eastern Front has been called a war of extermination. It resulted in the destruction of the Third Reich, the partition of Germany and the rise of the Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. ... Superpowers redirects here. ...


The series of events preceding the opening of the Eastern Front included the invasion of Poland in 1939 by Nazi Germany and the resulting fourth partition of Poland when the Soviet Union used the invasion as a pretext to occupy the eastern regions of the country as outlined in the secret codicil to the August 1939 Soviet-German non-aggression pact, which also paved the way for the 1940 Soviet annexation of the Baltic States, and the annexation of Bessarabia. Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... The occupation of Baltic states generally refers to the occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) by the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany during World War II, and to the Soviet presence in the Baltics from 1945 until the re-establishment of their independence. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... On June 28, 1940 Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union. ...


This article, however, concentrates on the much larger conflict fought from June 1941 to May 1945, in which the two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured...

Contents

Forces

The war was fought between the German Reich, its Allies, and many pro-Nazi volunteers from occupied states, against the Soviet Union, and eventually its Allies of the British Commonwealth, France and the United States. The conflict began on 22 June 1941 as part of the Operation Barbarossa Offensive, when Axis forces crossed the borders, described in the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, thereby invading the Soviet Union. The war ended on 9 May 1945, when Germany's armed forces surrendered unconditionally following the Berlin Offensive, a strategic operation executed by the Red Army ,or the Communist Army, also known as the Battle of Berlin. The states that provided forces and other resources for the German war effort included the Axis Powers — foremost Italy, Romania, Hungary, and pro-Nazi Slovakia and Croatia. The anti-Soviet Finland, which had fought two conflicts with the Soviet Union, also joined the Offensive. The Wehrmacht forces were also assisted by anti-Communist partisans in places like Western Ukraine, the Baltic states and later Crimean Tatars. Among the most prominent volunteer army formations was the Spanish division, sent by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco to keep his ties to the Axis intact.
Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Anti-Soviet refers to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or the Soviet power within the Soviet Union. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyja, and Stanislav. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ...


The Soviet Union offered support to the partisans in many Wehrmacht-occupied countries in Eastern Europe, notably those in Slovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In addition the Polish Armed Forces in the East, particularly the First and Second Polish armies, were armed and trained, and would eventually fight alongside the Red Army. The Free French forces also contributed to the Red Army by formation of GC3 (Groupe de Chasse 3 or 3rd Fighter Group) unit to fulfill the commitment of Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French, who thought that it was important for French servicemen to serve on all fronts. British and Commonwealth forces contributed directly to the fighting on the Eastern Front through their service in the convoys and training Red Air Force pilots, as well as in provision of early material and intelligence support. The later massive material support of the Lend-Lease by the United States and Canada played a significant part particularly in the logistics of the war.. Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Polish volunteers to the Anders Army, released from Soviet POW camp. ... The Polish First Army (Polish Pierwsza Armia Wojska Polskiego, 1 AWP for short) was a Polish Army unit formed in the Soviet Union in 1944, from previously existing Polish I Corps. ... The Polish Second Army (Polish: Druga Armia Wojska Polskiego, 2. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in... The Normandie-Niemen squadron (Нормандия-Неман in Russian) is a fighter squadron of the French Air Force. ... This article is about the person. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ideologies

Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum, acquiring new territory for German settlement in Eastern Europe. He envisaged settling Germans as a master race in western Russia, while deporting most of the Russians to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. After the great purge of the 1930s, Hitler saw the Soviet Union as militarily weak and ripe for conquest: "We have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down."[5] Thus, another short Blitzkrieg was expected, no serious preparations for warfare in winter, or prolonged over years, were made. In the aftermath of the Battle of Kursk in 1943 and the resulting dire German military situation, Hitler and Nazi propaganda proclaimed the war to be a German defense of European (Western) Civilization against destruction by the vast "Bolshevik hordes" that were pouring into Europe. // 1939 March March 15, 1939 The German Army invades Czechoslovakia March 21, 1939 Adolf Hitler demands the free city of Danzig in Poland. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


Stalin's vision also included the occupation of foreign countries: using the occasion of world attention drawn to the Western Front, he annexed the three Baltic countries in 1940, thus gaining a place d'arme in case of a possible war with Hitler-Germany. Soviet active participation in the 1939 invasion of Poland should also not be underestimated. Yet, unlike Hitler, Stalin did not have any far-reaching plans of expanding Soviet territory to include Eastern Europe, let alone Germany; Soviet policy might rather be interpreted as the attempt to create a buffer zone between the USSR and Germany before Hitler's attack, which the Soviet Union had all the reasons to consider inevitable. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... For Nazi Germanys military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Nazi Germanys invasion of Poland (1939). ...


Results

The Eastern Front was by far the largest and bloodiest theatre of World War II. It is generally accepted as being the deadliest conflict in human history, with over 30 million killed as a result. It involved more land combat than all other World War II theatres combined. The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often willful disregard for human life by both sides. It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war, which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed and radical ideologies. To hard line Nazis in Berlin, the war against the Soviet Union was one of a struggle of Fascism against Communism, and the Aryan race against the "inferior" Slavic race. Hitler referred to it in unique terms, calling it a "war of annihilation", one in which the Soviet Union was to be utterly destroyed and the populations of Eastern Europe and Russia were to be enslaved and exterminated. This would further German expansion and provide for the colonization of Eastern Europe and Western Russia. In addition, Hitler also sought to wipe out the large Jewish population of Eastern Europe (see The Holocaust). Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union, Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale. Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. This included terrorization of their own people, as well as mass deportation (planned, in the case of Germany) of entire populations. All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front. According to the TIME: "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion."[6] In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Untermensch (German for under man, sub-man, sub-human; plural: Untermenschen) is a term from Nazi racial ideology used to describe inferior people, especially the masses from the East, that is Jews, Gypsies, Soviet Bolsheviks, homosexual men, and anyone else who was not an Aryan (i. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... TIME redirects here. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ...


The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries. Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including the Holocaust. German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring villages and routinely killing civilian hostages. Both sides practiced widespread scorched earth tactics, but the loss of civilian lives in the case of Germany was incomparably smaller than that of the Soviet Union, in which at least 20 million civilians were killed by the Nazis. When the Red Army invaded Germany in 1944, many German civilians suffered from vengeance taken by Red Army soldiers (see Red Army atrocities). After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder-Neisse Line, in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history. The German minority scattered over large swaths of Eastern Europe was thus expelled and those who did not manage to leave were exterminated. For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Red Army atrocities refers to the systemic commission of crimes by Soviet military personnel in Eastern Europe in late 1944 and early 1945, particularly murder and rape. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The German exodus from Eastern Europe refers to the exodus of ethnic German populations from lands to the east of present-day Germany and Austria. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Forced migration refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. ...


Much of the combat took place in or close by populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life as well as a tremendous material damage. According to a summary, presented by Lieutenant General Roman Rudenko at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, the property damage in the Soviet Union inflicted by the Axis invasion was estimated to a value of 679 billion rubles. The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1,2 million citizens dead during the Siege of Leningrad. The combined damage consisted of complete or partial destruction of 1,710 cities and towns, 70,000 villages/hamlets, 2,508 church buildings, 31,850 industrial establishments, 40,000 miles of railroad, 4100 railroad stations, 40,000 hospitals, 84,000 schools, and 43,000 public libraries. Seven million horses, and 17 million sheep and goats were also slaughtered or driven off.[7]Wild fauna were also affected. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Russian army advanced 1943-45, were responsible for a rabies epidemic which spread slowly westwards, reaching the Channel coast in 1968.[8] For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Belligerents Germany Finland[1][2][3] Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6] Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Leonid Govorov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties and losses Wehrmacht (est. ...


Background

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Non-Aggression Pact of August 1939 had established a non-aggression agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, and a secret protocol outlined how Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Romania would be divided between them. The two powers invaded and partitioned Poland in 1939. In November 1939 the Soviet Union waged the Winter War against Finland. And in June 1940, threatening to use force if its demands were not fulfilled, it won the diplomatic wars against Romania and three Baltic states allowing it to peacefully occupy Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania de facto while no western state regarded the annexation of these states de jure. The pact allowed for the return of the Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Moldavian territories in the north and northeastern regions of Romania (Northern Bucovina and Basarabia) to the Soviet Union. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them and resolve their disputes through peaceful negotiations. ... In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. History of the Occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Ukraine. ... Old map of Bessarabia Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Turkish) was the name used by Russia to designate the eastern part of the territory known as Moldova (Moldavia in English), which was occupied by Russia in 1812. ...


The decision for war

Main articles: Aufbau Ost (1940) and Lossberg study

For nearly two years the border was quiet while Germany conquered Denmark, Norway, France, The Low Countries, and the Balkans. Hitler had however always intended to renege on the pact with the Soviet Union and invade, and appears to have made the decision of when to do so in the spring 1940. Hitler believed that the Soviets would quickly capitulate after an overwhelming German offensive and that the war could largely end before the onset of the fierce Russian winter. Aufbau Ost (German: ) was the German operational code name for the build-up of arms prior to the passing the Operation Barbarossa[1] and subsequent invasion to the Soviet Union. ... Lossberg study is a German military plan prepared by Lieutenant Colonel Bernhard von Lossberg[1] and developed under Alfred Jodl in OKW on September 15, 1940. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Władysław Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April...


Some say Joseph Stalin was fearful of war with Germany or just did not expect Germany to start a two-front war, and was reluctant to do anything to provoke Hitler. Others say that Stalin was eager for Germany to be at war with other capitalist countries. Another viewpoint is that Stalin expected war in 1942 (the time when all his preparations would be complete) and stubbornly refused to believe its early arrival.[9] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... In military terminology, a two front war is a war that is waged on two separate fronts, usually opposite each other. ...


British historians Alan S. Milward and W. Medicott show that Nazi Germany--unlike Imperial Germany--was prepared for only a short-term war (Blitzkrieg).[citation needed] According to Andreas Hillgruber, without the necessary supplies from the USSR and the strategic security in the East, Germany could not have succeeded in the West. Had the Soviets joined the Anglo-French blockade, the German war economy would have been starved. With its own raw materials in September 1939, Germany could have been supplied for a mere 9 to 12 months.[citation needed]


Even though Germany had been assembling very large numbers of troops in eastern Poland and making repeated reconnaissance flights over the border, Stalin ignored the warnings of his own as well as foreign intelligence. Moreover, on the very night of the invasion, Soviet troops received a directive undersigned by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and General of the Army Georgy Zhukov that ordered (as demanded by Stalin): "do not answer to any provocations" and "do not undertake any actions without specific orders". The German invasion therefore caught the Soviet military and leadership largely by surprise, even though Stalin did receive a message from his intelligence detailing information on the attack. Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


For Soviet preparations, see Operation Barbarossa: Soviet preparations. Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


Conduct of operations

Main article: Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II

While German historians do not apply any specific periodisation to the conduct of operations on the Eastern Front, some unspecified Soviet and Russian historians[citation needed] divide the war against Germany and its allies into three periods, which are further subdivided into the major Campaigns of the Theatre of war:
1. First period of war (Russian: Первый период Великой Отечественной войны) (22 June 1941 - 18 November 1942)
// In Soviet histiography, the Great Patriotic War (termed the Eastern Front by Germany) is divided into periods: 1. ... Look up Campaign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theatre of War is an original novel written by Justin Richards and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ...

  • Summer-Autumn Campaign (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1941 г.) (22 June - 4 December 1941)
  • Winter Campaign of 1941-42 (Russian: Зимняя кампания 1941/42 г.) (5 December 1941 - 30 April 1942)
  • Summer-Autumn Campaign (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1942 г.) (1 May - 18 November 1942)

2. Second Period of war (Russian: Второй период Великой Отечественной войны) (19 November 1942 - 31 December 1943)

  • Winter Campaign of 1942-43 (Russian: Зимняя кампания 1942-1943 гг.) (19 November 1942 - 3 March 1943)
  • Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943 (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1943 г.) (1 July - 31 December 1943)

3. Third Period of war (Russian: Третий период Великой Отечественной войны) (1 January 1944 - 9 May 1945)

  • Winter-Spring Campaign (Russian: Зимне-весенняя кампания 1944 г.) (1 January - 31 May 1944)
  • Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1944 (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1944 г.) (1 June - 31 December 1944)
  • Campaign in Europe during 1945 (Russian: Кампания в Европе 1945 г.) (1 January - 9 May 1945)

Excellent analytical works in English written on the history of the combat operation on the Eastern front in the past 20 years include those by David Glantz, which deal with large strategic as well as smaller scale operational and tactical aspects of the conflict. David M. Glantz is an American military historian and the editor of The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. ...


Operation Barbarossa: Summer 1941

Operation Barbarossa: the German invasion of the Soviet Union, 21 June 1941 to 5 December 1941:      to 9 July 1941      to 1 September 1941      to 9 September 1941      to 5 December 1941

Operation Barbarossa began just before dawn on June 22, 1941. The Germans wrecked the wire network in all Soviet western military districts to undermine Soviet communications.[10] At 03:15 on 22 June 1941 ninety-nine (including fourteen panzer divisions and ten motorized) of 190 German divisions, deployed against the Soviet Union began the offensive from the Baltic to the Black seas. They were accompanied by ten Romanian divisions, nine Romanian and four Hungarian brigades.[11] On the same day the Baltic, Western and Kiev Special military districts were renamed to Northwestern, Western and Southwestern Fronts respectively.[10] For a month the offensive conducted on three axes was completely unstoppable as the panzer forces encircled hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in huge pockets that were then reduced by slower-moving infantry armies while the panzers continued the offensive, following the Blitzkrieg doctrine. As part of this high tempo campaign the German air force began immediate attacks on Soviet airfields, destroying much of the forward-deployed Soviet Air Force airfield fleets consisting of largely obsolescent types before their pilots had a chance to leave the ground. Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB)Map of the Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-06-21 to 1941-12-05 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow... Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB)Map of the Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-06-21 to 1941-12-05 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Military districts are territorial entities used for the purposes of military planning and strategizing. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Panzer Division is the German term for armored division. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... The Baltic Military District was a military district of the Soviet armed forces, formed briefly before the German invasion, and then reformed after World War II and disbanded after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... WWII Eastern Front at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa The Western Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the Second World War. ... The Southwestern Front was a name given to a Front by the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War, by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic during the Russian Civil War, and by the Red Army during the Second World War. ... The Northwestern Front was a military formation of the Red Army during the Winter War and World War II. It was operational with the 7th and 13th Armies during the Winter War. ... WWII Eastern Front at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa The Western Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the Second World War. ... Panzer IV Ausf. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... This article is about the military term. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ...


Army Group North's objective was Leningrad via the Baltic States. Comprising the 16th and 18th armies and the 4th Panzer Group, this formation advanced through Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and the Russian Pskov and Novgorod oblasts. Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The 16th Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The 18th Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The 4th Panzer Army (German: ), was, before being designated a full Army, the Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4), a German panzer Army that saw action during World War II. Its units played a part in the invasion of France, and then on the Eastern Front. ... Coat of arms Pskov Oblast (Russian: , Pskovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Coat of arms Khutyn Monastery in Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (Russian: , Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ...


Army Group Centre comprised two panzer groups (2nd and 3rd), which advanced to the north and south of Brest-Litovsk and converged east of Minsk, followed by the 2nd, 4th, and 9th armies. The combined panzer force reached the Beresina River in just six days, 650 km (400 miles) from their start lines. The next objective was to cross the Dnieper river, which was accomplished by 11 July. Following that, their next target was Smolensk, which fell on 16 July, but the engagement in the Smolensk area halted the German advance until mid-September, effectively disrupting the blitzkrieg. Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Panzergruppe 2 (2nd Panzer Group) was formed in November 1940 from the Panzergruppe Guderian and it was called by its commander general Heinz Guderian until October 1941, when it was renamed the 2nd Panzer Army. ... The 3rd Panzer Group was an army size unit which served as part of the Wehrmacht during World War II. 3rd Panzer Group was a part of Operation Barbarossa under Army Group Center. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... The 2nd Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ... Insignia of 4th Army The 4th Army (German: ) was a field army that fought in World War II. // The 4th Army was activated on December 1, 1938 with Field Marshal Günther von Kluge in command. ... The 9th Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... July 11 is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... July 16 is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ...


Army Group South, with 1st Panzer Group, 6th, 11th and 17th armies, was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine. Their progress, however, was rather slow, and took heavy casualties in a major tank battle. With the corridor towards Kiev secured by mid-July, the 11th Army, aided by two Romanian armies, fought its way through Bessarabia towards Odessa. The 1st Panzer Group turned away from Kiev for the moment, advancing into the Dnieper bend (western Dnipropetrovsk Oblast). When it joined up with the southern elements of Army Group South at Uman, the Group captured about 100,000 Soviet prisoners in a huge encirclement. Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... Insignia of the German First Panzer Army The 1st Panzer Army (German: ) was a German tank army that was a large armoured formation within the Wehrmacht Heer field forces during World War II. // When formed the 1st Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on... The 6th Army was a German field army which saw action in World War I and World War II. It is perhaps best known for its involvement in the Battle of Stalingrad. ... The 11th Army (German: ) was a World War I and a World War II field army. ... The German Seventeenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist Colonel-General Mikhail Karpenos Strength 600 Tanks 1,000 Tanks Casualties Heavy All Soviet Tanks Destroyed The Battle of Brody was a major Tank battle fought between the 1st Panzer Army and 5 Soviet Mechanized Corps in Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Dnipropetrovs’ka oblast’ or Дніпропетровщина, Dnipropetrovshchyna) is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. ... Uman (Ukrainian: , Uman’), is a town in central Ukraine, Cherkasy Oblast (province). ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Uman. ...

Soviet poster of 1941. The inscription reads: "Join the ranks of the front female helpmates, a companion is an aid and friend for fighter!".
Soviet poster of 1941. The inscription reads: "Join the ranks of the front female helpmates, a companion is an aid and friend for fighter!".

As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers, the Soviet Stavka turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could, dismantled and packed onto flatcars, away from the front line, re-establishing it in more remote areas of the Urals, Caucasus, Central Asia and south-eastern Siberia. Most civilians were left to make their own way East as only the industry-related workers could be evacuated with the equipment, and much of the population was left behind to the mercy of the invading forces. Image File history File linksMetadata Agitplakat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Agitplakat. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Daugava sunset in Riga. ... Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


With the capture of Smolensk, and the advance to the Luga river, Army groups Centre and North had completed their first major objective: to get across, and hold the "land bridge" between the Dvina and Dnieper. The advance to Moscow, now only 400 km (250 miles) away, could now begin. The Luga River (Луга in Russian) is a river in the Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The German generals argued for an immediate offensive towards Moscow, but Hitler overruled them, citing the importance of Ukrainian agricultural and mining resources, and heavy industry if under German possession, not to mention the massing of Soviet reserves in the Gomel area between Army Group Centre's southern flank and the bogged-down Army Group South's northern flank. The order was issued to 2nd Panzer Group to turn south and advance towards Kiev. This took the whole of August and into September, but when 2nd Panzer Group joined up with 1st Panzer Group at Lokhvitsa on 14 September 665,000 Soviet prisoners were captured as Kiev was surrendered on 19 September. At the end of August 1941, the Nazi German High Command OKH had the option of either continuing the advance on Moscow, or destroying the Soviet forces in the south. ... Homel (Belarusian and Russian: Гомель, Gomeľ; Yiddish: , Homl), also known as Gomel, is the second-largest city of Belarus and the main city of Homel Province. ... Lokhvytsia is a district town upon the Lokhvytsia river in Poltavska Oblast (Poltava region) in central Ukraine. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gerd von Rundstedt Semyon Budyonny (Removed from duty on Sept. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Moscow and Rostov: Autumn 1941

Lamenting the dead. German massacre at Kerch, the Crimea.

Hitler then decided to resume the advance to Moscow, re-designating the panzer groups as panzer armies for the occasion. Operation Typhoon, which was set in motion on 30 September, saw 2nd Panzer Army rush along the paved road from Orel (captured 5 October) to the Oka river at Plavskoye, while the 4th Panzer Army (transferred from Army Group North to Centre) and 3rd Panzer armies surrounded the Soviet forces in two huge pockets at Vyazma and Bryansk. Army Group North positioned itself in front of Leningrad and attempted to cut the rail link at Tikhvin to the east. Thus began the 900-day Siege of Leningrad. North of the Arctic Circle, a German-Finnish force set out for Murmansk but could get no further than the Litsa river, where they settled down. The eastern front at the time of Operation Typhoon. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... Image File history File links Lamenting_the_dead. ... Image File history File links Lamenting_the_dead. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Typhoon. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orel or Oryol (Орёл) is a city in Russia, administrative center of the Oryol Oblast. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... Plavsk (Russian: ) is a town in Tula Oblast, Russia. ... Vyazma (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyazma River, about halfway between Smolensk and Mozhaysk, at , . Throughout its turbulent history, the city defended western approaches to the city of Moscow. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Tikhvin (Russian: Тихвин) is a town in the northeast of Leningrad Oblast of Russia, 200 km East of St. ... Belligerents Germany Finland[1][2][3] Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6] Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Leonid Govorov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties and losses Wehrmacht (est. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and...


Army Group South pushed down from the Dnieper to the Sea of Azov coast, also advancing through Kharkov, Kursk, and Stalino. The 11th Army moved into the Crimea and had taken control of all of the peninsula by autumn (except Sevastopol, which held out until 3 July 1942). On 21 November the Germans took Rostov, the gateway to the Caucasus. However, the German lines were over-extended and the Soviet defenders counterattacked the 1st Panzer Army's spearhead from the north, forcing them to pull out of the city and behind the Mius River; the first significant German withdrawal of the war. The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk; IPA: ) is a city in the western part of Central Russia, at the confluence of Kur, Tuskar, and Seym rivers. ... Categories: Stub | Cities in Ukraine ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Mius (Russian: Миус) is a river in Eastern Europe that flows through Ukraine and Russia. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ...

Soviet gun crew in action at Odessa in 1941
Soviet gun crew in action at Odessa in 1941

One last lunge on 15 November saw the Germans attempting to throw a ring around Moscow. On 27 November the 4th Panzer Army got within 30 km (19 miles) of the Kremlin when it reached the last tramstop of the Moscow line at Khimki, while the 2nd Panzer Army, try as it might, could not take Tula, the last Soviet city that stood in its way of the capital. After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the Army General Staff, General Halder, and the heads of three Army groups and armies, it was decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better, as argued by head of Army Group Center, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,267 × 661 pixels, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,267 × 661 pixels, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... Coat of arms of Khimki Khimki (Russian: ) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated just northwest of Moscow, at the bank of the Moscow Canal. ... , For other uses, see Tula (disambiguation). ... Orsha (Belarusian: Во́рша; Russian: О́рша; Polish: Orsza) is a city in Belarus, an important railway node along the Minsk–Moscow line. ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... An army group is a military organization (formation) consisting of several armies, and is supposed to be self-sufficient for indefinite periods. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ...


However, by 6 December it became clear that the Wehrmacht was too weak to capture Moscow and the attack was put on hold. General Zhukov thus began his counter-attack, employing fresh, well-trained Siberian reserves transferred from the east following the guarantee of neutrality from Japan. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Military Reserves are an organization that is associated with the military but is not in active duty. ...


Soviet counter-offensive: Winter 1941

The Soviet winter counter-offensive, 5 December 1941 to 7 May 1942:     Soviet gains      German gains
The Soviet winter counter-offensive, 5 December 1941 to 7 May 1942:     Soviet gains      German gains
Over 3 million German and axis personnel were awarded the Winter war in the East 1941/42 (Winterschlacht im Osten 1941/42) medal for service during 15 November 1941 - 15 April 1942 from its creation on 26 May 1942 until 4 September 1944

During the autumn, Zhukov had been transferring fresh and well-equipped Soviet forces from Siberia and the far east to Moscow (these troops had been stationed there in expectation of a Japanese attack, but Stalin's master spy Richard Sorge indicated that the Japanese had decided to attack Southeast Asia and the Pacific instead). On 5 December 1941, these reinforcements attacked the German lines around Moscow, supported by new T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers. The new Soviet troops were prepared for winter warfare, and they included several ski battalions. The exhausted and freezing Germans were routed and driven back between 100 and 250 km (60 to 150 miles) by 7 January 1942. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 197 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-12-05 to 1942-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow Second Battle of Kharkov User:Gdr... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 197 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-12-05 to 1942-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow Second Battle of Kharkov User:Gdr... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... SPY may refer to: SPY (spiders), ticker symbol for Standard & Poors Depository Receipts SPY (magazine), a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps SPY (Ivory Coast), airport code for San Pédro, Côte dIvoire SPY (Ship Planning Yard), a U.S. Navy acronym SPY, short for MOWAG SPY, a... Dr Sorge aka Ramsay Richard Sorge (Russian: Рихард Зорге) (October 4, 1895 - November 7, 1944) is considered to have been one of the best Soviet spies in Japan before and during World War II, which has gained him fame among spies, and espionage enthusiasts. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... BM-13 Katyusha RS-132 rockets mounted underneath the wing of LaGG-3 fighter Damage caused to a German tank Pz Kpfw 38(t) by direct hit of RS-132 The 82mm BM-8 and 132mm BM-13 Katyusha rocket launchers were built and fielded by the Soviet Union in... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A further Soviet attack was mounted in late January, focusing on the junction between Army groups North and Centre between Lake Seliger and Rzhev, and drove a gap between the two German army groups. In concert with the advance from Kaluga to the south-west of Moscow, it was intended that the two offensives converge on Smolensk, but the Germans rallied and managed to hold them apart, retaining a salient at Rzhev. A Soviet parachute drop on German-held Dorogobuzh was spectacularly unsuccessful, and those paratroopers who survived had to escape to the partisan-held areas beginning to swell behind German lines. To the north, the Soviets surrounded a German garrison in Demyansk, which held out with air supply for four months, and established themselves in front of Kholm, Velizh, and Velikie Luki. Seliger (Russian: Селигер) is a lake in Novgorod and Tver Oblasts of Russia, in the northwest of the Valdai Hills, a part of the Volga basin. ... Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga river. ... Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, built in 1967 Kaluga (Калу́га in Russian) is a city in central Russia on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow, administrative center of Kaluga Oblast. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... For the game, see Paratrooper (video game). ... Dorogobuzh (Russian: Дорогобуж) is a historic town straddling the Dnieper River in the Smolensk Oblast of Russia, 125 km to the east of Smolensk and 71 km west of Vyazma. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Demyansk (Russian: Демянск) is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... CheÅ‚m (Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ... Velizh (Polish: Wieliź) is a city in Belarus. ... Velikiye Luki (also transliterated as Velikie Luki, Russian Великие Луки) - city in Russia, in Pskov Oblast. ...


In the south the Red Army crashed over the Donets River at Izyum and drove a 100-km (60-mile) deep salient. The intent was to pin Army Group South against the Sea of Azov, but as the winter eased the Germans were able to counter-attack and cut off the over-extended Soviet troops in the Second Battle of Kharkov. The Donets River starts in Central Russia upland, north of Belgorod, in the Russian Federation. ... Izium (also spelled Izyum), is city in eastern Ukraine, in the Kharkiv oblast (province). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626...


Don, Volga, and Caucasus: Summer 1942

Operation Blue: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942:      to 7 July 1942      to 22 July 1942      to 1 August 1942      to 18 November 1942
Operation Blue: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942:      to 7 July 1942      to 22 July 1942      to 1 August 1942      to 18 November 1942

Although plans were made to attack Moscow again, on 28 June 1942, the offensive re-opened in a different direction. Army Group South took the initiative, anchoring the front with the Battle of Voronezh and then following the Don river southeastwards. The grand plan was to secure the Don and Volga first and then drive into the Caucasus towards the oilfields, but operational considerations and Hitler's vanity made him order both objectives to be attempted simultaneously. Rostov was recaptured on 24 July when 1st Panzer Army joined in, and then that group drove south towards Maikop. As part of this, Operation Shamil was executed, a plan whereby a group of Brandenburger commandos dressed up as Soviet NKVD troops to destabilise Maikop's defenses and allow the 1st Panzer Army to enter the oil town with little opposition. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 219 KB) Eastern Front (WWII), 1942- 05-07 to 1942- 11-18 Drawn by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 219 KB) Eastern Front (WWII), 1942- 05-07 to 1942- 11-18 Drawn by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Gusztav Jany Yevgeny Golikov Strength Casualties The Battle of Voronezh was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don river in June and July 1942. ... The Battle of Caucasus is a generic name for a series of operations during the Great Patriotic War. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Gusztav Jany Yevgeny Golikov Strength Casualties The Battle of Voronezh was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don river in June and July 1942. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Maykop (disambiguation). ... German commando force. ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ...


Meanwhile, 6th Army was driving towards Stalingrad, for a long period unsupported by 4th Panzer Army, which had been diverted to help 1st Panzer Army cross the Don. By the time 4th Panzer Army had rejoined the Stalingrad offensive, Soviet resistance (comprising the 62nd Army under Vasily Chuikov) had stiffened. A leap across the Don brought German troops to the Volga on 23 August but for the next three months the Wehrmacht would be fighting the Battle of Stalingrad street-by-street. Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station... Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, two times Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko...


Towards the south 1st Panzer Army had reached the Caucasian foothills and the Malka River. At the end of August Romanian mountain troops joined the Caucasian spearhead, while the Romanian 3rd and 4th armies were redeployed from their successful task of clearing the Azov littoral. They took up position on either side of Stalingrad to free German troops for the proper fighting. Mindful of the continuing antagonism between Axis allies Romania and Hungary over Transylvania, the Romanian army in the Don bend was separated from the Hungarian 2nd army by the Italian 8th Army. Thus all of Hitler's allies were involved — including a Slovakian contingent with 1st Panzer Army and a Croatian regiment attached to 6th Army. Malka River, also known as Balyksu River (Russian: Малка), is a river in Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia, Tereks left tributary. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ...


The advance into the Caucasus bogged down, with the Germans unable to fight their way past Malgobek and to the main prize of Grozny. Instead they switched the direction of their advance to approach it from the south, crossing the Malka at the end of October and entering North Ossetia. In the first week of November, on the outskirts of Ordzhonikidze, the 13th Panzer Division's spearhead was snipped off and the panzer troops had to fall back. The offensive into Russia was over. Malgobek (Russian: ; Ingush: – ) is a town in the Republic of Ingushetia, Russia. ... For other uses of Grozny, see Grozny (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The name Ordzhonikidze can mean:- Sergo Ordzhonikidze Various towns in the USSR which were renamed after him, the most important being Vladikavkaz. ...


Stalingrad: Winter 1942

Operations Uranus, Saturn and Mars: Soviet advances on the Eastern Front, 18 November 1942 to March 1943:      to 12 December 1942      to 18 February 1943      to March 1943 (Soviet gains only)
Main articles: Battle of Stalingrad, Operation Saturn, Second Rzhev-Sychevka offensive, Third Battle of Kharkov, and Battle of Velikiye Luki

While the German 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army had been fighting their way into Stalingrad, Soviet armies had congregated on either side of the city, specifically into the Don bridgeheads that the Romanians had been unable to reduce, and it was from these that they struck on 19 November 1942. In Operation Uranus, two Soviet fronts punched through the Romanians and converged at Kalach on 23 November, trapping 300,000 Axis troops behind them. A simultaneous offensive on the Rzhev sector known as Operation Mars was supposed to advance to Smolensk, but was a failure, with German tactical flair winning the day. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 227 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1942-11-18 to March 1943 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Uranus Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 227 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1942-11-18 to March 1943 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Uranus Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... Operation Mars, or 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive was a World War II strategic offensive launched in November-December of 1942 by Soviet forces against a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Red Army Germany Commanders Filipp Golikov Nikolay Vatutin Erich von Manstein †Theodor Eicke Strength 300,000 men 160,000 men Casualties Voronezh Front: Army of Popov: 3,000 KIA 11,000 WIA Southwestern Front: 20,000 KIA 90,000 WIA 9,000 POWs Final battles: 25,000 KIA 80... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... This article is about the word bridgehead. For the Canadian coffeehouse business, see Bridgehead Coffee. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Kalach, also known as Koloch (Russian: ), is traditional Russian and Ukrainian loaf that might be served as a Christmas Bread. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Mars, or 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive was a World War II strategic offensive launched in November-December of 1942 by Soviet forces against a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow. ...


The Germans rushed to transfer troops to Russia for a desperate attempt to relieve Stalingrad, but the offensive could not get going until 12 December, by which time the 6th Army in Stalingrad was starving and too weak to break out towards it. Operation Winter Storm, with three transferred panzer divisions, got going briskly from Kotelnikovo towards the Aksai river but became bogged down 65 km (40 miles) short of its goal. To divert the rescue attempt the Soviets decided to smash the Italians and come down behind the relief attempt if they could, that operation starting on 16 December. What it did accomplish was to destroy many of the aircraft that had been transporting relief supplies to Stalingrad. The fairly limited scope of the Soviet offensive, although still eventually targeted on Rostov, also allowed Hitler time to see sense and pull Army Group A out of the Caucasus and back over the Don. is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Winter Storm (German Unternehmen Wintergewitter) was the German Fourth Panzer Armys attempt to relieve the German Sixth Army from encirclement during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II. The operation commenced on 12 December 1942 and was able to advance just halfway to its objective before a... Kotelnikovo (Russian: ) is a town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the Kurmoyarsky Aksay River (which flows into the Tsimlyansk Reservoir), 190 km southwest of Volgograd. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 31 January 1943, the 90,000 survivors of the 300,000-man 6th Army surrendered. By that time the Hungarian 2nd Army had also been wiped out. The Soviets advanced from the Don 500 km (300 miles) to the west of Stalingrad, marching through Kursk (retaken on 8 February 1943) and Kharkov (retaken 16 February 1943). In order to save the position in the south, the decision was taken in February to abandon the Rzhev salient, freeing enough German troops to make a successful riposte in eastern Ukraine. Manstein's counteroffensive, strengthened by a specially trained SS panzer corps equipped with Tiger tanks, opened on 20 February 1943, and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March, upon which the spring thaw intervened. This had left a glaring bulge in the front centered on Kursk. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk; IPA: ) is a city in the western part of Central Russia, at the confluence of Kur, Tuskar, and Seym rivers. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In fencing, the riposte is an offensive action made by the fencer who has just parried an attack. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein Erich von Manstein (November 24, 1887–June 10, 1973) was a lifelong professional soldier who rose to be one of the most prominent commanders of Nazi Germanys Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) during World War II; he attained the rank of Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall), although he never... First Tiger I tank captured near Tunis The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Combatants Red Army Germany Commanders Filipp Golikov Nikolay Vatutin Erich von Manstein †Theodor Eicke Strength 300,000 men 160,000 men Casualties Voronezh Front: Army of Popov: 3,000 KIA 11,000 WIA Southwestern Front: 20,000 KIA 90,000 WIA 9,000 POWs Final battles: 25,000 KIA 80...


Kursk: Summer 1943

German advances at Kharkov and Kursk, 19 February 1943 to 1 August 1943:      to 18 March 1943      to 1 August 1943
Main article: Battle of Kursk

After the failure of the attempt to capture Stalingrad, Hitler had deferred planning authority for the upcoming campaign season to the German Army High Command and reinstated Guderian to a prominent role, this time as Inspector of Panzer Troops. Debate among the General Staff was polarised, with even Hitler nervous about any attempt to pinch off the Kursk salient. He knew that in the intervening six months the Soviet position at Kursk had been reinforced heavily with anti-tank guns, tank traps, landmines, barbed wire, trenches, pillboxes, artillery and mortars. However, if one last great blitzkrieg offensive could be mounted, just maybe the Soviets would ease off and attention could then be turned to the Allied threat to the Western Front. The advance would be executed from the Orel salient to the north of Kursk and from Belgorod to the south. Both wings would converge on the area east of Kursk, and by that means restore the lines of Army Group South to the exact points that it held over the winter of 1941–1942. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 193 KB)German advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-02-19 to 1943-08-01 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Kursk Third Battle of Kharkov Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 193 KB)German advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-02-19 to 1943-08-01 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Kursk Third Battle of Kharkov Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World... Combatants Red Army Germany Commanders Filipp Golikov Nikolay Vatutin Erich von Manstein †Theodor Eicke Strength 300,000 men 160,000 men Casualties Voronezh Front: Army of Popov: 3,000 KIA 11,000 WIA Southwestern Front: 20,000 KIA 90,000 WIA 9,000 POWs Final battles: 25,000 KIA 80... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... General Heinz Guderian Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888-14 May 1954) was a military theorist and General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Dragons teeth (German: Höcker, humps) were square-pyramidal fortifications of concrete used during the Second World War to impede the movement of tanks. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... A bunker is a defensive warfare fortification to protect oneself. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... This article is about the military term. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Coat of arms of Belgorod Belgorod (Russian: ) is a city in Western Russia, situated on the Severny Donets river just 40 km north from the Ukrainian border, at 50°37′N 36°35′E. It is the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast. ... Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk; IPA: ) is a city in the western part of Central Russia, at the confluence of Kur, Tuskar, and Seym rivers. ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ...


Although the Germans knew that the Red Army's reserves of manpower had been bled dry in the summer of 1941 and 1942, the Soviets were still re-equipping, simply by drafting the men from the regions liberated.

Soviet 76.2 mm field guns.
Soviet 76.2 mm field guns.

Under pressure from his generals, Hitler bit the bullet and agreed to the attack on Kursk, little realising that the Abwehr's intelligence on the Soviet position there had been undermined by a concerted Stavka misinformation and counter-intelligence campaign mounted by the Lucy spy ring in Switzerland. When the Germans began the operation, it was after months of delays waiting for new tanks and equipment, by which time the Soviets had reinforced the Kursk salient with more anti-tank firepower than had ever been assembled in one place before or since. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... In World War II espionage, the Lucy spy ring was an anti-German operation which operated in Switzerland. ...


In the north, the entire 9th Army had been redeployed from the Rzhev salient into the Orel salient and was to advance from Maloarkhangelsk to Kursk. But its forces could not even get past the first objective at Olkhovatka, just 8 km (5 miles) into the advance. The 9th Army blunted its spearhead against the Soviet minefields, frustratingly so considering that the high ground there was the only natural barrier between them and flat tank country all the way to Kursk. The direction of advance was then switched to Ponyri, to the west of Olkhovatka, but the 9th Army could not break through here either and went over to the defensive. The Soviets simply soaked up the German punishment and then struck back. On 12 July the Red Army battled through the demarcation line between the 211th and 293rd divisions on the Zhizdra river and steamed towards Karachev, right behind them and behind Orel. A number of nations have had a Ninth Army: British Ninth Army German Ninth Army US Ninth Army This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Karachev (Russian: Карачев, Polish: Karaczew?) is a very old town (1146) in Bryansk Oblast, but almost all its old architecture was lost during the Second World War. ...

Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf and Wehrmacht Tiger tanks at the start of the Battle of Kursk.
Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf and Wehrmacht Tiger tanks at the start of the Battle of Kursk.

The southern offensive, spearheaded by 4.Panzer-Armee, led by Gen. Col. Hoth, with three Tank Corps made more headway. Advancing on either side of the upper Donets on a narrow corridor, the SS Panzer Corps and the Großdeutschland Panzergrenadier divisions battled their way through minefields and over comparatively high ground towards Oboyan. Stiff resistance caused a change of direction from east to west of the front, but the tanks got 25 km (15 miles) before encountering the reserves of the Soviet 5th Guards Tank Army outside Prokhorovka. Battle was joined on 12 July, with about one thousand tanks doing battle. After the war, the battle near Prochorovka was idealized by the Soviet historians as the biggest tank battle of all time. The meeting engagement at Prochorovka was a Soviet defensive success, albeit at heavy cost. The Soviet 5th Guards Tank Army, with about 800 light and medium tanks, attacked elements of the II SS Panzer Corps. Tank losses on both sides have been the source of controversy ever since. Although the 5th Guards Tank Army did not attain their terrain objectives, the German advance was halted. Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf, discussing an offensive action with a Tiger commander of 9. ... Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf, discussing an offensive action with a Tiger commander of 9. ... This article needs cleanup. ... SS-Division Totenkopf Kampfgruppe Eicke 3. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Panzergruppe 4 4. ... General Hermann Hoth Hermann Papa Hoth (12 April 1885 - 26 January 1971) was a general of the Third Reich during World War II, notable for victories in France and on the Eastern Front, and later, after serving six years in prison for war crimes, as a writer on military history. ... The II.SS-Panzerkorps was a German Waffen-SS armoured corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World War II. // The II.SS-Panzerkorps was formed in July 1942 in Bergen in The Netherlands as SS-Panzer-Generalkommando. ... Wachregiment Berlin Kommando der Wachtruppe Wachtruppe Berlin Wach-Regiment Berlin Infanterie-Regiment Großdeutschland (mot) Infanterie-Division Großdeutschland (mot) Panzergrenadier-Division Großdeutschland Panzer-Korps Großdeutschland The Großdeutschland Division (lit. ... Coat of arms of Oboyan Oboyan (Russian: ) is a town in Kursk Oblast, Russia, located some 60 km south of Kursk on the right bank of the Psyol River at its confluence with the Oboyanka River. ... --152. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ...

Marshal Zhukov and Colonel General Nikolai Voronov, commander of Red Army Artillery, (front row left to right) inspect a German Tiger tank captured near Leningrad.
Marshal Zhukov and Colonel General Nikolai Voronov, commander of Red Army Artillery, (front row left to right) inspect a German Tiger tank captured near Leningrad.

At the end of the day both sides had fought each other to a standstill, but regardless of the standstill in the north Manstein intended to continue the attack with the 4th Panzer Army. But the Soviets could absorb the attack, and German strategic advance in Operation Citadel had been halted. Under the impression of the successful counter-attack operations in the south the Red Army started the strong offensive operation in the northern Orel salient and achieved a breakthrough on the flank of the German 9th Army. Also worried by the Allies' landing in Sicily on 10 July, Hitler made the decision to halve the offensive even as the German 9th Army was rapidly giving ground in the north. The Germans' final strategic offensive in the Soviet Union ended with their defense against a major Soviet counteroffensive that lasted into August. A detailed analysis of this campaign is available in the Battle of Kursk article. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein Erich von Manstein (November 24, 1887–June 10, 1973) was a lifelong professional soldier who rose to be one of the most prominent commanders of Nazi Germanys Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) during World War II; he attained the rank of Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall), although he never... Battle of Kursk Conflict World War II Date July 4, 1943 - July 22, 1943 Place Kursk, USSR Result Indecisive The Battle of Kursk was a significant battle on the Eastern Front of World War II. It remains the largest armored engagement of all time, and included the most costly single... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1...


The Kursk offensive was the last on the scale of 1940 and 1941 the Wehrmacht was able to launch, and subsequent offensives would represent only a shadow of previous German offensive might. Following the defeat, Hitler would not trust his generals to the same extent again, and the quality of German strategic decision fell correspondingly. The Battle of Kursk cost Hitler over 500,000 troops and 1,000 tanks, forever hampering future war efforts on the Eastern Front.


Autumn and Winter 1943

The Soviet juggernaut got rolling in earnest with the advance into the Germans' Orel salient. The diversion of Hitler's favourite Grossdeutschland Division from Belgorod to Karachev could not stop it, and a strategic decision was made to abandon Orel (retaken by the Red Army on 5 August 1943) and fall back to the Hagen line in front of Bryansk. To the south, the Soviets blasted through Army Group South's Belgorod positions and headed for Kharkov once again. Though intense battles of movement throughout late July and into August 1943 saw the Tigers blunting Soviet tanks on one axis, they were soon outflanked on another line to the west as the Soviets advanced down the Psel, and Kharkov had to be evacuated for the final time on 22 August. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... Battle of Narva Conflict {{{conflict}}} Date {{{date}}} Place {{{place}}} Result {{{result}}} The Battle of Narva took place in the first half of 1944. ... Wachregiment Berlin Kommando der Wachtruppe Wachtruppe Berlin Wach-Regiment Berlin Infanterie-Regiment Großdeutschland (mot) Infanterie-Division Großdeutschland (mot) Panzergrenadier-Division Großdeutschland Panzer-Korps Großdeutschland The Großdeutschland Division (lit. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... Tiger I ( ) is the common name of a German heavy tank of World War II. The initial official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausführung H (abbreviated PzKpfw VI Ausf. ... Olshanka (Russian: ) (also known as Psel and Vyshnyaya Olshanka) is a village in Belgorod Oblast, Russia. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

German prisoners being searched by Red Army soldiers
German prisoners being searched by Red Army soldiers

The German forces on the Mius, now constituting the 1st Panzer Army and a reconstituted 6th Army, were by August too weak to sustain a Soviet attack on their own front, and when the Soviets hit them they had to fall back all the way through the Donbass industrial region to the Dnieper, losing the industrial resources and half the farmland that Germany had invaded the Soviet Union to exploit. At this time Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line, along which was meant to be the Ostwall, a line of defence similar to the Westwall of fortifications along the German frontier in the west. Trouble was, it hadn't been built yet, and by the time Army Group South had evacuated eastern Ukraine and begun withdrawing across the Dnieper during September, the Soviets were hard behind them. Tenaciously, small units paddled their way across the 3-km (2-mile) wide river and established bridgeheads. A second attempt by the Soviets to gain land using parachutists, mounted at Kanev on 24 September, proved as luckless as at Dorogobuzh eighteen months previously, and the paratroopers were soon repelled — but not before still more Red Army troops had used the cover they provided to get themselves over the Dnieper and securely dug in. As September proceeded into October, the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew and grew, and important Dnieper towns started to fall, with Zaporozhye the first to go, followed by Dnepropetrovsk. Finally, early in November the Soviets broke out of their bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and captured the Ukrainian capital, at that time the third largest city in the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 1,226 pixels, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 1,226 pixels, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Ukraine | Ukrainian historical regions ... Bunker on the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line was a line of defensive forts and tank defences built by Germany along their border with France in 1916-1917 during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World War II defensive line, built... This article is about the word bridgehead. For the Canadian coffeehouse business, see Bridgehead Coffee. ... Kaniv (Polish: Kaniów) is a town on the Dnipro River in Ukraine where the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko is buried. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zaporizhzhia, Zaporozhzhia, Zaporozhye may refer to Zaporizhzhia, a historical region of Ukraine Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine, a city This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... REDIRECT Dnipropetrovsk ...


Eighty miles west of Kiev, the 4th Panzer Army, still convinced that the Red Army was a spent force, was able to mount a successful riposte at Zhitomir during the middle of November, blunting the Soviet bridgehead via a daring outflanking strike mounted by the SS Panzer Corps along the river Teterev. This battle also enabled Army Group South to recapture Korosten and gain some time to rest; however, on Christmas Eve the retreat began anew when the First Ukrainian Front (renamed from Voronezh Front) struck them in the same place. The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the 1939 Polish-Soviet border was reached on 3 January 1944. To the south, Second Ukrainian Front (ex Steppe Front) had crossed the Dnieper at Kremenchug and continued westwards. In the second week of January 1944 they swung north, meeting Vatutin's tank forces who had swung south from their penetration into Poland and surrounding ten German divisions at Korsun-Shevenkovsky, west of Cherkassy. Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line, even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat, was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev, but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to break out. By 16 February the first stage was complete, with panzers separated from the contracting Cherkassy pocket only by the swollen Gniloy Tikich river. Under shellfire and pursued by Soviet tanks, the surrounded German troops, among whom were the SS Division Wiking, fought their way across the river to safety, losing half their number and all their equipment. Surely the Soviets would not attack again, with the spring approaching - but in March 3 the Soviet Ukrainian Front went over to the offensive. Having already isolated the Crimea by severing the neck of the Perekop isthmus, Malinovsky's forces advanced across the mud to the Romanian border, not stopping on the river Prut. Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ (Житомирська область in Ukrainian; Żytomierzczyna in Polish) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ... Steppe Front was a Front of the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War. ... Kremenchuk (Ukrainian: ; Russian: , Kremenchug) is an important industrial city in central Ukraine, located on the banks of Dnieper. ... Korsun Pocket, also known as the Cherkassy Pocket, was the name of the large pocket of German troops between the towns of Korsun and Cherkassy on the lower Dnepr River in the Southern Ukraine, during World War II. In January of 1944, the encroaching Soviet Red Army executed a pincer... Nordische Division (Nr. ... The Isthmus of Perekop is the narrow, three to four mile wide strip of land that connects the peninsula of Crimea to the rest of mainland Ukraine. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ...

Soviet advances from 1 August 1943 to 31 December 1944:      to 1 December 1943      to 30 April 1944      to 19 August 1944      to 31 December 1944
Soviet advances from 1 August 1943 to 31 December 1944:      to 1 December 1943      to 30 April 1944      to 19 August 1944      to 31 December 1944

One final move in the south completed the 1943-44 campaigning season, which had wrapped up an advance of over 500 miles. In March, 20 German divisions of Generaloberst Hans-Valentin Hube's 1st Panzer Army were encircled in what was to be known as Hube's Pocket near Kamenets-Podolskiy. After two weeks hard fighting, the 1st Panzer managed to escape the pocket, suffering only light to moderate casualties. At this point, Hitler sacked several prominent generals, Manstein included. April saw the liberation of Odessa in April 1944, followed by 4th Ukrainian Front's campaign to liberate the Crimea, which culminated with the liberation of Sevastopol on 10 May. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ... General der Panzertruppen Hans-Valentin Hube Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890 - 21 April 1944) was a general who served in the German Army during the First and Second World Wars. ... Panzer Group Kleist Panzer Group 1 First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von... Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket Conflict World War II Date March 25, 1944 – April 15, 1944 Place Kamenets-Podolsky / Tarnopol, USSR Result Soviet Defeat; German Evacuation The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket, was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ...


Along Army Group Centre's front, August 1943 saw this force pushed back from the Hagen line slowly, ceding comparatively little territory, but the loss of Bryansk and more importantly, Smolensk, on 25 September cost the Wehrmacht the keystone of the entire German defensive system. The 4th and 9th armies and 3rd Panzer Army still held their own east of the upper Dnieper, stifling Soviet attempts to reach Vitebsk. On Army Group North's front, there was barely any fighting at all until January 1944, when out of nowhere Volkhov and Second Baltic Fronts struck. In a lightning campaign, Leningrad and Novgorod were liberated; by February the Red Army had reached the borders of Estonia after a 75 mile advance. is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...


Summer 1944

Wehrmacht planning was convinced that the Soviets would attack again in the south, where the front was fifty miles from Lvov and offered the most direct route to Berlin. Accordingly they stripped troops from Army Group Centre, whose front still protruded deep into the Soviet Union. The Belorussian Offensive (codenamed Operation Bagration) started on June 22, 1944, was a massive Soviet attack, consisting of four Soviet army groups totaling over 120 divisions that smashed into a thinly-held German line. They focused their massive attacks on Army Group Centre, not Army Group South as the Germans had originally expected. The Germans had transferred units to France to counter the invasion of Normandy two weeks before. The Red Army achieved a ratio of ten to one in tanks and seven to one in aircraft over the enemy. At the points of attack, the numerical and quality advantages of the Soviets were overwhelming. More than 2.3 million Soviet troops went into action against the German Army Group Centre, which could boast a strength of less than 800,000 men. The Germans crumbled. The capital of Belarus, Minsk, was taken on July 3, trapping 50,000 Germans. Ten days later the Red Army reached the prewar Polish border. The rapid progress cut off and isolated the German units of Army Group North fighting in Courland. Bagration was by any measure one of the largest single operations of the war. By the end of August 1944 it had cost the Red Army ~170,000 dead, missing, wounded and sick, as well as 2,957 tanks and assault guns. The Germans lost approximately 670,000 dead, missing, wounded and sick, out of whom 160,000 were captured, as well 2,000 tanks and 57,000 other vehicles. Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht 17. ... During World War II, Operation Bagration was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Nazis from Belarus which resulted in the destruction of the German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 368,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 37,400 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Romania Commanders Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Johannes Friessner Ion Antonescu Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Germany Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Johannes Friessner (Heeresgruppe Süd), Maximilian Fretter-Pico (6. ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from suburbs). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ...

Red Army soldiers restoring the USSR border sign. By the end of 1944 practically the entire pre-war Soviet territory was liberated.
Red Army soldiers restoring the USSR border sign. By the end of 1944 practically the entire pre-war Soviet territory was liberated.

The neighbouring Lvov-Sandomierz operation was launched on 17 July 1944, rapidly routing the German forces in the western Ukraine. The Soviet advance in the south continued into Romania and, following a coup against the Axis-allied government of Romania on August 23, the Red Army occupied Bucharest on August 31. In Moscow on September 12, Romania and the Soviet Union signed an armistice on terms Moscow virtually dictated. The Romanian surrender tore a hole in the southern German Eastern Front causing the inevitable loss of the whole of the Balkans. Image File history File links Soivet_Border_restored_1944. ... Image File history File links Soivet_Border_restored_1944. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 368,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 37,400 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Romania Commanders Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Johannes Friessner Ion Antonescu Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Sorin Oprescu (Independent) Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


In Poland, as the Red Army approached, the Polish Home Army (AK) launched Operation Tempest. During the Warsaw Uprising, the Soviet Army halted at the Vistula River, unable or unwilling to come to the aid of the Polish resistance. An attempt by the communist controlled 1st Polish Army to relieve the city was unsupported by the Red Army and was thrown back in September with heavy losses. For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ...


In Slovakia, the Slovak National Uprising started as an armed struggle between German Wehrmacht forces and rebel Slovak troops in August to October 1944. It was centered at Banská Bystrica. Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... , Name origin: mining creek Country  Slovakia Region District River Elevation 362 m (1,188 ft) Coordinates , Area 103. ...


Autumn 1944

Main articles: Baltic Offensive and Budapest Offensive

On 8 September 1944 the Red Army begun an attack on the Dukla Pass on the Slovak-Polish border. Two months later, the Soviets won the battle and entered Slovakia. The toll was high: 85,000 Red Army soldiers lay dead, plus several thousand Germans, Slovaks and Czechs. Combatants Soviet Union Germany Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown The Baltic Offensive, also formally referred to as the Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation[1][2][3][4] as it was called by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes the battle between... Budapest Offensiv, together with other Soviet Balkan offensivesm is covered by the green area in the south. ... The Dukla Pass is a strategically significant mountain pass in the Carpathian mountains on the border between modern Poland and Slovakia, and close to the western border of Ukraine. ...


January-March 1945

Soviet advances from 1 January 1945 to 7 May 1945:      to 30 March 1945      to 11 May 1945
Soviet advances from 1 January 1945 to 7 May 1945:      to 30 March 1945      to 11 May 1945

Main articles: Vistula-Oder Offensive (January-February) with the follow-up East Pomeranian Offensive and Silesian Offensives (February-April), East Prussian Offensive (January-April), Vienna Offensive (March-April) Download high resolution version (1201x921, 216 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1945-01-01 to 1945-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Lake Balaton Offensive User:Gdr/Gallery Prague Offensive Vistula... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 216 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1945-01-01 to 1945-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Lake Balaton Offensive User:Gdr/Gallery Prague Offensive Vistula... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Pomeranian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 Eastern Front Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – Finland – Leningrad and Baltics – Crimea and Caucasus – Moscow – 1st Rzhev-Vyazma – 2nd Kharkov – Blue – Stalingrad – Velikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk – 2nd Smolensk – Dnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hubes Pocket – Baltic – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – Balkans (Iassy-Kishinev) – Balkans... WWII Eastern Front during 1945 The East Prussian Offensive was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). ... Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Bulgaria Commanders Rudolf von Bünau Wilhelm Bittrich Fyodor Tolbukhin Vladimir Stoychev Strength One army (understrength) Local irregulars,total 28,000 Four armies (full strength),total 400,000 Casualties and losses 19,000 18,000 The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian...


The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw in January 1945, after it was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans. Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts, the Red Army began an offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw. The Soviets outnumbered the Germans on average by five~six to one in troops, six to one in artillery, six to one in tanks and four to one in self-propelled artillery. After four days the Red Army broke out and started moving thirty to forty kilometres a day, taking the Baltic states, Danzig, East Prussia, Poznań, and drawing up on a line sixty kilometres east of Berlin along the Oder River. During the full course of the Vistula-Oder operation (23 days), the Red Army forces sustained 194,000 casualties and lost 1,267 tanks and assault guns. For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... A Front (фронт) was a major military organization in the Soviet Army, roughly equivalent to an army or army group in British or American military terminology. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... A U.S. M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) vehicles are a way of giving mobility to artillery. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ...


On 25 January 1945, Hitler renamed three army groups. Army Group North became Army Group Courland; Army Group Centre became Army Group North and Army Group A became Army Group Centre. Army Group North (old Army Group Centre) was driven into an ever smaller pocket around Königsberg in East Prussia. is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Army Group Courland (German: Heeresgruppe Kurland) On the 25 January 1945 Hitler renamed three army groups. ... Army Group A was the name of a number of German Army Groups during World War II. // During the German invasion of the Low Countries and France Army Group A was under the command of General Gerd von Rundstedt, and was responsible for the break-out through the Ardennes. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


A limited counter-attack (codenamed Operation Solstice) by the newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, had failed by February 24, and the Soviets drove on to Pomerania and cleared the right bank of the Oder River. In the south, three German attempts to relieve the encircled Budapest failed and the city fell on February 13 to the Soviets. Again the Germans counter-attacked, Hitler insisting on the impossible task of regaining the Danube River. By March 16 the attack had failed and the Red Army counterattacked the same day. On March 30 they entered Austria and captured Vienna on April 13. Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Walther Wenck Felix Steiner Georgy Zhukov Operation Solstice (German: ), also known as Unternehmen Husarenritt or the Stargard tank battle[1], was a German armoured offensive operation on the Eastern Front, one of the last such operations. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ... Himmler redirects here. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pommern redirects here. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Soviet tanks and infantry pressing on the Germans near Budapest.
Soviet tanks and infantry pressing on the Germans near Budapest.

On April 9, 1945, Königsberg finally fell to the Red Army, although the shattered remnants of Army Group North continued to resist on the Heiligenbeil and Danzig beachheads until the end of the war in Europe. The East Prussian operation, though often overshadowed by the Vistula-Oder operation and the later battle for Berlin, was in fact one of the largest and costliest operations fought by the Red army through the war. During the period it lasted (13 January - 25 April), it cost the Red Army 584,788 casualties, and 3,525 tanks and assault guns. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 360 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,148 × 517 pixels, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 360 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,148 × 517 pixels, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... Heiligenbeil was a subcamp of the German concentration camp Stutthof near Danzig during the Third Reich. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


By early April, the Stavka freed up General Konstantin Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front (2BF) to move west to the east bank of the Oder river. During the first two weeks of April, the Soviets performed their fastest front redeployment of the war. General Georgy Zhukov concentrated his 1st Belorussian Front (1BF), which had been deployed along the Oder river from Frankfurt in the south to the Baltic, into an area in front of the Seelow Heights. The 2BF moved into the positions being vacated by the 1BF north of the Seelow Heights. While this redeployment was in progress gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German 2nd Army, which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig, managed to escape across the Oder. To the south General Ivan Konev shifted the main weight of the 1st Ukrainian Front (1UF) out of Upper Silesia north-west to the Neisse River.[12] The three Soviet fronts had altogether 2.5 million men (including 78,556 soldiers of the 1st Polish Army); 6,250 tanks; 7,500 aircraft; 41,600 artillery pieces and mortars; 3,255 truck-mounted Katyushas rockets, (nicknamed "Stalin Organs"); and 95,383 motor vehicles, many manufactured in the USA.[12] Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskiy (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish: Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... The 2nd Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Frankfurt an der Oder [ˈfraÅ‹kfÊŠrt] (German formal name: Frankfurt (Oder), Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord, Polish: Frankfurt nad OdrÄ…) is a town in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... The Seelow Heights were the scene of the bloodiest battle on German soil during the Second World War. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Russian: ) (28 December [O.S. 16 December] 1897 – May 21, 1973), was a Soviet military commander, who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, liberated much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany... The 1st Ukrainian Front was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Unions Red Army during the Second World War. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: ; Silesian: Gůrny Åšlůnsk) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. ... Nysa (Polish Nysa, German Neiße, Czech Nisa) is a name of a few rivers and a town in Silesia. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


End of War: April–May 1945

Main articles: Battle of Berlin, Battle of Halbe, Prague Offensive Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... Combatants Third Reich Soviet Union Commanders Theodor Busse Ivan Konev Strength 80,000 280,000 Casualties 30,000 killed 25,000 Captured up to 10,000 civilian dead 20,000 killed The Battle of Halbe lasted from April 24 to May 1, 1945. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of...

14,933,000 Soviet and Soviet influence nations personnel were awarded the medal for victory over Germany from 9th May 1945.
14,933,000 Soviet and Soviet influence nations personnel were awarded the medal for victory over Germany from 9th May 1945.

All that was left for the Soviets to do was to launch an offensive to capture what was to become East Germany. The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone of occupation, the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken. Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb program.[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ...

Lidiya Ruslanova performing for Soviet soldiers during the Great Patriotic War.

The offensive to capture East Germany and Berlin started on April 16 with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers. After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF had punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across East Germany. By the April 24 elements of the 1BF and 1UF had completed the encirclement of Berlin and the Battle of Berlin entered its final stages. On April 25 the 2BF broke through the German 3rd Panzer Army's line south of Stettin. They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund. The 58th Guards Rifle Division of the 5th Guards Army made contact with the US 69th Infantry Division of the First Army near Torgau, Germany at the Elbe river.[14][15] Image File history File linksMetadata Ruslanova. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ruslanova. ... Lidiya Ruslanova performing for Soviet soldiers during the Great Patriotic War. ... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... Belligerents Soviet Union Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[1] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[2] Strength Total strength 2,500... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. // Normandy Commanded by General (later Field Marshal) Sir Bernard Montgomery, it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... The 69th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. World War II Activated: 15 May 1943. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


On April 30, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself. Helmuth Weidling, defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviets on May 2.[16] Altogether, the Berlin operation (16 April - 8 May) cost the Red Army 81,367 casualties (dead, missing, wounded and sick) and 1,997 tanks and assault guns. German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability.[citation needed] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At 22:41 on the morning of May 7, 1945, at the SHAEF headquarters, German Chief-of-Staff General Alfred Jodl signed the unconditional surrender documents for all German forces to the Allies. It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European time on May 8, 1945. The next day shortly before midnight, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel repeated the signing in Berlin at Zhukov's headquarters. The war in Europe was over.[17] is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF), was the command headquarters of the commander of Allied forces in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ... This article chronicles the end of the European Theatre of World War II. On April 25, 1945 United States and Soviet troops linked-up, cutting Germany in two. ...


In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be May 9, when the surrender took effect Moscow time. This date is celebrated as a national holiday - Victory Day - in Russia (as part of a two-day May 8-9 holiday) and some other post-Soviet countries. The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on June 24. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries, with the exception of the United States where usage differs greatly. ... May 9, Soviet poster based on the famous photo of the Soviet flag being raised over the Reichstag in 1945. ... The 1945 Victory parade was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about May 11.[18] Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A small German garrison on the island of Bornholm (Denmark) refused to surrender until after being bombed and invaded by the Soviets. The island was returned to the Danish government four months later.


Manchuria: August 1945

The Battle of Manchuria began on August 8, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo; the greater invasion would eventually include neighbouring Mengjiang, as well as northern Korea, southern Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. It marked the initial and only military action of the Soviet Union against the Empire of Japan; at the Yalta Conference, it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe. While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army, came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there. In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation, delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years. Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The battle of Manchuria is the name given to the invasion of Japanese-occupied Manchuria by the Soviet Union at the end of the Second World War. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Flag Capital Kalgan Language(s) Japanese, Mongolian Political structure Puppet state History  - Established 1936  - Disestablished 1945 Mengjiang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Meng-chiang; Postal map spelling: Mengkiang), also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was a puppet state in Inner Mongolia controlled by Japan. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ...


Leadership

The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were ideologically driven states, in which the leader had near-absolute power. The character of the war was thus determined by the leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.


Adolf Hitler

Main article: Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler led Germany during World War II.

Adolf Hitler exercised a tight control over the war, spending much of his time in his command bunkers (most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia, at Vinnitsa in Ukraine, and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin). At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation conferences, at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and the OKW staff with rhetoric. Hitler redirects here. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Kętrzyn is a town in north-eastern Poland with 30,300 inhabitants (1995). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Vinnytsia, or Vinnytsya (Ukrainian Вінниця, Polish: Winnica) is a city in central Ukraine, located on the banks of Pivdennyi Buh River in 270 km far from the capital Kyiv. ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


In part because of the unexpected success of the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military, Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war effort that eluded his generals. In August 1941 when Walther von Brauchitsch (commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht) and Fedor von Bock were appealing for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country. Some historians believe that this decision was a missed opportunity to win the war. Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Władysław Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ...


In the winter of 1941–42 Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse. He later told Erhard Milch, Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Erhard Milch (left) with his brother Dr. Werner Milch, who worked as his associate defense counsel at the Nuremberg Trials. ...

I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge. And the army is staying at the front."

The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders. Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or fanatical Nazis. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad, Korsun and many other places — were the direct result of Hitler's orders. Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities, or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres, because Hitler would not sanction retreat or abandon voluntarily any of his conquests. In chess, the Hedgehog Defence is a variant of the Queens Indian Defense. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties...


Frustration at Hitler's leadership of the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of 1944, but after the failure of the July 20 Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel and Nazi party members to prosecute the war. His many disastrous appointments included that of Heinrich Himmler to command Army Group Vistula in the defence of Berlin in 1945 — Himmler suffered a mental breakdown under the stress of the command and was quickly replaced by Gotthard Heinrici. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... SS redirects here. ... Himmler redirects here. ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Gotthard Heinrici. ...


Hitler's direction of the war was disastrous for the German Army, though the skill, loyalty, professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end. F. W. Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge: Frederick William Winterbotham (1897-1990) was a British Royal Air Force officer who during World War II was responsible for the distribution of Ultra intelligence, gleaned chiefly by decryption of German Enigma machine ciphers at Bletchley Park, fifty miles northwest of London. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ...

"From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception."

Joseph Stalin

Main article: Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin led the Soviet Union during World War II.

Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for the disasters at the beginning of the war, but can be equally praised for the subsequent success of the Soviet Army, which would have been impossible without the unprecedentedly rapid industrializaion of the Soviet Union, which was the first priority of Stalin's internal policy throughout the 1930s. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... // At the fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei...


Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late 1930s consisted of the legal prosecution of many of the senior command, many of whom were convicted and sentenced to death or imprisonment. The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky, the brilliant proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik (who opposed the mechanization of the army and the production of tanks), but on the other hand the purge of the older commanders who had had their positions since the Russian Civil War, and had experience, but were deemed “politically unreliable”. This opened up those places to the promotion of many younger officers that Stalin and the NKVD thought were in line with Stalinist politics, many of whom proved to be terribly inexperienced, but some were later very successful. Soviet tank output remained the largest in the world. Distrust of the military led, since the foundation of the Red Army in 1918, to a system of "dual command", in which every commander was paired with a political commissar, a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Larger units had military councils consisting of the commander, commissar and chief of staff, who ensured that the commanding officer was loyal and implemented Party orders. The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: ; Polish: ) (February 16 [O.S. February 4] 1893 â€“ June 12, 1937), was a Soviet military commander, chief of the Red Army (1925–1928), and one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... This article is about the military term. ... Obscurantism is a vehement opposition to extention of knowledge beyond certain limits and to questioning dogmas. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Grigory Kulik Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (Russian: Григорий Иванович Кулик) (November 9, 1890 - August 24, 1950), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Poltava in Ukraine. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland, the Baltic states and Bessarabia in 1939–40, Stalin insisted that every fold of the new territories should be occupied; this move westward left troops far from their depots in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement. There was an assumption that, in the event of a German invasion, the Red Army would take the strategic offensive and fight the war mostly outside the borders of the Soviet Union; thus few plans were made for strategic defensive operations. However, fortifications were built. As tension heightened in spring 1941, Stalin was desperate not to give Hitler any provocation that could be used as an excuse for an attack; this caused him to refuse to allow the military to go onto the alert even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations. This refusal to take the necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the war. 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ...


Stalin's insistence on repeated counterattacks without adequate preparation led to the loss of almost the whole of the Red Army's tank corps in 1941 — many tanks simply ran out of fuel on their way to the battlefield through faulty planning or ignorance of the location of fuel dumps. While some regard this offensive strategy as an argument for Soviet aggressive strategic plans, the offensive operational planning was not, by itself, evidence of any aggressive foreign policy intent.


Unlike Hitler, Stalin was able to learn lessons and improve his conduct of the war. He gradually came to realise the dangers of inadequate preparation and built up a competent command and control organization — the Stavka — under Semyon Timoshenko, Georgy Zhukov and others. Incompetent commanders were gradually but ruthlessly weeded out. Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константинович Тимошенко) (February 6 O.S (February 18 N.S.), 1895-March 31, 1970), Soviet military commander, was the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


At the crisis of the war, in autumn 1942, Stalin made many concessions to the army: unitary command was restored by removing the Commissars from the chain of command. After the Battle of Stalingrad, shoulderboards were introduced for all ranks; this was a significant symbolic step, since they had been seen as a symbol of the old regime after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Beginning in autumn 1941, units that had proved themselves by superior performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title. But these concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No. 227, issued on 28 July 1942, threatened commanders who retreated without orders with punishment by court-martial. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and penal companies, and the NKVD's barrier troops would shoot soldiers who fled. IS the order you go to see people in. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Joseph Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Order No. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ... Penal battalion, penal company, etc. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... Barrier troops (Russian: ) in the Army of the Soviet Union was the general term to denote special forces for various barrier purposes. ...


As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; the victorious generals were sidelined and never allowed to develop into political rivals. After the war the Red Army was once again purged (but not as brutally as in the 1930s): many successful officers were demoted to unimportant positions (including Zhukov, Malinovsky and Koniev). Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Koniev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 – May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ...


Occupation and repression

A member of Einsatzgruppe D murders a Jew who is kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, in 1942. The back of the photo is inscribed "The last Jew in Vinnitsa".
A member of Einsatzgruppe D murders a Jew who is kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, in 1942. The back of the photo is inscribed "The last Jew in Vinnitsa".

The enormous territorial gains of 1941 presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. Some Soviet citizens, especially in the recently annexed territories of Western Ukraine and the Baltic States greeted their conquerors as liberators from the Soviet rule. However, nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks, and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, (especially those from the Baltic States) were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed. None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the racist Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour (Generalplan Ost). German soldiers of the Waffen-SS and the Reich Labor Service look on as a member of Einsatzgruppe D executes a Jew kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... German soldiers of the Waffen-SS and the Reich Labor Service look on as a member of Einsatzgruppe D executes a Jew kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D executes a Jew kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Vinnytsia, or Vinnytsya (Ukrainian Вінниця, Polish: Winnica) is a city in central Ukraine, located on the banks of Pivdennyi Buh River in 270 km far from the capital Kyiv. ... Peace is generally defined as a state of quiet or tranquillity, as an absence of disturbance or agitation (Latin derivation Pax = Absentia Belli). ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as Baltic states annexed by USSR in 1940, Reichscommissariats were established. As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. In September 1941, Erich Koch was appointed to the Ukrainian Commissariat. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog … Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of ... I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population." Erich Koch (June 19, 1896, Elberfeld - November 12, 1986, Barczewo) was a Gauleiter of the NSDAP in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945, and Reichskomissar in Ukraine from 1941 until 1944. ...


Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen (task groups) to round up Jews and shoot them. Local anti-semites were encouraged to carry out their own pogroms. In July 1941 Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski's SS unit began to carry out more systematic killings, including the massacre of over 30,000 Jews at Babi Yar. By the end of 1941 there were more than 50,000 troops devoted to rounding up and killing Jews. The gradual industrialization of killing led to adoption of the Final Solution and the establishment of the Operation Reinhard extermination camps: the machinery of the Holocaust. In three years of occupation, between one and two million Soviet Jews were killed. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination, including the Roma and Sinti; see Porajmos. A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Erich von dem Bach, born Erich von Zalewski and also known as Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski (March 1, 1899 - March 8, 1972), was a Nazi official and a member of the SS (in which he reached the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer). ... Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between the Frunze and Melnykov streets and between the St. ... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard, Einsatz Reinhard, Aktion Reinhardt or Einsatz Reinhardt in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Government and rob their possessions. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religion Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ...

Execution of Russian civilians by a shot in the back of the head, carried out with a certain grim intensity, even relish. German officers felt a contempt for the "sub-human" Slavic people, coupled with a disposition towards anti-Semitism.
Execution of Russian civilians by a shot in the back of the head, carried out with a certain grim intensity, even relish. German officers felt a contempt for the "sub-human" Slavic people, coupled with a disposition towards anti-Semitism.

The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses. As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in 1943–44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure. In many towns, the Germans also fought Soviet forces right within towns and cities with trapped civilians caught in the middle. Estimates of total civilian dead in the Soviet Union in the war range from seven million (Encyclopædia Britannica) to seventeen million (Richard Overy). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front, motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets, and greatly delayed the formation of German allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs (see Vlasov army). These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A soldier of the Russian Liberation Army Russian Liberation Army or ROA (from Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya), also known as the Vlasov army, was a group of volunteer Russian forces allied with Nazi Germany during World War II. The ROA was organized by former Red Army general Andrey Vlasov, who...

Homeless Russian children in occupied territory (about 1942)
Homeless Russian children in occupied territory (about 1942)

A Russian historian Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totaling 26.5 million war related deaths. Military losses of 10.6 million include 7.6 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead, plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. Civilian deaths totaled 15.9 million, which included 1.5 million from military actions; 7.1 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 1.8 million deported to Germany for forced labor; and 5.5 million famine and disease deaths. Additional famine deaths, which totaled 1 million during 1946-47, are not included here. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in 1939-40.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 387 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (550 × 851 pixels, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 387 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (550 × 851 pixels, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite. Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August 1941. The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some 380,000 young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands of civilians more. More than 600 villages like Khatyn were burned with their entire population.[2] More than 209 cities and towns (out of 270 total) and 9,000 villages were destroyed. Himmler pronounced a plan according to which 3/4 of Belarusian population was designated to "eradication" and 1/4 of racially cleaner population (blue eyes, light hair) would be allowed to serve Germans as slaves. Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Statue of the only surviving man from Khatyn, holding his dead child. ... Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 - May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ...


Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in War to "3 million 650 thousand people, unlike the former 2.2 million. That is to say not every fourth inhabitant but almost 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus)." [3]


Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. Large numbers of Soviet POWs and forced laborers transported to Germany were on their return to the USSR (in many cases forcefully repatriated by the Western Allies) treated as traitors and deserters and were executed or deported to the Soviet prison camps. The Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention (1929). However, a month after the German invasion in 1941, an offer was made for a reciprocal adherence to the Hague convention. This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials [19]. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Operation Keelhaul was a programme carried out in Austria by British forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of thousands of post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geneva Convention (1929) The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in 1947 reported 6,028,000 war victims out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ...


Industrial output

A T-34 tank rolls off the line at the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. 112 in Gorki. The Soviet Union manufactured 58,000 T-34s during the war.
A T-34 tank rolls off the line at the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. 112 in Gorki. The Soviet Union manufactured 58,000 T-34s during the war.

The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of her war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land. Stalin's five-year plans of the 1930s had resulted in the industrialization of the Urals and central Asia. In 1941, the trains that shipped troops to the front were used to evacuate thousands of factories from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines. Image File history File links T34_1. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... Five-Year Plan refers to a national economic development plan, lasting five years. ...


As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from 1943 onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives. The increases in production of war materiel were achieved at the expense of civilian living standards — the most thorough application of the principle of total war — and with the help of Lend-Lease supplies from the United Kingdom and the United States. The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs. Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Germany's raw material production was higher than the Soviets' and her labour force was far greater, but the Soviets were more efficient at using what resources they had and chose to build low-cost, low-maintenance vehicles whilst the Germans built high-cost, high-maintenance vehicles.


Germany chose to build very expensive and very complicated vehicles and even though Germany produced many times more raw materials she could not compete with the Soviets on the quantity of military production (in 1943, the Soviet Union manufactured 24,089 tanks to Germany's 19,800). The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production. Meanwhile, German industry was forced to engineer more advanced but complex designs such as the Panther tank, the King Tiger or the Elefant. This article lists Soviet tank and self-propelled gun production during the Second World War, from the German invasion on 22 June 1941, until the first half of 1945. ... The Panther ( ) was a tank fielded by Nazi Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. ... General characteristics Length: (hull) 7. ... The Panzerjäger Tiger (P) Elefant (Sd. ...

Summary of German and Soviet Raw Material production during the war1
Year Coal
(million tonnes)
Steel
(million tonnes)
Aluminium
(thousand tonnes)
Oil
(million tonnes)
German Soviet German Soviet German Soviet German Soviet Italian Hungarian Romanian Japanese
1941 315.5 151.4 28.2 17.9 233.6 5.7 33.0 0.12 0.4 5.5 -
1942 317.9 75.5 28.7 8.1 264.0 51.7 6.6 22.0 0.01 0.7 5.7 1.8
1943 340.4 93.1 30.6 8.5 250.0 62.3 7.6 18.0 0.01 0.8 5.3 2.3
1944 347.6 121.5 25.8 10.9 245.3 82.7 5.5 18.2 - 1 3.5 1
19452 149.3 12.3 86.3 1.3 19.4 - - - 0.1
Summary of Axis and Soviet Tank and Self-
propelled Gun production during the war1
Year Tanks and self-
propelled guns
Soviet German Italian Hungarian Japanese
1941 6,590 5,2003 595 - 595
1942 24,446 9,3003 1,252 500 557
1943 24,089 19,800 336 558
1944 28,963 27,300 - 353
19452 15,400 - - 137
Summary of Axis and Soviet Aircraft production during the war1
Year Aircraft
Soviet German Italian Hungarian Romanian Japanese
1941 15,735 11,776 3,503 - 1,000 5,088
1942 25,436 15,556 2,818 6 8,861
1943 34,845 25,527 967 267 16,693
1944 40,246 39,807 - 773 28,180
19452 20,052 7,544 - - 8,263
Summary Of German and Soviet Industrial Labour (including those classified as handworkers), and Summary of Foreign, Voluntary, Coerced and POW Labour 4
Year Industrial Labour Foreign Labour Total Labour
Soviet German Soviet German Total Soviet Total German
1941 11,000,000 12,900,000 - 3,500,000 11,000,000 16,400,000
1942 7,200,000 11,600,000 50,000 4,600,000 7,250,000 16,200,000
1943 7,500,000 11,100,000 200,000 5,700,000 7,700,000 16,800,000
1944 8,200,000 10,400,000 800,000 7,600,000 9,000,000 18,000,000
19452 9,500,000 2,900,000 - 12,400,000 -

Notes:

  1. Figures from Richard Overy, Russia's War, p. 155 and Campaigns of World War II Day By Day, by Chris Bishop and Chris McNab, pp. 244-52.
  2. If numbers are not stated then they are unknown. Soviet numbers for 1945 are for the whole of 1945 even after the war was over.
  3. German figures for 1941 and 1942 include tanks only. (Self-propelled guns cost 2/3 of a tank (mainly because they have no turret) and were more appropriate in a defensive role. The Germans therefore favored their production in the second half of the war.)
  4. Figures are from The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia by Richard Overy p. 498.

It should be noted that the Axis allies Italy, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria added to the German numbers. Two-thirds of Germany's Iron ore, much needed for her military production, came from Sweden. Soviet production and upkeep was assisted by the Lend-Lease program from the United States and Britain. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in Goebbels' Sportpalast speech, increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer's astute direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign. Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Goebbels is a surname common in Rhineland derived from Göbbl, a nickname for the names Godebald and Godebert. ... Joseph Goebbels The Sportpalast or total war speech (German: Sportpalastrede) was a speech delivered by Propagandaminister (Propaganda Minister) Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully-selected audience on 18 February 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ...


Casualties

Further information: World War II casualties

The Eastern Front was unparalleled for its high intensity, ferocity, and brutality. The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history. It was by far the deadliest single theatre of war in World War II, with over 5 million deaths on the Axis Forces; Soviet military deaths were about 10.6 million (out of which 3.3 million Soviets died in German captivity[20]), and estimated civilian deaths range from about 14 to 17 million. Over 11.4 Millions Soviet civilians, and another estimated 3.5 Million civilians from the Annexed territories[21] were killed. Soviet and Russian historiography often uses the so-called irretrievable casualties term. According to the Narkomat of Defence order (№ 023, February 4, 1944), the irretrievable casualties include killed, missed, those who died due to war-time or subsequent wounds, maladies and chilblains and those who were captured. Also, the Nazis exterminated over 1 Million soviet Jews [22] and another 4.2 Million Jews from the Annexed Territories which include over 3 Million Polish Jews[23] in the Holocaust. Chart showing World War II deaths by country in millions as well as by percentage of population, and piechart with percentage of military and civilian deaths for the Allies and the Axis Powers. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... From 1919 to 1946, functions of ministers in the government of Russia and, later, the Soviet Union were performed by Peoples Commissars (Russian title: Narodny Komissar, or Narkom). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chilblains, also called perniosis or blain, when occurring on the feet, is a medical condition that is often confused with frostbite and trench foot. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


The genocidal death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans by both sides, multiple atrocities by the Germans and the Soviets against the civilian population and each other, the wholesale use of weaponry on the battlefield against huge masses of infantry. The multiple battles, and most of all, the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land, infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food. For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ...

Military losses on the Eastern Front during World War II1
Forces fighting with the Axis
Total Dead KIA/MIA POWs taken by the Soviets POWs that died in Captivity
Greater Germany 4,300,000 4,000,000 3,300,000 374,000
Soviet residents who joined German army 215,000+ 215,000 1,000,000 Unknown
Romania 281,000 81,000 500,000 200,000
Hungary 300,000 100,000 500,000 200,000
Italy 82,000 32,000 70,000 50,000
Total 5,178,000+ 4,428,000 5,450,000 824,000
Military losses on the Eastern Front during World War II2
Forces Fighting with the Soviet Union
Total Dead KIA/MIA POWs taken by the Axis POWs that died in captivity
Soviet 10,600,000 7,300,000 5,700,000 3,300,000
Poland 24,000 24,000 Unknown Unknown
Romania 17,000 17,000 80,000 Unknown
Bulgaria 10,000 10,000 Unknown Unknown
Total 10,651,000 7,351,000 5,280,000 3,300,000

1 Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1, Richard Overy The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (2004), ISBN 0-7139-9309-X Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ...


2 Vadim Erlikman, Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1; Mark Axworthy, Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995, p. 216. ISBN 1-85409-267-7


Total Soviet losses includes Deaths Partisans-250,000 and Deaths Militia-150,000 KIA/MIA above = Killed in action / Missing in action


Polish Armed Forces in the East, initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in Soviet Union in 1939-1941, began fighting alongside the Red Army in 1943, and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in 1944-1945. Polish volunteers to the Anders Army, released from Soviet POW camp. ...


When the Axis countries of Eastern Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they were forced to change sides and declare war on Germany. (see Allied Commissions). Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries. ...


Some of the Soviet citizens would side with the Germans and join Andrey Vlasov's Russian Liberation Army. Most of those who joined were Russian POWs. Most who joined hated communism and actually saw the Nazis as liberators from communism. These men were primarily used in the Eastern Front but some were assigned to guard the beaches of Normandy. The other main group of men joining the German army were citizens of the Baltic countries annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 or from Ukraine. They fought in their own Waffen-SS units. General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov or Wlassow (Russian: Андрéй Андрéевич Влáсов, September 14 [O.S. September 1] 1900 — August 2, 1946) was a Soviet Army General who collaborated with Nazi Germany during World War II. // Born in Lomakino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Vlasov was originally a student at a Russian seminary. ... A soldier of the Russian Liberation Army Russian Liberation Army or ROA (Русская Освободительная Армия, Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya), also known as the Vlasov army, was a group of volunteer Russian forces allied with Nazi Germany during World War II. The ROA was organized by former Red Army general Andrey Vlasov, who tried... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


A comparison of the losses demonstrates the cruel treatment of the Soviet POWs by the Nazis. Most of the Axis POWs were released from captivity after the war, but the fate of the Soviet POWs differed markedly. Nazi troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps and executed them. Hitler's notorious Commissar Order implicated all the German armed forces in the policy of war crimes. It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... The Commissar Order (German: Kommissarbefehl) was a written order given by Adolf Hitler on 6 June 1941, prior to Operation Barbarossa. ...


See also

Victory Alley on Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1030 KB) Victory Park in Moscow, own photo, september 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1030 KB) Victory Park in Moscow, own photo, september 2004. ... Night view of the hill from Kutuzov Avenue. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... World War II was the greatest conflict man has ever known; and ever since its conclusion vast amounts of time and effort have been poured into chronicling and interpreting it. ... Below is the timeline of the events at the World War II Eastern Front the war conflict between the Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, also known as the Great Patriotic War. Major events 1941 Operation Barbarossa Siege of Leningrad Battle of Moscow 1942 Battle of Stalingrad 1943 Battle of... Operation Silberfuchs (Silver Fox) was a German operation during World War II. Its main goal was the capture of the Soviet port at Murmansk through attacks from Finnish territory. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Voenno-vozdushniye Sily (V-VS) (Soviet Air Force) was the Russian Air Force in WWII period. ... The Morskaya Aviatsiya (Soviet Naval Air Service) was the Russian Navy air service during WWII. such air unit provided air support to Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR (Soviet Navy) in your theather of operations in Barents,Baltic and Black Sea amongst the Soviet Naval Detachment in Ohkostk Sea. ... Lyudmila Pavlichenko Women in the Russian and Soviet military, as in other nations, have played an important role in their countries military history, in particular during the Great Patriotic War. ... Soviet partisan fighters behind German front lines in Belarus in 1943 The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany occurred as part of the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration. ... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... The Alpini are a highly decorated elite infantry corps of the Italian Army. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Battle of Russia was the fifth film of Frank Capras Why We Fight propaganda film series. ... Prelude to War depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Soviet Union also recruited some foreign units (Czechoslovakian, Romanian).[citation needed] Partial help for the Soviet Union was provided by the United States and the United Kingdom. Also minor military assistance from: Polish Secret State, Polish Armed Forces in the East, Romania (from 1944), Bulgaria (from 1944) and Czechoslovakia
  2. ^ Germany's allies, in total, provided a significant number of troops and material to the front. There were also numerous foreign units recruited by Germany, notably the Russian Liberation Army and the Spanish Blue Division.
  3. ^ (German) Die Ostfront 1941-1945
  4. ^ (German) Der Rußlandfeldzug; (German) 2. Weltkrieg
  5. ^ Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich. p. 238
  6. ^ http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1809018,00.html
  7. ^ The New York Times, February 9, 1946, Volume 95, Number 32158.
  8. ^ Chris Bellamy (2007) Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War. London: Macmillan: 1-2
  9. ^ [Hardesty, Von. Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945. p. 16, Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-071-0]
  10. ^ a b Zhukov, Georgy (1972). Vospominaniya i razmyshleniya. Moscow: Agenstvo pechati Novosti. 
  11. ^ Zhilin, P.A. (ed.) (1973). Velikaya Otechestvennaya voyna. Moscow: Izdatelstvo politicheskoi literatury. 
  12. ^ a b Ziemke, Berlin, see References page 71
  13. ^ Beevor, Berlin, see References Page 138
  14. ^ Beevor, Berlin, see References pp. 217-233
  15. ^ Ziemke , Berlin, see References page 81-111
  16. ^ Beevor, Berlin, see References pp. 259-357, 380-381
  17. ^ Ziemke, occupation, References CHAPTER XV:The Victory Sealed Page 258 last paragraph
  18. ^ Ziemke, Berlin, References p. 134
  19. ^ Beevor, Stalingrad. Penguin 2001 ISBN 0141001313 p60
  20. ^ Richard Overy, The Dictators
  21. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7
  22. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3
  23. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3

Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Polish volunteers to the Anders Army, released from Soviet POW camp. ... A soldier of the Russian Liberation Army Russian Liberation Army or ROA (Русская Освободительная Армия, Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya), also known as the Vlasov army, was a group of volunteer Russian forces allied with Nazi Germany during World War II. The ROA was organized by former Red Army general Andrey Vlasov, who tried... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul, German: ), or 250. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ...

References

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ...

Bibliography

  • Anderson, Dunkan, et al. The Eastern Front: Barbarossa, Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin (Campaigns of World War II). London: Amber Books Ltd., 2001. ISBN 0-7603-0923-X.
  • Beevor, Antony, and Artemis Cooper. Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942-1943. New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1998. ISBN 0140284583.
  • Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The Downfall 1945. New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 2004. ISBN 0141017473.
  • Erickson, John. The Road to Stalingrad. New York: Orion Publishing Group, Ltd., 2007. ISBN 0304365416.
  • Erickson, John. The Road to Berlin. New York: Orion Publishing Group, Ltd., 2007. ISBN 978-0304365401.
  • Erickson, John, and David Dilks. Barbarossa, the Axis and the Allies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1995. ISBN 0748605045.
  • Glantz, David, and Jonathan M. House. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army stopped Hitler. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, Reprint edition, 1998. ISBN 0700608990.
  • Glantz, David, The Soviet‐German War 1941–45: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay.
  • Guderian, Heinz. Panzer Leader, Da Capo Press Reissue edition. New York: Da Capo Press, 2001. ISBN 0-306-81101-4.
  • Irving, David. Hitler's War, Reissue edition. Avon Books, 1990. ISBN 0380758067.
  • Liddell Hart, B.H. History of the Second World War. United States of America: De Capo Press, 1999. ISBN 0306809125.
  • Lubbeck, William and David B. Hurt. At Leningrad's Gates: The Story of a Soldier with Army Group North, Philadelphia: Casemate, 2006. ISBN 1-932033-55-6.
  • Müller, Rolf-Dieter and Gerd R. Ueberschär. Hitler's War in the East, 1941-1945: A Critical Assessment. Berghahn Books, 1997. ISBN 1-57181-068-4.
  • Overy, Richard. Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945, New Edition. New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1998. ISBN 0140271694.
  • Seaton, Albert. The Russo-German War, 1941–1945, Reprint edition. Presidio Press, 1993. ISBN 0891414916.
  • Winterbotham, F.W. The Ultra Secret, New Edition. Orion Publishing Group Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0752837516.

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... David M. Glantz is an American military historian and the editor of The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Erinnerungen eines Soldaten (Memoirs of a Soldier) is the German language title of Heinz Guderians autobiography of his service in the Panzer arm of the Heer during World War II. Guderians insights are important because of his association with the Panzer forces from a very early period, his... For other uses, see David Irving (disambiguation). ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Frederick William Winterbotham (1897-1990) was a British Royal Air Force officer who during World War II was responsible for the distribution of Ultra intelligence, gleaned chiefly by decryption of German Enigma machine ciphers at Bletchley Park, fifty miles northwest of London. ...

External links

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World War II: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (9351 words)
After World War I, defeated Germany, disappointed Italy, and ambitious Japan were anxious to regain or increase their power; all three eventually adopted forms of dictatorship (see National Socialism and fascism) that made the state supreme and called for expansion at the expense of neighboring countries.
World War II began in 1939 as a conflict between Germany and the combined forces of France and Great Britain, and eventually included most of the nations of the world before it ended in August 1945.
World War II was caused in large part by the rise of totalitarian regimes in Germany and Italy and by the domination of the military in Japan.
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