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Encyclopedia > Eastern Front (World War I)
Eastern Front
Part of World War I
Date 19141918
Location Central and Eastern Europe
Result Decisive German Victory Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Bucharest
Combatants
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Russian Empire
Romania
Commanders
Paul von Hindenburg
Erich Ludendorff
Conrad von Hötzendorf
Emperor Nicholas II
Grand Duke Nicholas
Constantin Prezan
Theatres of World War I
European
Balkans – Western Front – Eastern Front – Italian Front
Middle Eastern
Caucasus – Mesopotamia – Sinai and Palestine – Gallipoli – Persia
African
South-West Africa – West Africa – East Africa
Asian and Pacific
German Samoa and New Guinea – Tsingtao
Other
Atlantic Ocean – Mediterranean – Naval – Aerial
Eastern Front
StalluponenGumbinnenTannenberg1st LembergKrasnik1st Masurian Lakes – Przemyśl – Vistula River – Łódź – Bolimov2nd Masurian Lakes – Gorlice-Tarnów – WarsawLake NarochBrusilov OffensiveKerensky Offensive

The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. The term is in contrast to the Western Front. Despite the geographical separation, the events in the two theaters strongly influenced each other. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... A French caricature on the treaty: the Kaiser points a dagger at a woman (Romania), while showing her the Peace Treaty Delegates at the Peace of Bucharest The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty which was signed on May 7, 1918 forced by Germany to the Romanian side. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary-flag-1869-1918-naval-1786-1869-war. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary-flag-1869-1918-naval-1786-1869-war. ... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Maréchal Ferdinand Foch Moltke --> Falkenhayn --> Hindenburg and Ludendorff --> Hindenburg and Groener Casualties... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Conrad von Hötzendorf Svetozar Boroević Otto von Below The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 260,309 The Battle of Gallipoli was a very bad and costly war, yet... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britain, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I consisted of two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togoland and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and even bombers. ... The Battle of Stalluponen was the first German victory on the Eastern Front in World War I. Brought on by the aggressive tactics of General Hermann von Francois in defense of the German province of East Prussia, the battle was completely unexpected by both sides, along with its outcome. ... Combatants Russian Empire German Empire Commanders Paul von Rennenkampf, Alexander Samsonov Maximilian von Prittwitz Strength I Army (200,000 men) VIII Army (150,000 men) Casualties  ? 6,000 prisoners The Battle of Gumbinnen, started by the Germans on August 20, 1914 was the first major offense in the Eastern Front... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Austria-Hungary Commanders Nikolai Ivanov Conrad von Hötzendorf Strength 1,200,000 1,000,000 Casualties 255,000 300,000 The Battle of Lemberg was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914 in which the... The first battle of Krasnik started on August 23rd, 1914 in the province of Galicia, in northern Austria, and ended two days later on the 25th. ... Combatants German Empire Russian Empire Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Paul von Rennenkampf Strength German Eighth Army Russian First Army Casualties Less Than 40,000 125,000 The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It... Combatants Russia Austria-Hungary Commanders Radko Dmitriev Andrei N. Selivanov Hermann Kusmanek Strength 300,000 PrzemyÅ›l Garrison (126,000) Casualties (40,000 casualties were sustained in the first few days of the siege) at least 16,000 dead, the remaining 110,000 surrendered The Siege of PrzemyÅ›l was... The Battle of the Vistula River, also known as the Battle of Warsaw, was a Russian victory against Germany on the Eastern Front during the First World War. ... Combatants Russia Germany Commanders Nikolai Ruzski August von Mackensen Strength Russian First, Second and Fifth Armies German Ninth Army Casualties 95,000 killed, wounded & captured 35,000 killed, wounded & missing The Battle of Łódź took place from November 11 to December 6, 1914, near the city of Łódź in Poland. ... Combatants German Empire Russian Empire Commanders August von Mackensen General Smirnov Vasily Gurko, VI Corps Strength German Ninth Army unknown Casualties unknown 40,000 casualties The Battle of Bolimov was an inconclusive battle of World War I fought on January 31, 1915 between Germany and Russia and considered a preliminary... The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers offensive on the Eastern Front (World War I) in the winter of 1915. ... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders Ratko Dimitriev August von Mackensen Strength III Army XI Army (Germany) IV Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 240,000 90,000 To allay Russian pressure on the Austro-Hungarians on the Eastern Front, and to inflict Russia a decisive blow, the German Chief of Staff... Poniatowski Bridge, blown up by the retreating Russian Army in 1915 only months after its grand opening. ... Combatants Russian Empire German Empire Commanders Alexei Kuropatkin Alexei Evert Hermann von Eichhorn Strength Parts of two army groups (350,000 men + 1,000 guns) Tenth Army (75,000 men + 400 guns) Casualties 120,000 20,000 The Lake Naroch Offensive (Russian: Нарочь; Belarusian: Нарач (Narač) was an inconclusive battle mainly fought... Combatants Russian Empire Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties 500,000+ men killed or wounded 975... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders Aleksei Brusilov von Bothmer Strength XI, VII, VIII Armies South Army (A.H.-Germany) VII and III Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 400,000 ? The Kerensky Offensive (aka July Offensive or Galician Offensive) was the last Russian offensive in World War One. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For most of World War I, Allied Forces, predominantly those of France and the United Kingdom, were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ...


The length of the front in the East was much longer than in the West. The theatre of war was roughly delimited by the Baltic Sea in the West and Moscow in the East, a distance of 1,200 kilometers, and Saint Petersburg in the North and the Black Sea in the South, a distance of more than 1,600 kilometers. This had a drastic effect on the nature of the warfare. While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfare, the battle lines on the Eastern Front were much more fluid and trenches never truly developed. This was because the greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was easier to break. Once broken, the sparse communication networks made it difficult for the defender to rush reinforcements to the rupture in the line to mount a rapid counteroffensive and seal off a breakthrough. There was also the fact that the terrain in the Eastern European theatre was quite solid, often making it near impossible to construct anything resembling the complicated trench systems on the Western Front, which tended to have muddier and much more workable terrain. In short, on the Eastern front the side defending did not have the overwhelming advantages it had on the Western front. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...


Because of this, front lines in the East kept on shifting throughout the conflict, and not just near the beginning and end of the fighting, as was the case in the West. In fact the greatest advance of the whole war was made in the East by the German Army in the summer of 1915. The German Army (German: Heer, [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Contents

In Russia

The Eastern Front, as it was in 1914
The Eastern Front, as it was in 1914

At the outbreak of the war, Czar Nicholas II appointed his cousin, Grand Duke Nicholas as commander in chief. Although not without ability, the Grand Duke had no part in formulating the war plans. This led to disaster. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x961, 122 KB) Map of the Eastern Front in World War 1, 1914. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x961, 122 KB) Map of the Eastern Front in World War 1, 1914. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main...


The war in the East began with the Russian invasion of East Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia. The first effort quickly turned to a disaster following the Battle of Tannenberg in August 1914. However, the second incursion was completely successful, with the Russians controlling almost all of Galicia by the end of 1914. Under the command of Nikolay Ivanov and Aleksey Brusilov, the Russians won the Battle of Lemberg in September and began the Siege of Przemysl, the next fortress on the road towards Kraków and the Austro-Hungarian border. The Russian invasion of East Prussia occurred during the First World War. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nikolai Ivanov Nikolai Judovich Ivanov (1851 — 1919) was a Russian commander and counter-revolutionary. ... General Brusilov at 64 (1917) Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Austria-Hungary Commanders Nikolai Ivanov Conrad von Hötzendorf Strength 1,200,000 1,000,000 Casualties 255,000 300,000 The Battle of Lemberg was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914 in which the... The Siege of Przemyśl was the greatest siege of the First World War, and a crushing defeat for Austria-Hungary. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


This early Russian success in 1914 on the Austro-Russian border was a reason for concern to the Central Powers and caused considerable German forces to be transferred to the East to take pressure off the Austrians, leading to the creation of the new German Ninth Army. At the end of 1914 the main focus of the fighting shifted to Central Poland, west of the river Vistula. The October Battle of the Vistula River and the November Battle of Łódź brought little advancement for the Germans, but at least kept the Russians at a safe distance. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... The Battle of the Vistula River, also known as the Battle of Warsaw, was a Russian victory against Germany on the Eastern Front during the First World War. ... Combatants Russia Germany Commanders Nikolai Ruzski August von Mackensen Strength Russian First, Second and Fifth Armies German Ninth Army Casualties 95,000 killed, wounded & captured 35,000 killed, wounded & missing The Battle of Łódź took place from November 11 to December 6, 1914, near the city of Łódź in Poland. ...


The Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies continued to clash in and near the Carpathian Mountains throughout the winter of 1914–1915. Przemysl fortress managed to hold out deep behind enemy lines throughout this period, with the Russians bypassing it in order to attack the Austro-Hungarian troops further to the west. They made some progress, crossing the Carpathians in February and March 1915, but then the Germans sent relief and stopped further Russian advance. In the meantime, Przemysl was almost entirely destroyed and the Siege of Przemysl ended in a defeat for the Austrians. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... The Siege of Przemyśl was the greatest siege of the First World War, and a crushing defeat for Austria-Hungary. ...

The Eastern Front, as of 1917
The Eastern Front, as of 1917

Despite these successes, the effectiveness of the Russian Army at the same time rapidly declined as the underdeveloped Russian arms industry proved unable to meet the demands of the front. Furthermore, as the situation on the Western Front stabilized, the German command decided to make its main effort on the Eastern Front in 1915, and accordingly transferred considerable forces there. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (628x951, 380 KB) Map of the Eastern Front as of 1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (628x951, 380 KB) Map of the Eastern Front as of 1917. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ...


To eliminate the Russian threat the Central Powers began the campaign season of 1915 with a successful Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive in Galicia in May of 1915. After the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, the German and Austro-Hungarian troops in the Eastern Front functioned under a unified command. The offensive soon turned into a general advance and then a strategic retreat by the Russian army. By mid-1915, the Russians had been expelled from Russian Poland and hence pushed hundreds of kilometers away from the borders of the Central Powers, removing any threat of Russian invasion of Germany or Austria-Hungary. At the end of 1915 the main part of the front reached a line which in general outline did not change until the Russian collapse in 1917. European military alliances in 1914. ... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders D.R.Radko-Dmitriev August von Mackensen Strength III Army XI Army (Germany) IV Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 240,000 90,000 To allay Russian pressure on the Austro-Hungarians on the Eastern Front, and to inflict Russia a decisive blow, the German Chief... The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers offensive on the Eastern Front (World War I) in the winter of 1915. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


In 1916 the Russians attempted a large counteroffensive under the leadership of General Aleksey Brusilov (the Brusilov Offensive). The attack, aimed against the part of the front held by Austro-Hungarians, was initially a spectacular success. However, a successful counterattack by German units halted the Russian assault. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... General Brusilov at 64 (1917) Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916. ... Combatants Russian Empire Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties 500,000+ men killed or wounded 975... Closing the Falais-Argentan Pocket and the Mortain counterattack 6-17 August 1944 A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ...

Territory lost under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Territory lost under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

By 1917, the Russian economy finally neared collapse under the strain of the war effort. While the equipment of the Russian armies actually improved due to the expansion of the war industry, the food shortages in the major urban centres brought about civil unrest which led to the abdication of the Czar and the February Revolution. The large war casualties also created disaffection and mutinous attitudes in the army, which was fueled by Bolshevik agitators and the Russian Provisional Government’s new liberalization policies towards the army (stripping officers of their mandate by giving wide sweeping powers to “soldier committees”, the abolition of the death penalty). The very last offensive undertaken by the Russian Army in the war was the brief and unsuccessful Kerensky Offensive in July of 1917. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (623x958, 235 KB) Map of Territory given away after Brest-Litovsk From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (623x958, 235 KB) Map of Territory given away after Brest-Litovsk From the History Department of the US Military Academy West Point - http://www. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders Aleksei Brusilov von Bothmer Strength XI, VII, VIII Armies South Army (A.H.-Germany) VII and III Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 400,000 ? The Kerensky Offensive (aka July Offensive or Galician Offensive) was the last Russian offensive in World War One. ...


In November of 1917, the Communist Bolsheviks took power under their leader Vladimir Lenin. Lenin’s new Bolshevik government tried to end the war but the Germans demanded enormous concessions. Finally, in March, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed and the Eastern Front ceased to be a war zone. The Germans were able to transfer some of their divisions to the West, in order to mount an offensive in France in 1918. However, by then the arrival of American units in Europe was sufficient to offset the German advantage. Even after the Russian collapse, about a million German soldiers remained tied up in the East until the end of the war, attempting to run a short-lived addition to the German Empire in Europe. In the end, Germany and Austria would lose all their captured lands, and more, under the Treaty of Versailles. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force sent to Europe in World War I.(In France, AEF is a news agency specialised in Education and Formation) The AEF fought alongside allied forces against imperial German... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


In Romania

Romanian front during WWI
Romanian front during WWI

Also, in the night of 14 August 1916, Romania entered the war on the side of the Entente, and had a successful offensive until September. After that it started to suffer great losses and several defeats from German-Austrian-Bulgarian-Ottoman forces, as the Romanian Army was poorly equipped and their Russian allies offered little support on the front. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...

Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of...

Human cost

The Russian casualties in the First World War are difficult to estimate, due to poor quality of available statistics. Some official Russian sources list 775,400 battlefield fatalities. More recent Russian estimates give 900,000 battlefield deaths and 400,000 dead from combat wounds, for a total of 1.3 million dead. This is about equal to casualties suffered by France and Austria-Hungary and about one-third less than those suffered by Germany.


Cornish gives a total of 2,006,000 military dead (700,000 killed in action, 970,000 died of wounds, 155,000 died of disease and 181,000 POWs died). So Russian losses were similar to the British Empire, 5% of the male population in the 15 to 49 age group. He says civilian casualties were five to six hundred thousand in the first two years, and were then not kept, so a total of over 1,500,000 is not unlikely. He has over five million men passing into captivity, the majority during 1915.


When Russia withdrew from the war, 3.9 million Russian POWs were in German and Austrian hands. This by far exceeded the total number of prisoners of war (1.3 million) lost by the armies of Britain, France and Germany combined. Only the Austro-Hungarian Army, with 2.2 million POWs, even came close. The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ...


Atrocities and civilian casualties

German civilians killed in East Prussia by invading Russians in 1914 are shown

The Russian advance into East Prussia in August 1914 was marked by some brutality, as a tsarist cavalry officer Vladimir Littauer noted in his journals: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Around seven o'clock in the morning, our squadron reached the objective for the day... The scene on the German side of the border was ... frightening. For miles, farms, haystacks and barns were burning. Like every army under the sun, we looted and destroyed and later hated to admit it.

Littauer noted in his journal that locals suspected of directing artillery fire on his unit near the village of Santopen were summarily executed:

Groten completely lost his temper and shouted: 'They are all spies, shoot them!' In a moment, they were all dead.

Whether true or not, faced with stories of atrocities, many civilians fled as refugees from from the areas occupied by Russian forces, Piete Kuhr a refugee noted;

Whole columns of East Prussian refugees came through our town... They say Russians tie German women who stay behind to trees, set up wooden crosses in front of them and nail their little children to them. When the kiddies have died... the Russians mutilate the women and kill them.[1]

The Russians were also accused of destroying Allenburg but some of these claims may have just been German propaganda as noted by American journalist D. Thomas Curtin in his book ‘The Land of Deepening Shadow’, 1916, Curtin had actually visited East Prussia to investigate for himself, however he did agree that the Russians commonly raped women in their areas of occupation Yet all my informants had told me that the Russians had spared none of the weaker sex who had remained in their path.[2]


On the other hand Austrian forces carried out numerous hangings and executions of both prisoners of war and civilians in occupied Serbia.


Footnotes

Reference

The Russian Army and the First World War by Nik Cornish (2006, Spellmount, Stroud UK) ISBN 1-86227-288-3


See also

“The Great War ” redirects here. ...

External links

World War I Portal
  • WWI Eastern Front Foto.WWI Eastern Front Part II
Theatres of World War I
European
Balkans – Western Front – Eastern Front – Italian Front
Middle Eastern
Caucasus – Mesopotamia – Sinai and Palestine – Gallipoli – Persia
African
South-West Africa – West Africa – East Africa
Asian and Pacific
German Samoa and New Guinea – Tsingtao
Other
Atlantic Ocean – Mediterranean – Naval – Aerial


 
 

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