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Encyclopedia > Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity Portal
Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church · Christian Theology
New Covenant · Supersessionism
Apostles · Kingdom · Gospel
History of Christianity · Timeline
Image File history File links Portal. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... “Apostle” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... Christianity was around before it was actually refered to as Christianity. Before Christ was born, there were believers descended from Adam and Eve that knew who God was and had a connection (faith) with Him. ...


Bible
Old Testament · New Testament
Books · Canon · Apocrypha
Septuagint · Decalogue
Birth · Resurrection
Sermon on the Mount
Great Commission
Translations · English
Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


Christian Theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
Grace · Faith · Justification · Salvation
Sanctification · Theosis · Worship
Church · Sacraments · Eschatology
Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: ‎ Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys purported transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History and Traditions
Early · Councils
Creeds · Marcionism . Missions
Great Schism · Crusades · Reformation
Great Awakenings · Great Apostasy
Restorationism · Nontrinitarianism
Thomism · Arminianism
Congregationalism The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus and the foundation of the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch in the 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... In Early Christianity Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144 (115 years and 6 months from the Crucifixion, according to Tertullians reckoning in Adversus Marcionem, xv). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Great Apostasy is a disparaging term used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, magisterial Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy, that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short, that... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to unaffiliated religious movements that attempted to circumvent Protestant denominationalism and orthodox Christian creeds to restore Christianity to their constructions of its original form. ... Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Eastern Christianity
Eastern Orthodox · Oriental Orthodox
Syriac Christianity · Eastern Catholic
The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Western Christianity
Western Catholicism · Protestantism
Anabaptism · Lutheranism · Calvinism
Anglicanism · Baptist · Methodism
Evangelicalism · Fundamentalism
Unitarianism . Liberalism
Adventism · Pentecostalism
Latter Day Saints · Christian Science
Jehovah's Witnesses · Unity Church
Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers [1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe how the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, the Anglican Communion. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... The Latter Day Saint movement is a religious movement that can be said to have been founded primarily by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (First published in 1875). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations
Ecumenism Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important Figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe
Luther · Calvin · Wesley
Arius . Marcion of Sinope . Pope Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος) (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Marcionism. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Christianity Portal

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Part of the series on
Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity Portal

History
Byzantine Empire
Crusades
Ecumenical council
Baptism of Kiev
Great Schism
By region
History of the Eastern Orthodox Church
History of Christianity in Ukraine
Image File history File links HY002563. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Orthodox Christian culture reached its golden age during the high point of Byzantine Empire and continued to flourish in Russia, after the fall of Constantinople. ... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ...

Traditions
Assyrian Church of the East
Oriental Orthodoxy
Syriac Christianity
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...

Liturgy and Worship
Divine Liturgy
Iconography
The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Theology
Apophaticism - Filioque clause
Miaphysitism - Monophysitism
Nestorianism - Panentheism
Theosis Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Panentheism (from Greek: πάν (‘pan’ ) = all, en = in, and theos = God; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...

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Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. It is contrasted with Western Christianity which developed in Western Europe. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations[1] (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... A common post-WWII understanding of Western Europe Western Europe in its most common understanding is a socio-political concept coined and used during the Cold War. ...

Contents

Families of churches

Eastern Christians have a shared tradition, but they became divided during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about christology and fundamental theology. Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ...


In general terms, Eastern Christianity can be described as comprising four families of churches: the Assyrian Church of the East, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Eastern Catholic Churches. The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Although there are important theological and dogmatic disagreements among these groups, nonetheless in some matters of traditional practice that are not matters of dogma, they resemble each other in some ways in which they differ from Catholic and Protestant churches in the West. For example, in all the Eastern churches, parish priests administer the sacrament of chrismation to newborn infants just after baptism; that is not done in Western churches. All the groups have weaker rules on clerical celibacy than those of the Latin Rite (i.e., Western) Catholic churches, in that, although they don't allow marriage after ordination, they allow married men to become priests (and originally bishops). For these reasons, it sometimes makes sense to generalize, saying "In the Eastern Church, it is customary to ..." etc. Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ...


The Eastern churches' differences from Western Christianity has as much to do with culture, language, and politics as theology. For the non-Catholic Eastern churches, a definitive date for the commencement of schism cannot be given (see East-West Schism), although conventionally, it is often stated that the Assyrian Church of the East became estranged from the church of the Roman Empire in the years following the Council of Ephesus (431), Oriental Orthodoxy separated after the Council of Chalcedon (451), and the split between the Church of Rome and the Orthodox Church is usually dated to 1054 (often referred to as the Great Schism). Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ...


Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East, which sometimes calls itself the Assyrian Orthodox Church, traces its roots to the See of Babylon, said to have been founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. It accepts only the first two Ecumenical Councils of the undivided Church — the Council of Nicaea and the First Council of Constantinople — as defining its faith tradition. This church, developing within the Persian Empire, at the east of the Christian world, rapidly took a different course from other Eastern Christians. In the West, it is sometimes inaccurately called the Nestorian Church. The Holy Apostolic Catholic Ancient Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Catholic Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Oriental Orthodox Churches

Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian tradition that keep the faith of the first three Ecumenical Councils of the undivided Church: the First Council of Nicaea (AD 325), the First Council of Constantinople (381) and the Council of Ephesus (431), and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon (451). Hence, these churches are also called Old Oriental Churches. The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Catholic Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ...


Oriental Orthodoxy developed in reaction to Chalcedon on the eastern limit of the Byzantine Empire and in Egypt and Syria. In those locations, there are now also Eastern Orthodox Patriarchs, but the rivalry between the two has largely vanished in the centuries since schism. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The following Oriental Orthodox churches are autocephalous and in full communion: In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ...

Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family in Christianity, founded by St. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...

Eastern Orthodox Churches

The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Russia, Greece, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, with a growing presence in the western world. Eastern Orthodox Christians accept seven Ecumenical Councils. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ...


Orthodox Christianity identifies itself as the original Christian church founded by Christ and the Apostles, and traces its lineage back to the early church through the process of Apostolic Succession and unchanged theology and practice. Orthodox distinctives (shared with some of the Eastern Catholic Churches) include the Divine Liturgy, Mysteries or Sacraments, and an emphasis on the preservation of Tradition, which it holds to be Apostolic in nature. In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ composed of the Apostles. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ...


Orthodox Churches are also distinctive in that they are organized into self-governing jurisdictions along national lines. Orthodoxy is thus made up of 14 or 15 national autocephalous bodies. Smaller churches are autonomous and each have a mother church that is autocephalous. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


The Eastern Orthodox Church includes the following churches The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ...

Most Eastern Orthodox are united in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, though unlike in the Roman Catholic Church, this is a looser connection rather than a top-down hierarchy (see primus inter pares). In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Antiochian Orthodox Church is one of the five churches that composed the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church before the Great Schism, and today is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, properly called the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, is regarded by Orthodox Christians as the mother church of all of Christendom, because it was in Jerusalem that the Church was established on the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (Saqartvelos Samotsiqulo Avtokepaluri Martlmadidebeli Eklesia in Georgian language) is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Serbian/Montenegrin: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is an uncannonical church that registered as a non-governmental organization at the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior in 1997. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... The ancient Church of Cyprus is one of the fourteen or fifteen independent (autocephalous) Eastern Orthodox churches, which are in communion and in doctrinal agreement with one another but not all subject to one patriarch. ... The Church of Greece is one of the fifteenth autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Orthodox Authocephalous Church of Albania is one of the newest autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, having only been established in the 20th century. ... Orthodox church in Hajnówka The Autocephalous Church of Poland, commonly known as the Polish Orthodox Church, is one of the independent Orthodox churches. ... The Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church (Czechoslovak Orthodox Church up to 1993) traces its roots to the Church of the Czech Brethren of the 1920s. ... The Orthodox Church in America (OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... St. ... The Finnish Orthodox Church is the second official national church of Finland, beside the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. ... The Japanese Orthodox Church (日本ハリストス正教会) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy, under the omophor of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the ecclesiastic link to the Moscow Patriarchy. ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy formed in response against the policy of Bolsheviks with respect to religion in the Soviet Union soon after the Russian Revolution. ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kiev Patriarchy) (Ukrainian: ; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate or UOC-KP) is one of the two major Orthodox churches in Ukraine, however viewed uncanonical by the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Latinic: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , it is derived from -hieros, sacred, and -arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people sharing the same rank or office. ...


It is estimated that there are approximately 240 million Orthodox Christians in the world.[1] Today, many adherents shun the term "Eastern" as denying the church's universal character. They refer to Eastern Orthodoxy simply as the Orthodox Church.


Eastern Catholic Churches

The twenty-two Eastern Catholic churches are all in communion with the Holy See at the Vatican, but are rooted in the theological and liturgical traditions of Eastern Christianity. The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ...


Many of these churches were originally part of one of the above families and so are closely related to them by way of ethos and liturgical practice. As in the other Eastern churches, married men may become priests, and parish priests administer the mystery of confirmation to newborn infants immediately after baptism, via the rite of chrismation; the infants are then administered Holy Communion. The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... . ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Confirmation can refer to: Confirmation (sacrament) Confirmation (epistemology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


The Maronite Church always remained in communion with the Holy See, and thus does not have a counterpart among the non-Catholic Eastern churches. The Italo-Greek Catholic Church has also always remained in communion with the Holy See. Eastern Catholics form around 2% of the entire membership of the Catholic Church as the majority of the Eastern Catholic church broke off communion in the East-West Schism of AD 1054 forming the Eastern Orthodox Church. Maronites (الموارنة) are Eastern Rite Catholics. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is one of the Byzantine Rite sui juris churches of the Catholic Communion. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ...


Catholic-Orthodox ecumenism

Ecumenical dialogue over the past 43 years since Paul VI's meeting with the Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I has awoken the nearly 1000-year hopes for Christian unity. Since the lifting of excommunications during the Paul VI and Athenagoras I meeting in Jerusalem there have been other significant meetings between the Pope and Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople. The most recent meeting was between Benedict XVI and Bartholomew I, who signed the Common Declaration. It states "We give thanks to the Author of all that is good, who allows us once again, in prayer and in dialogue, to express the joy we feel as brothers and to renew our commitment to move towards full communion" [1]


Dissenting movements

In addition to these four mainstream branches, there are a number of much smaller groups which, like Protestants, are dissenters from the dominant tradition in their area, but are usually not referred to as Protestants because they lack historical ties to the Reformation, and usually lack a classically Protestant theology. Most of these are either part of the more traditional Old Believer movement, which arose from a schism within Russian Orthodoxy, or the more radical "Spiritual Christianity" movement. The latter includes a number of diverse "low-church" groups, from the Bible-centered Molokans to the anarchic Doukhobors to the self-mutilating Skoptsy. None of these groups are in communion with the mainstream churches listed above, aside from a few Old Believer parishes in communion with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... A fragment of painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting a defiant Old Believer arrested by Czar authorities in 1671. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Spiritual Christianity (Russian: ) is a type of religious thought among the sectarianism of Russian Orthodoxy, with followers called spiritual Christians (Russian: ). Traditionally, the following sects are spiritual Christians: Molokans, Dukhobors, Khlysts, Skoptsy, and Ikonobortsy (Icon-fighters, Iconoclasts). These sects often have radically different notions of spirituality. Their common denominator is... The Molokans (Russian: ) are a Biblically-centered religious movement, among the Russian peasants, who broke away from the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1550s. ... The Doukhobors (Russian Духоборы) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ... As of 1911, the Skoptzy (скопцы, also transliterated as Skoptzi, Skoptsi, Scoptsy and other spellings) were a secret sect of Russia. ... A fragment of painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting a defiant Old Believer arrested by Czar authorities in 1671. ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy formed in response against the policy of Bolsheviks with respect to religion in the Soviet Union soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917. ...


There are national dissidents, where ethnic groups want their own nation-church like with the Macedonian Orthodox Church and Montenegrin Orthodox Church; both domiciles of the Serbian Orthodox Church. However, it should be noted that in Macedonia, the influence of the Serbian Orthodox Church is minimal to non-existent. The vast majority of Orthodox ethnic Macedonians view the Serbian Orthodox Church as hostile to Macedonian history, national interests, and self-determination. The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Latinic: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Serbian/Montenegrin: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is an uncannonical church that registered as a non-governmental organization at the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior in 1997. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... Languages Macedonian Religions Macedonian Orthodox, Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox, Other, None Related ethnic groups • Slavs   â€¢ South Slavs    â€¢ South-Eastern Slavs      â€¢ Ethnic Macedonians      â€¢ Bulgarians The Macedonians[17] (Macedonian: , transliteration: ) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[18] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ...


A little known movement of "reformers" in the Greek Orthodox Church traces its history to the 18th century. The leaders of this "schism" within the Orthodox Christian churches were called by a Greek word meaning 'unstable' (astateos). The children of these leaders left the East toward Western Europe, mainly Spain. In Ibero America these families are known by the derivative name 'Astacios' or 'Astacio.' One of their descendants was one of the first converts to the Pentecostal movement in 1916, Petra Astacio, of Montellano (Ponce, Puerto Rico). The Astacios have intermarried with native people of the Americas as well as with Spanish Jews (Sephardim) and Afro-Caribeans.


Liturgy

The Eastern churches (excepting the non-liturgical dissenting bodies) each belong to one of several liturgical families:

The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... The West Syrian Rite is the rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria, the Orthodox church of India, and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The east Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ...

See also

For other definitions and meaning for the word orthodox, see Orthodoxy. The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching, glorification), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ...

Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... Christian meditation is meditation in a Christian context. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Alphabetical list of Eastern Christianity-related topics A Abraham the Great of Kashkar Abuna Albanian Catholic Church Albanian Orthodox Church Ancient Church of the East Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America Antiochian Orthodox Church Archimandrite Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Catholic Patriarchs Assyrian Church of the East... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See details for Major religious groups

Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ...

External links


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