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Encyclopedia > Eastern Chalukyas

Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Andhra Pradesh: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్; Āndhra Prādesh), is a state in South India and is part of the linguistic-cultural region of South India. ... // Vengi dynasties Vengi kingdom extended from River Godavari in the north to Mount MahendraGiri in the southeast and to just below the southern banks of River Krishna in the south. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Yadava Dynasty ruled a kingdom in what is now Maharashtra, India from the 12th century to the 14th century. ...


They had their capital originally at Vengi near Eluru of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry). Eluru is the headquarters of West Godavari district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Rajahmundry or Rajamundry is a major city in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India. ...


Eastern Chalukyas were closely related to the Chalukyas of Vatapi (Badami) and were of Kannada origin. Throughout their history they were the cause of many wars between the more powerful Cholas and Chalukyas over the control of the strategic Vengi country. The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... Badami is a city in Karnataka in modern India. ...


The five centuries of the Eastern Chalukya rule of Vengi saw not only the consolidation of this region into an unified whole, but also saw the efflorescence of Telugu culture, literature, poetry and art during the later half of their rule. It can be said to be the golden period of Andhra history. Telugu may refer to: TELUGU PORTAL Telugu language Telugu script Telugu people This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ...

Contents


Orgin of Eastern Chalukyas

Pulakesin II (608644 C.E), the greatest Badami Chalukya king, conquered the eastern Deccan, corresponding the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh 616 C.E., defeating the remnants of the Vishnukundina kingdom. He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnu Vardhana as Viceroy. On the death of Pulakesin II, the Vengi Viceroyalty developed into an independent kingdom. Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi outlived the main Vatapi dynasty by many generations. Events September 15 - Boniface IV becomes pope. ... Events Births Deaths Paulinus of York, bishop of Northumbria November: Omar, Second caliph of Islam by assassination. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750 from Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, and again between 973 and 1190 from Manyakheta initially and later from Kalyana in Bidar district. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Andhra Pradesh: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్; Āndhra Prādesh), is a state in South India and is part of the linguistic-cultural region of South India. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Vishnukundina By 514 AD. The Vakataka empire was reduced to areas of present day Telengana area. ... For the butterfly, see viceroy butterfly. ... Pulakesi II (c. ...


Between 641 C.E. and 705 C.E. some kings, except Jayasimha I and Mangi Yuvaraja, ruled for very short durations. Then followed a period of unrest characterised by family feuds and weak rulers. Meanwhile, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed ousted Western Chalukyas of Badami. The weak rulers of Vengi had to meet the challenge of the Rashtrakutas, who overran their kingdom more than once. There was no Eastern Chalukya ruler who could check them until Gunaga Vijayaditya III came to power in 848 C.E. The then Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha treated him as his ally and after Amoghavarsha's death, Vijayaditya proclaimed independence. Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... Badami is a city in Karnataka in modern India. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ...


List of Eastern Chalukya Kings

  • Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624641 C.E.)
  • Jayasimha I (641673 C.E.)
  • Indra Bhattaraka (673 C.E.)
  • Vishnuvardhana II (673682 C.E.)
  • Mangi Yuvaraja (682706) C.E.)
  • Jayasimha II (706718 C.E.)
  • Vishnuvardhana III (719 – 55 C.E.)
  • Vijayaditya I (755772 C.E.)
  • Vishnuvardhana IV (772808 C.E.)
  • Vijayaditya II (808847 C.E.)
  • Vishnuvardhana V (847849 C.E.)
  • Vijayaditya III (848892 C.E.)
  • Bhima I (892921 C.E.)
  • Vijayaditta IV (921 C.E.
  • Amma I (921927 C.E.
  • Vikramaditya II (927928 C.E.)
  • Yuddamalla II (928935 C.E.)
  • Chalukya Bhima II (935947 C.E.)
  • Amma II (947970 C.E.)
  • Danamava (970973 C.E.)
  • Jata Choda Bhima (973 - 1000 C.E.
  • Saktivarman I (1000 - 1011 C.E.
  • Vimaladitya (10111018 C.E.
  • Rajaraja Narendra (10181061 C.E.)
  • Saktivarman II
  • Vijayaditya VII (10631068 C.E. , 10721075 C.E.)

Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu... // Events Leo II elected pope. ... // Events Leo II elected pope. ... Events Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I begins the Great Mosque of Damascus Births Deaths Categories: 706 ... Events Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I begins the Great Mosque of Damascus Births Deaths Categories: 706 ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... Events The Abbasid capital is moved north from Baghdad to Samarra. ... Events The Abbasid capital is moved north from Baghdad to Samarra. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Events Births Deaths August 18 - Walafrid Strabo, German monk and theologian Categories: 849 ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Events Embassy of Ahmad ibn Fadlan from Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir Henry the Fowler invades Bavaria and obtains fealty from Arnulf the Bad Births King Edmund I of England Onmyoji Abe no Seimei Deaths September 1 - Richard of... Events Embassy of Ahmad ibn Fadlan from Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir Henry the Fowler invades Bavaria and obtains fealty from Arnulf the Bad Births King Edmund I of England Onmyoji Abe no Seimei Deaths September 1 - Richard of... 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Administration

In its early life, the Eastern Chalukya court was more or less a repulic of Badami, and as generations passed, local factors gained in strength and the Vengi monarchy developed features of its own. External influences still continued to be present as the Eastern Chalukyas had had long and intimate contact, either friendly or hostile, with the Pallavas, the Rashtrakutas, the Cholas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ...


Type of Government

The Eastern Chalukyan government was a monarchy based on the Hindu philosophy. The inscriptions refer to the traditional seven components of the state (Saptanga), and the eighteen Tirthas (Offices), such as A Hindu (archaic Hindoo), as per modern definition is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of the Indian subcontinent and the island of Bali. ...

  • Mantri (Minister)
  • Purohita (Chaplain)
  • Senapati (Commander)
  • Yuvaraja (Heir-apparent)
  • Dauvarika (Door keeper)
  • Pradhana (Chief)
  • Adhyaksha (Head of department) and so on.

No information is available as to how the work of administration was carried out. The Vishaya and Kottam were the administrative subdivisions known from records. The Karmarashtra and the Boya-Kottams are examples of these. The royal edicts (recording gifts of lands or villages) are addressed to all Naiyogi Kavallabhas, a general term containing no indication of their duties, as well as to the Grameyakas, the residents of the village granted. The Manneyas are also occasionally referred in inscriptions. They held assignments of land or revenue in different villages. Purohit means a priest exclusively for royal family or a king. ...


Fratricidal wars and foreign invasions frequently disturbed the land. The territory was parcelled out into many small principalities (estates) held by the nobility consisting of collateral branches of the ruling house such as those of Elamanchili, Pithapuram and Mudigonda, and a few Kshatriya families (Kona Haihayas (Heheya, Kalachuris), Kolanu Saronathas etc.), closely connected by marriage ties with the Eastern Chalukyas and other Kshatriya and non-Kshatriya families (Velanadus, Kondapadamatis, Chagis, Parichedas, Kota Vamsas etc.) who were raised to high position for their loyal services. When the Vengi ruler was strong, the nobility paid allegiance and tribute to him, but when the weakness was apparent, they were ready to join hands with the enemies against the royal house. Pithapuram is a town near Kakinada city in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh in South India. ... Kshatriya is the title of the Hindu military order. ... Capital: Mahishmati (Maheswar, , Madhya Pradesh) Heheya kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Kalachuri of Chedi Kalli (Long moustache) + Churi (Sharp knife). ... Kota Vamsa Kota Vamsas ruled Andhra with Dharanikota as thier capital. ...


Society

The population in the Vengi country was heterogeneous in character. Yuan Chwang, who travelled in the Andhra country after the establishment of the Eastern Chalukya kingdom, noted that the people were of a violent character, were of a dark complexion and were fond of arts. // Vengi dynasties Vengi kingdom extended from River Godavari in the north to Mount MahendraGiri in the southeast and to just below the southern banks of River Krishna in the south. ...


The society was based on hereditary caste system. Even the Buddhists and Jains who originally disregarded caste, adopted it. Besides the four traditional castes, minor communities like Boyas and Saharas (Tribal groups) also existed. The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ...


The Brahmins were held in high esteem in the society. They were proficient in Vedas and Shastras and were given gifts of land and money. They held lucrative posts such as councillors, ministers and members of civil service. They even entered the army and some of them rose to positions of high command. Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद), collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo-Aryan religious literature that are associated with the Vedic civilization and are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. ...


The Kshatriyas were the ruling class. Their love of intrigue and fighting was responsible for civil war for two centuries. A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ...


The Komatis (Vaisyas) was flourishing trading community. Their organisation into a powerful guild (Nakaram) which had its headquarters in Penugonda (West Godavari) and branches in seventeen other centres had its beginnings in this period. It seems there used to be a minister for communal affairs (Samaya Mantri) in the government. In the Hindu caste system, a Vaishya (Sanskrit वैश्य vaiśya) is a member of the third of the four major castes of the varna system of traditional Indian society. ... Map showing wastgodavari district West Godavari is a district in Andhra Pradesh in India. ...


The Sudras constituted the bulk of the population and there were several sub-castes among them. The army furnished a career for most of them and some of them aquired the status of Samanta Raju and Mandalika. Tamils and Kannidigas were telugised Shudra or Sudra is the fourth caste or varna in the traditional four-caste division in Indian society. ... Samanta Raju is an Indian title that refers to a territorial vassal or viceroy (a person who provides military support and governing over a territory in the absence of a king or monarch in exchange for certain guarantees). ...


Religion

Buddhism, which was dominant during the Satavahanas was in decline. Its monasteries were practically deserted. Due to their love of sacred relics in stupas, a few might have lingered on, Ywan Chwang noticed some twenty or more Buddhist monastries in which more than three thousand monks lived. Buddhism (Pāli Buddhadhamma or Sanskrit Buddhadharma) is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following his death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates...


Jainism, unlike Buddhism, continued to enjoy some support from the people. This is evident from the several deserted images in ruined villages all over Andhra. The inscriptions also record the construction of Jain temples and grants of land for their support from the monarchs and the people. The rulers like Kubja Vishnuvardhana, Vishnuvardhana III and Amma II patronised Jainism. Vimaladitya even became a declared follower of the doctrine of Mahavira. Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a religion and philosophy originating in the prehistory of South Asia. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ...


Vijayawada, Jenupadu, Penugonda (West Godavari) and Munugodu were the famous Jain centres of the period. Vijayawada (విజయవాడ) literally translates to The Place of Victory. It is also known as Bezawada or Blazewada because of its heat. ...


Hinduism was the official religion throughout the Chalukya period. Of the Hindu sects, Saivism was more popular than Vaishnavism. Hinduism (Sanskrit/Hindi —, hindi , and ) is a religion originating in the Indian subcontinent, based on the Vedas, and among the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal divisions of Hinduism. ...


Some of the rulers, declared themselves as Parama Maheswaras (Emperors). The Buddhist religious centres eventually attained great celebrity as Siva pilgrim centres. Eastern Chalukya rulers like Vijayaditya II, Yuddhamalla I, Vijayaditya III and Bhima I took active interest in the construction of many temples. The temple establishments like dancers and musicians show that during this period, temples were not only a centre of religious worship but a fostering ground for fine arts. This article is about the Hindu God. ...


Literature

Telugu literature owes its origin to the Chalukyas. Poetry makes its first appearance in the Addanki and Kandukus inscriptions of Pandaranga in the time of Vijayaditya II in the later half of the ninth century. However no literary work of any value appeared until 11th century C.E.


Nannaya Bhatta's Mahabharata is the earliest extant work of Telugu literature. Nannaya was the poet-laureate of Rajaraja Narendra in the middle of the eleventh century C.E. An erudite scholar, he was well-versed in the Vedas, Sastras and the ancient epics, he undertook to translation of the Mahabharata in to Telugu. The fact that Narayana Bhatta who was proficient in eight languages assisted him in his endeavour. Though incomplete, his work is universally acclaimed as a masterpiece of Telugu literature. It remains unrivaled for its graceful end dignified diction and sweet and elegant verses. Nannaya (11th century A.D) is one of the authors of first known literary work, Andhra Mahabharatam (a translation of Sanskrit Mahabharata), in Telugu. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद), collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo-Aryan religious literature that are associated with the Vedic civilization and are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ...


Architecture

Because of the widely spread Siva devotional cult in the kingdom the Eastern Chalukyan kings undertook construction of temples on a large scale. Vijayaditya II is credited with the construction of 108 temples. Yuddhamalla I erected a temple to Kartikeya at Vijayawada. Bhima I constructed the famous Draksharama and Chalukya Bhimavaram (Samalkot) temples. Rajaraja Narendra erected three memorial shrines at Kalidindi (West Godavari). In Hinduism, Kārttikeya (also Skanda, Subrahmanya, Kumara, Arumugan, Shanmugan, Murugan, Guha, Saravana, Swaminatha, Velan,Velavan, Senthil) is a god born out of a magical spark created by Shiva. ... Vijayawada (విజయవాడ) literally translates to The Place of Victory. It is also known as Bezawada or Blazewada because of its heat. ... Bhimavaram is a town in the state of Andhra Pradesh in Southern India. ...


The Eastern Chalukyas, following the Pallava and Chalukya traditions, developed their own independent style of architecture, which is visible in the Pancharama shrines (especially the Draksharama temple) and Biccavulu temples. The Golingeswara temple at Biccavulu contains some richly carved out sculptures of deities like Arthnariswara, Siva, Vishnu, Agni, Chamundi and Surya. This article is about the Hindu God. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Agni is a Hindu deity. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


References

  • Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras upto 1565 A. D. P. G. PUBLISHERS, GUNTUR (1988)
  • South Indian Inscriptions [1]
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).

 
 

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