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Encyclopedia > Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
IATA
EA
ICAO
EAL
Callsign
Eastern
Founded 1926 (as Pitcairn Aviation)
Ceased Operation 1991
Hubs Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport
Miami International Airport
Kansas City International Airport
San Juan Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport
Fleet size 304
Destinations 140
Parent company Eastern Air Lines, Inc.
Headquarters Miami, Florida
Key people Eddie Rickenbacker (First CEO), Floyd Hall, Frank Borman, Frank Lorenzo (Final CEO)

Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline that existed from the late 1920s until 1991. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Eastern Airways is an airline based at Humberside International Airport, United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Ealogo. ... IATA airline designators, sometimes called IATA reservation codes, are two-character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to the worlds airlines in accordance with the provisions of Resolution 762. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ICAO airline code. ... Most airlines employ a distinctive and internationally recognised call sign that is normally spoken during airband radio transmissions as a prefix to the flight number. ... An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. ... FAA diagram of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA: ATL, ICAO: KATL, FAA LID: ATL), locally known as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield Airport, Hartsfield-Jackson, or simply Hartsfield, is located seven miles (11 km) south of the central business district of Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... Destinations with direct service from Miami Miami International Airport (IATA: MIA, ICAO: KMIA, FAA LID: MIA) is a public airport located eight miles (13 km) northwest of the central business district of Miami, in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. ... Airport diagram Airport from the east. ... , SJU redirects here. ... A holding company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors. ... Miami redirects here. ... Eddie Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was best known as a World War I fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ...

Contents

History

An Eastern Air Lines DC-3, on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
An Eastern Air Lines DC-3, on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

Eastern Airlines began as a mail carrier for the U.S. Postal Service in the mid-1920s, and is recognized as one of the first and longest-running U.S. "trunk" carriers. The airline grew into a passenger carrier soon after its inception and came to dominate much of the domestic travel industry along the lucrative east coast corridor by the 1950s. At the time it was widely known for its famous president, racer and World War I Ace, Eddie Rickenbacker. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Eddie Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was best known as a World War I fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient. ...


The airline did well financially well into the 1970s and was respected in the industry for helping to pioneer the use of a worldwide computer reservation systems, an all-jet mainline fleet, and yield management techniques. It was the launch carrier for the Lockeed L-1011 widebody jetliner in 1973 and the Boeing 757 in 1983.


By the 1970s the airline had grown into one of the "big 4" major U.S. airlines, and was led by astronaut-turned CEO Frank Borman. Initially very popular in the company and throughout the industry (even appearing in numerous Eastern advertising campaigns in the 1970s and 1980s), Borman's popularity waned as the carrier struggled after the 1978 Air Transportation Deregulation Act. As the carrier began to lose millions of dollars quarterly, Borman's relations with the unions began to suffer, and he eventually gave his blessing to a buyout proposal to shareholders from corporate raider Frank Lorenzo in 1985. Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Francisco A. Lorenzo is an investment manager, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and a former airline CEO in the United States. ...


Despite its financial woes, Eastern had by this time become the largest airline in the free world in terms of passengers enplaned (a title it held for 3 years in the mid-1980s), served 26 countries on 3 continents (North America, Europe, and South America), and was petitioning the U.S. government for rights for operate in Asia. It also had large hub operations at airports in Atlanta, Miami, New York, Newark, Boston, San Juan, and Kansas City.


Lorenzo and his Texas Air International oversaw a dramatic and rapid decline for Eastern Airlines, which was in a difficult but redeemable position when purchased. Although the exact causes of the decline are disputed to this day, most analysts agree that the carrier was systematically raided of valuable assets including new aircraft, its east-coast shuttle service, its lucrative fuel operations, and its worldwide travel agent computer system (SystemOne), almost all of which was sold at drastically reduced prices or given to Lorenzo's other carrier, Continental. This combined with poor management, a worstening economy, and deteriorating labor relations forced the carrier into Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1989 following a mechanics strike. At the time it was the largest airline bankruptcy in U.S. history, a title it held until United filed after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The carrier was placed under the direction of trustee Marty Shugrue.


Shugrue tried to rebuild a now-anemic route network that had fallen badly behind other domestic carriers American, United, and Delta (which competed most directly with Eastern). Although the carrier tried desperately to remake itself after the filing, it continued to bleed cash, finding itself billions in debt. With creditors clamoring for a shut-down, and the country entering recession and a war, Eastern ceased operations the day after the start of Operation Desert Storm in 1991. Around 35,000 employees lost their jobs and most analysts now agree that Eastern should have been allowed to continue operating by the bankruptcy court, considering its still-enormous assets and passenger loads. Eastern assets were sold in a comprehensive asset liquidation sale. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


Many airlines rushed to fill the void that Eastern left. TWA established a short-lived hub in Atlanta. American drastically expanded its operations in Miami and South America, as did United. TWA also established a "focus city" out of San Juan.


Eastern's concourses at both J.F.K. airport in New York and Liberty airport in Newark were demolished, and the Newark operations were supplanted by Continental. Continental also inherited the OnePass frequent flier program as a result of their Texas Air affiliation.


Sadly, Eastern's demise was eclipsed by the smaller (but more visible) demise of Pan Am the same year, as well as by Operation Desert Storm.


Precursors

Eastern Air Lines was a composite of assorted air travel corporations, including Pitcairn Aviation, established on April 19, 1926, and Florida Air Ways. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Transporting air mail

Pitcairn won a government contract to fly the U.S. Mail between New York City and Atlanta, Georgia, operating Mailwing single-engine aircraft. In 1929 Clement Keys, the owner of North American Aviation, purchased Pitcairn. In 1930 he changed the name to Eastern Air Transport, and it would soon be known as Eastern Air Lines. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rickenbacker leadership

In 1938, the airline was purchased by World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker. Rickenbacker pushed Eastern into a period of prodigious growth and innovation. For a time, Eastern was the most profitable airline in the post-war era. In the late 1950s, Eastern's fortunes changed, and Rickenbacker was forced out of his CEO position on October 1, 1959. His ouster was due largely to his reluctance to acquire jets. He felt they were a fad and that his fleet of turboprop Lockheed Electras [was] good enough. He left his position as chairman of the board on December 31, 1963. Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Eddie Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was best known as a World War I fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Supporting World War II

During the beginnings of World War II, military aviation equipment had not been produced. The United States war effort required civilian resources. Due to the efforts of Eddie Rickenbacker, Eastern Air Lines provided the United States with aircraft and personnel. Flying machine redirects here. ...


Developing air transportation systems

Throughout the 1940s, competitors were acquired, more advanced planes were purchased and international routes were opened. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ...


Prominence in the industry

By the 1950s, Eastern's propellers were very prominent up and down the East Coast of the United States. In 1956, they purchased Canadian airline Colonial Airlines, which gave the airline their first service to Canada.[1] the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonial Airlines was a Canadian airline from the 1940s and 1950s with bases in Montreal and at LaGuardia Airport in New York. ...


Improving technology: jet aircraft

In 1960 Eastern's first jets, Douglas DC-8s arrived, allowing Eastern to open non-stop service from New York City's Idlewild International Airport to LAX. The DC-8s were joined in 1962 by the Boeing 720, then in 1964 by a regional airliner, the Boeing 727. Around this time, Eastern started changing their planes' livery colors to include the dark blue hockey stick design, iconic in the airline industry. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK) is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in the south-eastern portion of New York City. ... Runway layout at LAX “LAX” redirects here. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ...


Eastern Shuttle

In 1961 Eastern inaugurated the Eastern Air Shuttle, featuring hourly flights of Lockheed Constellations and Electras between New York-LaGuardia, Washington, D.C.-National, and Boston-Logan airports. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ... The Lockheed L-188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed. ... LaGuardia Airport (IATA: LGA, ICAO: KLGA, FAA LID: LGA) is an airport serving New York City, New York, United States, located on the waterfront of Flushing Bay, and borders the neighborhoods of Astoria, Jackson Heights and East Elmhurst in the borough of Queens. ... Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (IATA: DCA, ICAO: KDCA, FAA LID: DCA) is a public airport located three miles (5 km) south of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia, United States. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ...


The groundbreaking service emphasized convenience and simplicity—revolutionary in an era when air travel was both considered and expected to be a luxury. Not only were seat reservations not required, seat assignments were not given, and initially no check-in was required and no boarding passes were issued. Eastern guaranteed availability, however, and planes flew hourly whether empty or full. In the event of a full flight, Eastern simply added another aircraft. Jets were added in 1967 and the shuttle became all-jet in 1978 with a fleet of dedicated Boeing 727s. Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ...


The shuttle proved one of Eastern's most successful ventures. Other airlines, including Pan American World Airways, eventually set up competing services. Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ...


New leadership, corporate changes

Logo on an Eastern Air Lines DC-3
Logo on an Eastern Air Lines DC-3

The 1970s brought dramatic changes in the management of Eastern. Former astronaut Frank Borman was brought on as president. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Expanded routes and service

Internationalization began as Eastern opened routes to new markets such as Madrid, Mexico City, Santo Domingo, Nassau, Bahamas and London. Services from San Juan, Puerto Rico's Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport were expanded. This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see San Juan. ... , SJU redirects here. ...


Larger equipment

Eastern bought the Lockheed L-1011 jet, which would become known in the Caribbean as El Grandote (the huge one). Boeing 747s, leased from Pan Am (although they were purchased by Eastern and sold on delivery to Pan Am), were also introduced for a short time while the carrier awaited the delivery of the L-1011. The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ...


Advertising campaign

Walt Disney World opened in 1971. Eastern established service at Orlando, became the official airline of Walt Disney World. This proved to be extremely beneficial for Eastern as well as Disney. It remained the official airline of Walt Disney World, which even had an Eastern-themed ride at its park, until its contracting route network forced Disney to switch to Delta shortly before the 1989 bankruptcy filing (the ride was remodeled). Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses...


The famous "Wings of Man" campaign, which began in the late 1960s, was created by advertising agency, Young & Rublicam, and restored Eastern's tarnished image until the late 1970s, when former astronaut Frank Borman became president and it was replaced by a new campaign, "We Have To Earn Our Wings Every Day". The new campaign, which featured Borman as a spokesperson, was used until the mid-to-late 1980s.


Under bankruptcy Eastern launched a "100 Days" campaign, in which it promised to "become a little bit better every day".


Deregulation and troubles at Eastern

The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 aggravated its position, forcing Eastern into a competitive low-fare environment in which its high cost of operation put the airline at a decided disadvantage. President Jimmy Carter signs the Airline Deregulation Act. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Head to head with Delta

Eastern's massive Atlanta hub placed it in direct competition with Delta Air Lines, where both carriers competed heavily with one another to neither's benefit. Delta's less-unionized work force and slowly expanding international route network helped lead it through the turbulent period following deregulation in 1978. FAA diagram of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA: ATL, ICAO: KATL, FAA LID: ATL), locally known as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield Airport, Hartsfield-Jackson, or simply Hartsfield, is located seven miles (11 km) south of the central business district of Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... Delta Air Lines, Inc. ...


Frank Borman in charge

When the 1980s started, Eastern operated under its new president, former astronaut Frank Borman. First beloved by the employees, and eventually seen as selling out the carrier to union-buster Frank Lorenzo, Borman saw himself as trying to save Eastern from itself. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ...


Expansion and growth

In 1980, a Caribbean hub was inaugurated at San Juan, Puerto Rico (then still named Isla Verde International Airport). In 1982, Eastern acquired Braniff International Airways' South American route network. In 1985 Eastern was the largest airline in the free world in terms of passengers enplaned and operated in 26 countries on three continents. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see San Juan. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Braniff International Airways was an American airline that existed from 1928 until 1982. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Divided branding and livery

During this era, Eastern's fleet was split between their "silver-colored hockey stick" livery (the lack of paint reduced weight by 100 pounds) and their "white-colored hockey stick" livery (on its Airbus-manufactured planes, the metallurgy of which required paint to cover the aircraft's composite skin panels). This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ...


The efficient Boeing 757

In 1983, Eastern became the launch customer of Boeing's new aircraft, the Boeing 757, which was ordered in 1978. Borman felt that its low cost of operation would make it an invaluable asset to the airline in the years to come. However, higher oil prices failed to materialize and the debt created by this purchase coupled with the Airbus A300 purchases made in 1977 proved to be a millstone around Eastern's neck, contributing to the February 1986 sale to Frank Lorenzo's Texas Air. At that time, Eastern was paying over $700,000 in interest each day before they sold a ticket and fueled or boarded a single aircraft. Borman claimed these purchases constituted "fleet modernization" rather than expansion, but Eastern's system growth during his tenure belies this assertion. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Boeing 757 is an American short to medium range commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... The Airbus A300 is a short to medium range widebody aircraft. ... Texas Air was an airline holding company in the USA that played a significant role in the downfall of the better-known Continental Airlines and Eastern Airlines. ...


Subsidiary operations

In that same year, Eastern reintroduced service to Ponce, Puerto Rico, using Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner planes under the name Eastern Metro Express. The Eastern Metro Express operation wasn't limited to Ponce, however, as, under that name, Eastern began services from its San Juan hub to Mayagüez and several other smaller Caribbean communities, from John F. Kennedy International Airport to several northeastern cities, and from Miami to many cities around the south. Flag Seal Nickname: Gentilic: Ponceños Location Location of Ponce, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded 1692 Mayor Francisco Zayas Seijo Political party PPD Senatorial district 5 - Ponce Representative district 24, 25 Geographical characteristics Area Total 501. ... The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner or the Fairchild Aerospace Metro is a 19-seat, pressurised, twin turboprop airliner first produced by Swearingen and later by Fairchild. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Gentilic: Mayagüezanos Location Location of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Coordinates , , Government Founded July 19 1760 Mayor José Guillermo Rodríguez Rodríguez Political party PPD Senatorial district Mayagüez Representative district 18 and 19 Geographical characteristics Area Total 709. ... , For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ...


Competition: quality versus price

Eastern began losing money as it faced competition from no-frills airlines, such as People Express, which offered drastically reduced air fares. In an attempt to differentiate itself from its bargain competitors, Eastern began a marketing campaign stressing its quality of service and its rank of highly experienced pilots. People Express Airlines, aka PEOPLExpress, was a U.S. no-frills airline that operated from 1981 to 1987. ...


Sale and decline

July 2, 1988, Eastern Air Lines employee timetable

Unable to keep up, Borman agreed to the sale of the airline in 1986 to Texas Air, led by Frank Lorenzo. Lorenzo (who was named as one of Time Magazine's 10 "worst bosses of the century") was known as a ruthless corporate raider and union buster. He had already purchased Continental and lost a bidding war for TWA to Carl Ican. Image File history File links Timetableimages. ... Image File history File links Timetableimages. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Texas Air was an airline holding company in the USA that played a significant role in the downfall of the better-known Continental Airlines and Eastern Airlines. ... Francisco A. Lorenzo is an investment manager, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and a former airline CEO in the United States. ...


Although Eastern's employees saw Lorenzo at the time as a savior from raider Carl Icahn, he would prove to be anything but a hero to the employees by the end of the decade. This event is widely seen as the beginning of the unwinding of the company, and the beginning of a steep decline into a period that saw strikes, empty planes, mass layoffs, bankruptcy, and eventually a ceasing of operations. Carl Celian Icahn (born February 16, 1936) is an American billionaire financier, corporate raider, and private equity investor. ...


Labor relations: strikes and cancelled service

Under Lorenzo's tenure, Eastern was crippled by severe labor unrest. Asked to accept deep cuts in pay and benefits, Eastern's mechanics and ramp service employees, represented by the IAM (International Assn. of Machinists and Aerospace Workers), were locked out on March 4, 1989. A sympathy strike called by the pilots represented by ALPA (Air Line Pilots Assn.) and flight attendants represented by TWU (Transport Workers Union) effectively shut down the airline's domestic operations. Non-contract employees, including airport gate and ticket counter agents and reservation sales agents, did not honor the strike. Due to the strike, flights were cancelled, resulting in the loss of millions of dollars in revenue. IAM may refer to: Maroc Telecom (Arabic transliteration: Ittisalat Al Maghrib), the main telecommunication company in Morocco IAM (band), a French rap band from Marseille created in 1989 International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, a North American labor union Institute of Advanced Motorists, a charity based in the UK... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Alpa was formerly a Swiss camera design company and manufacturer of 35mm cameras. ... Texas Womans University is a university with campuses in Denton, Dallas and Houston, Texas. ...


Dismantling the airline

Lorenzo sold Eastern's shuttle service to real estate magnate Donald Trump in 1989, under whom it became the Trump Shuttle, while selling other parts of Eastern to his Texas Air holding company and its major subsidiary, Continental Airlines, on disadvantageous terms to Eastern. Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946 in Queens, New York, New York) is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television and radio personality and author. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Trump Shuttle was the popular name of Trump Airlines, owned by Donald Trump from 1989 to 1994. ... Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) is a U.S. certificated air carrier. ...


Bankrupt

As a result of the strike, weakened airline structure, inability to compete after deregulation and other financial problems, Eastern filed for bankruptcy protection on March 9, 1989. This gave Lorenzo breathing room, and allowed him to continue operating the airline with strikebreakers. When control of the airline was taken away from Lorenzo by the courts and given to Marty Shugrue, it continued operations in a attempt to correct its cash flow, but to no avail. With the airline collapsing from debt, it ran out of money to operate on January 18th, 1991 following the run-up to the Gulf War. Over 18,000 employees lost their jobs in one day, not including the thousands laid off or furloughed prior to the collapse. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


An asset liquidation sale was commenced later that year and provided Eastern's creditors with a remarkably good payout.


Attempts at revival

An airline entrepreneur, Martin Shugrue, considered reviving Eastern in 1995, but the decision was made to revive Pan Am instead. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ...


Fleet

Eastern Airlines flew many different types of aircraft throughout its history:

Martin 4-0-4

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Pitcairn Mailwing PA-5, displayed in the Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC Pitcairn Mailwing PA-5 The Pitcairn Mailwing was designed to haul along the airmail routes of the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Ford Trimotor was a three engine civil transport aircraft first produced in 1926 by Henry Ford and continued until about 1931. ... The Fokker F.VII was a small airliner originally produced by Anthony Fokkers Atlantic Aircraft Company, and later by other companies under licence. ... In many ways, Curtiss Aircrafts B-2 Condor was nearly identical to its predecessor, the Huff-Daland XB-1. ... Clarence Kelly Johnson testing an Electra model in the University of Michigans wind tunnel. ... The Douglas DC-2 was a 14 seat, twin-propeller airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... The Curtiss C-46 Commando was a transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Force during World War II. Also known to the men who flew them as The Whale. The C-46 served a similar role as its brother the Douglas C-47 Skytrain, but was not... Martin 4-0-4 (Martin 404, Martin 4. ... The designation DC-4 was used by Douglas Aircraft Company when developing the DC-4E as a large, four-engined type to complement its forthcoming DC-3 design. ... The Convair 240 was an American airliner produced by Convair from 1947 to 1956. ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ... The Douglas DC-7 is an aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1953 to 1958. ... The Lockheed L-188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed. ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... Pan Am 707 The Boeing 707 is a four engined commercial passenger jet aircraft developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... The Boeing 747, which is also known as the jumbo jet, is the second largest passenger airliner after the Airbus A380. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ... The Airbus A300 is a short to medium range widebody aircraft. ... The Boeing 757 is an American short to medium range commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... The Lockheed L-1329 JetStar (C-140 in USAF service) is a business jet produced from the early 1960s through the 1970s. ...

Fleet Curiosities

With the implementation of the "Hockey Stick" livery in the 1960s, the Eastern Air Lines different aircraft types were given an a/c number, which was tied to the registration after a particular aircraft type, with the aircraft number placed close to the aircraft nose bellow the cockpit windows:


Numbers Series / Aircraft Type / Registration example - e.g., N215EA was the a/c registration for ship 215.

  • 100 series: the 727-100: N8172G /172
Ship # 128
Ship # 128
  • 200 series: the Constellations, which passed to the A300 after the Connies were withdrawn from service: N6224C / 224 (cn 4532)
  • 200 series: the A300: N215EA / 215 (cn 108)
  • 300 series: the Convair 440, which passed on to the L-1011s after they were withdrawn from service: N9315 / 315 (cn 433)
  • 300 series: the L-1011: N324EA / 324 (cn 193A-1050), [N336EA was notorious for hydraulic problems].
  • 400 series: the DC-9-50: N404EA / 404 (cn 47665/796)
  • 500 series: the Lockheed L-188 Electra registration which was later given to the 757: N5541 / 541 (cn 1098)
  • 500 series: the 757-225: N506EA / 506 (cn 22196/7)
  • 600 series: the DC-8-21: N8615 / 615 (cn 45436/150)
  • 700 series: the DC-8-61/63: N8776 / 776 (cn 45888/290)
  • 700 series: also, the B720-025 carried the 700s: N8714E / 714 (cn 18243/254)
  • 800 series: the DC-7 carried the registration in the 800s until they were removed from service, then it went to the 727-200: N827D / 827 (cn 45336/901)
  • 800 series: the B727-225: N805EA /805 (cn 22436/1677). Curiously, there were four B727-225s in an all coach configuration with 189 coach seats each, they were mostly used in the Air Shuttle and carried registrations in the high 800s, namely: 886, 887, 888, and 889.
  • 900 series: the DC-9-14 and DC-9-30: N8916E / 916 (cn 45733/48).
  • Since EA only operated a trio of DC-10-30s they carried a registration number in the 300s like the L-1011s but they were assigned high numbers: N390EA / 390(cn 47862/88), N391EA / 391 (cn 47866/149) and N392EA /392 (cn 47867/178)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Accidents

Eastern weathered crashes over the years of varying damage to the company and passenger injuries and deaths. Some of the crashes contributed to the future safety of American air transportation, such as Eastern's first accident caused by the construction of temporary utility poles at the end of a runway.


Flight 21 (Rickenbacker's accident)

In 1941, Eastern Air Lines Flight 21 crashed near Atlanta, almost killing Eddie Rickenbacker, who was traveling on airline business. His recovery in the hospital received broad press coverage; during his initial recovery several news reports claimed that he had died. Eastern Air Lines Flight 21, registration NC28394, was a Douglas DC-3 aircraft that crashed while preparing to land at Candler Field in Atlanta, Georgia, on February 26, 1941. ... Eddie Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was best known as a World War I fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient. ...


Flight 375

On October 4, 1960, Eastern Air Lines Flight 375 (a Lockheed L-188 Electra) departing Boston's Logan International Airport for Philadelphia crashed on takeoff after striking a flock of birds. Sixty-two of the 72 passengers and crew were killed. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Air Lines Flight 375, registration N5533, was a Lockheed L-188 Electra aircraft that crashed on takeoff from Boston, Massachusettss Logan International Airport on October 4, 1960. ... The Lockheed L-188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


Flight 512

On November 30, 1962, Eastern Air Lines Flight 512 (a Douglas DC-7) crashed during a go around after failing to land due to fog at Idlewild Airport (now JFK) in New York City. Out of the 51 passengers and crew on board, 25 were fatally injured. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Air Lines Flight 512 was a DC-7B flying into New York City. ... The Douglas DC-7 is an aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1953 to 1958. ... A go-around is an aborted landing of an aircraft which is on final approach. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA Airport Code: JFK, ICAO Airport Code: KJFK) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Flight 304

On February 25, 1964, Eastern Air Lines Flight 304 (a Douglas DC-8) flying from New Orleans International Airport to Washington-National Airport crashed into Lake Pontchartrain enroute due to "degradation of aircraft stability characteristics in turbulence, because of abnormal longitudinal trim component positions." All 51 passengers and 7 crew were killed. is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (IATA: DCA, ICAO: KDCA, FAA LID: DCA) is a public airport located three miles (5 km) south of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia, United States. ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ... Clear-Air Turbulence (often abbreviated CAT and sometimes colloquially referred to as air pockets) is the erratic movement of air masses in the absence of any visual cues (such as clouds). ...


Flight 663

On February 8, 1965, Eastern Air Lines Flight 663, a Douglas DC-7 departing from New York City to Richmond, Virginia, crashed at Jones Beach State Park after takeoff from JFK when it was forced to evade inbound Pan Am Flight 212. All 84 onboard died. The evasive action was blamed for leaving the plane out of control. is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Air Lines Flight 663 was a DC-7B departing from New York City to Richmond, Virginia. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Wantagh Parkway approach to Jones Beach. ... , For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ...


Flight 401

Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 (a brand new Lockheed L-1011) was preparing to land in Miami, Florida, on December 29, 1972, when the flight crew became distracted by a non-functioning gear light. While pre-occupied with fixing the light, the autopilot was inadvertently disengaged, allowing the plane to drift far below its planned flight path. The flight crashed in the Everglades, near the same site of the ValuJet Flight 592 DC-9 crash 23 years later. In Eastern's Flight 401 case, it was rumored that the ghost of the pilot who flew that night was later seen on some Eastern planes that carried parts of the doomed plane. While this was an unproven legend, it was the subject of a book and the movie The Ghost of Flight 401. Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 was a Lockheed L-1011 jet that crashed into the Florida Everglades on the night of December 29, 1972, causing 101 fatalities (75 initial crash survivors, 2 died shortly afterward). ... The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ... Miami redirects here. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ValuJet Flight 592 was a flight that crashed on May 11, 1996 en route from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida to Hartsfield International Airport (now known as Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport) in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ...


Flight 212

On the morning of September 11, 1974, Eastern Air Lines Flight 212, a DC-9-31 carrying 78 passengers and 4 crew operating as a scheduled flight from Charleston, South Carolina, to Chicago, Illinois, with an intermediate stop in Charlotte, North Carolina, crashed while conducting an instrument approach in dense ground fog at Douglas Municipal Airport (now called Charlotte/Douglas International Airport). The aircraft crashed just short of the runway, killing 71 of the occupants. One of the 11 initial survivors died of injuries 29 days after the accident. The aircraft was destroyed by the impact and resulting post-crash fire. Also killed on this flight were James, Peter and Paul Colbert: the father and older brothers of comedian Stephen Colbert. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Air Lines Flight 212 was an Eastern Air Lines Douglas DC-9-31, carrying 78 passengers and 4 crew, operating as a scheduled flight from Charleston, South Carolina to Chicago, Illinois, with an intermediate stop in Charlotte, North Carolina. ... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... “Charlotte” redirects here. ... An instrument approach is a type of air navigation that allows an aircraft to land in weather restricting visibility, or to reach visual conditions permitting a landing. ... Charlotte Douglas International Airport (IATA: CLT, ICAO: KCLT, FAA LID: CLT) is a major international airport located in Charlotte, North Carolina. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ...


Flight 66

On June 24, 1975, Eastern Air Lines Flight 66 (a Boeing 727) crashed into the runway approach lights, as it penetrated a thunderstorm which was astride the ILS localizer course line to that runway, at JFK in New York City, killing 113 people. The official cause of the accident was a sudden high rate of descent, caused by severe downdrafts from the thunderstorm, and the continued use of that runway by both flight crews and ATC, after they became aware of the location of that hazardous weather. is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastern Air Lines Flight 66, a Boeing 727-225 with registration number N8845E, was operating New Orleans-Moisant-New York Kennedy on the afternoon of June 24, 1975. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... , For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ...


Flight 980

On January 1, 1985, Eastern Air Lines Flight 980 (a Boeing 727) struck Mount Illimani on a flight from Silvio Pettirossi International Airport in Asunción, Paraguay, to El Alto International Airport in La Paz, Bolivia. All 25 passengers and 4 crew were killed on impact. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... On January 1, 1985, Eastern Air Lines Flight 980 (a Boeing 727) struck Mount Illimani at an altitude of 19,600 feet. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... Illimani is an extinct stratovolcano in western Bolivia, just south of La Paz and east of the Altiplano, in the Cordillera Oriental range of the Andes Mountains. ... Silvio Pettirossi International Airport (IATA: ASU, ICAO: SGAS) is Paraguays main national and international gateway, located at Luque, suburb of the capital Asunción. ... Map of Paraguay Panteón de los Héroes in Asunción Asunción, population 500,939 (1992), is the capital of Paraguay. ... El Alto International Airport (IATA: LPB, ICAO: SLLP) is an international airport located in El Alto, near the city of La Paz, Bolivia; it serves national and international air traffic. ... Central La Paz La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. ...


Other facts and quotes of interest

  • Boeing assigned Eastern Air Lines the customer number 25 for all aircraft produced by the company.
  • Eastern used to be the main sponsor of Puerto Rican basketball team Cariduros de Fajardo, a team that carried Eastern's logo on its jerseys.
  • Eastern became the official airline of Walt Disney World. Eastern's official ride at Disney's Magic Kingdom park was If You Had Wings.
  • Boxer Wilfredo Gómez was pictured by El Vocero photographers inside an Eastern Air Lines L-1011 TriStar jet before taking off for his bout with Lupe Pintor in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • "Capitalism without bankruptcy is like Christianity without hell." -Frank Borman, former CEO of Eastern Air Lines in 1986, five years before Eastern shut down.
  • After Eastern Air Lines ceased operations, some of their pilots and managers, as well as former Pan Am pilots and managers (who suffered the same fate), went on to purchase part of the fleet of airplanes, and on September 21, 1992, they formed Kiwi International Air Lines (also now defunct).
  • Eastern was the first company to crash a wide-body jet.
  • The Disney/Eastern relationship is parodied in The Simpsons episode "Special Edna," when the family goes on an amusement park ride in Epcot Center which depicts machines bearing the airline's logo ruling over all humanity.

This article is about the sport. ... Nickname: Los Cariduros, La Metrópolis del Sol Naciente Gentilic: Fajardeños Location Location of Fajardo, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded 1772 Mayor Hon. ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... If You Had Wings (June 5, 1972–June 1, 1987) was a two-person Omnimover dark ride in Tomorrowland in the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World. ... Wilfredo Gómez (born October 29, 1956) is a former boxer and three time world champion. ... El Vocero is a Puerto Rican newspaper that is published in San Juan. ... Jose Guadalupe Pintor Guzman (born April 13, 1955), better known as Lupe Pintor, is a former World Boxing Champion from Cuajimalpa, Mexico. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Disambiguation: For the New Zealand airline of the same name operating between 1994-1996 on trans-Tasman routes see:Kiwi Travel International Airlines Kiwi International Air Lines was a Part 121 American airline that operated from September 21, 1992, to March 23, 1999. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Special Edna, is the seventh episode of The Simpsons fourteenth season. ... Spaceship Earth, as seen from outside the vistors entrance. ...

References

  • Rickenbacker: An Autobiography. Edward V. Rickenbacker, Prentice Hall, 1967.

Notes

  1. ^ Eastern Air Lines History

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Eastern Air Lines (1836 words)
Eastern made a successful transition to the jet age in the 1960s, but during the next decade labor conflicts, the rising cost of fuel, and debt incurred from purchasing new airplanes began a downward spiral for the company.
Eastern, with Delta, was an element in Atlanta's continued rise as the transportation and commercial capital of the South.
Eastern also underwent a facelift that gave the company a more polished image: aircraft were refurbished and a new color scheme was adopted; flight attendants and pilots received new uniforms; and such services as baggage handling, reservation services, and in-flight amenities were greatly improved.
Eastern Air Lines at AllExperts (1917 words)
On February 25, 1964, Eastern Air Lines Flight 304 (a Douglas DC-8) flying from New Orleans International Airport to Washington-National Airport crashed enroute due to "degradation of aircraft stability characteristics in turbulence, because of abnormal longitudinal trim component positions." All 51 passengers and 7 crew were killed.
Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 (a brand new Lockheed L-1011) was preparing to land in Miami, Florida, on December 29, 1972, when the flight crew became distracted by a non-functioning gear light.
On June 24, 1975, Eastern Air Lines Flight 66 (a Boeing 727) crashed into the runway approach lights, as it penetrated a thunderstorm which was astride the ILS localizer course line to that runway, at JFK in New York City, killing 113 people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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