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Encyclopedia > East Slavs
History of Belarus,
History of Russia,
History of Ukraine
Early East Slavs
Kievan Rus’
Vladimir-Suzdal
Halych-Volynia
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
The Hetmanate
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Imperial Russia
Revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Belarus


The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. Formerly the main population of the medieval state of Kievan Rus, by the seventeenth century they evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. This article describes the history of Belarus. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Contents

History

Sources

Relatively little is known about the East Slavs prior to approximately 859 AD, the date from which the account in the Primary Chronicle starts. The reasons are the apparent absence of a written language (Cyrillic script, created about 863 was specifically for Slavic adoption) and the remoteness of East Slavic lands. What little is known comes from archaeological digs, foreign traveller accounts of the Rus land, and linguistic comparative analyses of Slavic languages. The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Except for the apocryphal Book of Veles, very few native Russian documents, dating before the 11th century (none ante-dating the 9th century) have been discovered. The earliest major manuscript with information on Rus' history is the Primary Chronicle, written in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. It lists the twelve Slavic tribal unions who, by the 9th century settled between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. These tribal unions were Polans, Drevlyans, Dregovichs, Radimichs, Vyatichs, Krivichs, Slovens, Dulebes (later known as Volhynians and Buzhans), White Khorvats, Severians, Ulichs, Tivertsi. The only known contour copy of a plank; the book is named after this plank, as it begins with To Veles this book we devote. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... In the Early Middle Ages there were two separate Slavic tribes bearing the name of Polans: Polans, an Eastern Slavic tribe living in the area of Dnieper river Polans, an Western Slavic tribe living in the area of Warta. ... The Drevlians (Древляне, Drevlyane in Russian; Деревляни, Derevliany in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories of Polesie, Right-bank Ukraine west of Polans, down the stream of the rivers Teteriv, Uzh, Ubort, and Stviga. ... The Dregovichs or (more correct) Dregovichi (Дреговичи, Dregovichi in Russian; Дреговичі, Drehovychi in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited the territories down the stream of the Pripyat River and northern parts of the Right-bank Dnieper river (the borders of the tribes domain are still not eastablished... The Radimichs (Радзiмiчы in Belarusian, Радимичи in Russian; Радимичі in Ukrainian), were a tribe of Early East Slavs of the last few centuries of the 1st millennium, which inhabited upper east parts of the Dnieper down the Sozh River and its tributaries. ... The Vyatichs (Вятичи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited a part of the Oka basin. ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs or (more correct) Krivichi (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian ), one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of... The Dulebs (Dulebes, Russian: ) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Buzhans or (more correct) Buzhane (Russian: ,Ukrainian: ) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs. ... The Severians or Severyans or Siverians were a tribe or tribal union of Early East Slavs occupying areas to the east of the middle Dnieper river around the rivers Desna, Sejm and Sula on the territory of the archaelogical Romny culture. ... The Ulichs (Uglichs) (Уличи, Угличи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 8th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea. ... Tivertsi, a. ...


Migration

"Slavic settlement" by I. Pchelko
"Slavic settlement" by I. Pchelko

There is no consensus among scholars as to the urheimat of the Slavs. In the first millennium AD, Slavic settlers are likely to have been in contact with other ethnic groups who moved across the East European Plain during the Migration Period. Between the first and ninth centuries, the Sarmatians, Goths, nomadic Huns, Alans, Avars, Bulgars, and Magyars passed through the Pontic steppe in their westward migrations. Although some of them could have subjugated the region's Slavs, these foreign tribes left little trace in the Slavic lands. The Early Middle Ages also saw Slavic expansion as an agriculturist and beekeeper, hunter, fisher, herder, and trapper people. By the 8th century, the Slavs were the dominant ethnic group on the East European Plain. Image File history File linksMetadata Slavyanskiy_poselok_pchelko. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Slavyanskiy_poselok_pchelko. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


By 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern, western, and eastern branches. The East Slavs flooded Eastern Europe in two streams. One group of tribes settled along the Dnieper river in what is now Ukraine; they then spread northward to the northern Volga valley, east of modern-day Moscow and westward to the basins of the northern Dniester and the Southern Buh rivers in present-day Moldova and southern Ukraine. Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... This article is about the river. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... The Southern Buh, Bug, or Boh River (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh in Ukrainian; Hipanis in ancient Greek) is entirely located in Ukraine. ...


Another group of East Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast, where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established an important regional centre of Novgorod. The same Slavic population also settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero. Having reached the lands of the Merya near Rostov, they linked up with the Dnieper group of Slavic migrants. Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... The Rus Khaganate is a poorly-documented period in the history of East Slavs (roughly the late eighth and early to mid ninth centuries CE). ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Tver Oblast (Russian: Тверска́я о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Belozersk cathedral in 1909. ... The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ...


Pre-Kievan period

Main article: Rus' Khaganate
Viktor Vasnetsov. Boyan (1910).

In the eighth and ninth centuries, the south branches of East Slavic tribes had to pay tribute to the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking people who adopted Judaism in the late eighth or ninth century and lived in the southern Volga and Caucasus regions. Roughly in the same period, the Ilmen Slavs and Krivichs were dominated by the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate, who controlled the trade route between the Baltic Sea and the Byzantine Empire. The Rus Khaganate is a poorly-documented period in the history of East Slavs (roughly the late eighth and early to mid ninth centuries CE). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixel Image in higher resolution (2020 × 1500 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixel Image in higher resolution (2020 × 1500 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Ilmen Slavs (Ильменские славяне in Russian; also known as словѣне, or Slovene), the northernmost tribe of the Early East Slavs, which inhabited the shores of the Lake Ilmen and the basin of the rivers of Volkhov, Lovat, Msta and the upper stream of the Mologa River in the 6-10 centuries. ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The earliest tribal centres of the East Slavs included Novgorod, Izborsk, Polotsk, Gnezdovo, Sarskoe Gorodishche, and Kiev. Archaeology indicates that they appeared at the turn of the tenth century, soon after the Slavs and Finns of Novgorod had rebelled against the Norsemen and forced them to withdraw to Scandinavia. The reign of Oleg of Novgorod in the early tenth century witnessed the return of the Varangians to Novgorod and relocation of their capital to Kiev on the Dnieper. From this base, the mixed Varangian-Slavic population (known as the Rus) launched several expeditions against Constantinople. Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... General view of the fortress Inside the fortress of Izborsk Izborsk (Russian: ; Estonian: ) is a village in Pechorsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Russian: ) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. ... One of the excavators of Sarskoe was Nicholas Roerich. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Fyodor Bruni. ... This article is about the river. ... Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, took its name from its ruling warrior class with Scandinavian roots. ... Rus-Byzantine War may refer to one of the following conflicts: Rus-Byzantine War (830s) Rus-Byzantine War (860) Rus-Byzantine War (907) Rus-Byzantine War (941) Rus-Byzantine War (968-971) Rus-Byzantine War (987) Rus-Byzantine War (1024) Rus-Byzantine War (1043) Category: ...


At first the ruling elite was primarily Norse, but it was rapidly Slavicized by the mid-century. Sviatoslav I of Kiev (who reigned in the 960s) was the first Rus ruler with a Slavonic name. Sviatoslavs meeting with Emperor John by Klavdiy Lebedev, an attempt to visualise Leo the Deacons description of Sviatoslav Sviatoslav I of Kiev (East Slavic: Святослав Игоревич) (c. ...


Modern East Slavs

Countries inhabited by Slavs (green - East Slavs)
Countries inhabited by Slavs (green - East Slavs)

Modern East Slavic peoples and ethnic groups include: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Pomors (помо́ры) are Russian settlers of the White Sea coasts. ... Lipovans or Lippovans (Old Faith Believers, Old Rite Followers) are a small (about 40,000) Slavic ethnic group of Russian origin residing in the delta of the Danube River in Tulcea county of eastern Romania. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... Poleszuk (Polish), Poliszuk or Polishchuk (local Ukrainian dialect), Palyashchuk (Belarusian), or Poleshchuk (Russian) is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesie. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hutsuls (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул, Romanian: Huţuli, singular Huţul, Hutsul dialect: Hutsule, singular Hutsul; alternatively spelled as Huculs, Huzuls, Hutzuls, Gutsuls, Guculs, Guzuls, or Gutzuls ) are highlanders who for centuries have inhabited the Carpathian mountains, mainly in Ukraine, but also in the northern extremity of Romania, as well as in... Lemkos (Ukrainian: ) are one of four major ethnic groups who inhabit the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, and who speak the Lemko dialect/language. ... Poleszuk (Polish), Poliszuk or Polishchuk (local Ukrainian dialect), Palyashchuk (Belarusian), or Poleshchuk (Russian) is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesie. ...

Gallery

See also

The following is a list of Slavic states that existed in the first half of the second millennium on the territories of contemporary Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. ...

References

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