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Encyclopedia > East Slavic

The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. They form a distinct group of Indo-European languages, with speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. Contents // 1 Branches... Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word... Eastern Europe. It is the group with the largest numbers of speakers, far out-numbering the This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q.v.) that includes Czech, Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian. Categories: Articles to be merged | Stub ... Western and This article or section should be merged with List of South Slavic languages South Slavic languages is one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). There are around 30 million speakers of these languages, mainly in the Balkans. The South Slavic languages are further subdivided... Southern Slavic groups. Current East Slavic languages are Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic   ... Belarusian, Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian, The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian, and Rusyn, though by most outsiders considered one language and even having only one SIL code (namely, RUE), is in fact the name of two independent languages spoken by Rusyns: Carpatho-Rusyn (also called Ruthenian) Pannonian-Rusyn (also called Rusnak) Contents // 1 Carpatho-Rusyn (Ruthenian) 2 Pannonian-Rusyn (Rusnak) 3 Literature... Rusyn (a small language spoken in Eastern Slovakia, South Eastern Poland, Eastern Hungary and South Western Ukraine and regarded by many as a Ukrainian dialect).

Contents

Current status

All these languages are nowadays considered to be separate languages in their own right, though in the 19th century it was usual to call Ukrainian ("Little Russian") and Belarusian ("White Russian") dialects of one common "Russian" language (the most prestigious dialect of which was called "Great Russian"). Despite the vast territory occupied by the East Slavs, their languages are astonishingly similar to one another, with transitional dialects in border regions.


All these languages use the The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. Letters of the Cyrillic alphabet А A... Cyrillic An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. There are other systems of writing such as ideograms, in which... alphabet, but with particular modifications.


History

When the common Old East Slavic (руськъ) Spoken in: Eastern Europe Region: -- Total speakers: Extinct Ranking: -- Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic    East Slavic     Old East Slavic Official status Official language of: historical: Kievan Rus, Novgorod Republic Regulated by: -- Note: This... Old East Slavic language became separated from the ancient Slavic tongue common to all Slavs is difficult to ascertain ( (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the... 6th (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 11th century).


The history of the East Slavic languages is a very 'hot' subject (see the discussion on this article), because it is interpreted from various political perspectives by the East Slavs "like all mortals, wishing to have an origin as ancient as possible" ("sicut ceteri mortalium, originem suam quam vetustissimam ostendere cupientes"), as Pope Pius II. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 - August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. Pius, whose character reflects almost every tendency of the age in which he lived, was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a noble... Aeneas Sylvius observed in his Historia Bohemica in Years: 1455 1456 1457 - 1458 - 1459 1460 1461 Decades: 1420s 1430s 1440s - 1450s - 1460s 1470s 1480s Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Events January 24 - Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis... 1458.


Therefore, a crucial differentiation has to be made between the history of the East Slavic dialects and that of the literary languages employed by the Eastern Slavs. Although most ancient texts betray the dialect their author(s) and/or scribe(s) spoke, it is also clearly visible that they tried to write in a language different from their dialects and to avoid those mistakes that enable us nowadays to locate them.


In both cases one has to keep in mind that the history of the East Slavic languages is of course a history of written In language, text is something that contains words to express something. The term usually has broader meaning. In linguistics text enters at least two types of contrasts. One is that between system and text, system being understood as the ability of the speakers to communicate using verbal signs, and text... texts. We do not know how the writers of the preserved texts would have spoken in every-day life, let alone how an illiterate East Slavic peasant spoke to his family.


History of the literary languages

History of the East Slavic A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. English has such a register. Consider this sentence: few people would speak such a sentence aloud, unless they were reading from a... literary languages
History of The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian History of Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic   ... Belarusian History of Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian
Preliterary period
(c. until 9th c.)
History of Russia series, History of Ukraine, and History of Belarus Early East Slavs Kievan Rus’ Volga Bulgaria Khazaria Mongol invasion Golden Horde Muscovy Imperial Russia Revolution of 1905 Revolution of 1917 Russian Civil War Soviet Union Russian Federation The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into... East Slavic dialects of the This article or section should include material from Common Slavonic Proto-Slavic is a reconstructed language which is a common ancestor of all Slavic languages. See also: Common Slavonic Categories: Articles to be merged | Stub | Slavic languages ... Proto-Slavic language
Old period
(c. 9th to 14th c.)
Old East Slavic (руськъ) Spoken in: Eastern Europe Region: -- Total speakers: Extinct Ranking: -- Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic    East Slavic     Old East Slavic Official status Official language of: historical: Kievan Rus, Novgorod Republic Regulated by: -- Note: This... Old East Slavic
Middle period
(c. 15th to 18th c.)
Ruthenian (руськъ) Spoken in: Eastern Europe Region: -- Total speakers: Extinct Ranking: -- Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic    East Slavic     Ruthenian Official status Official language of: historical: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Regulated by: -- Ruthenian was a... Ruthenian Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. See IPA in Unicode if you have display problems. The history proper of the Russian language dates from just before the turn of the second millennium. NOTE. In the following sections, all examples of vocabulary... Old Russian
Modern period
(c. from 18th/19th c.)
(Contemporary)
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian
(Contemporary)
Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic   ... Belarusian
(Contemporary)
Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian

What follows is a short overview over the Old and Middle periods. For more detail see Old East Slavic (руськъ) Spoken in: Eastern Europe Region: -- Total speakers: Extinct Ranking: -- Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic    East Slavic     Old East Slavic Official status Official language of: historical: Kievan Rus, Novgorod Republic Regulated by: -- Note: This... Old East Slavic language, Ruthenian (руськъ) Spoken in: Eastern Europe Region: -- Total speakers: Extinct Ranking: -- Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic    East Slavic     Ruthenian Official status Official language of: historical: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Regulated by: -- Ruthenian was a... Ruthenian language, and Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. See IPA in Unicode if you have display problems. The history proper of the Russian language dates from just before the turn of the second millennium. NOTE. In the following sections, all examples of vocabulary... History of the Russian language.


After the conversion of the East Slavic region to Christianity the people used service books borrowed from The Republic of Bulgaria is a There is presently an editing dispute over two versions of this page. One version is below; you may also view the other version (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Republic&oldid={{{1}}}) or the difference (http://en.wikipedia.org... Bulgaria, which were written in "Old Bulgarian" or Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. It was used by them for translation of the Bible and other... Old Church Slavonic. They continued to use this language, or rather a variant thereof, usually called (Middle) The Church Slavonic language (ru: церковнославя́нский язы́к, tserkovnoslavyánskiy yazík) is the liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church and other... Church Slavonic, not only in liturgy, but also generally as the language of learning and written communication. This left a large imprint even on the rare secular texts.


Throughout the Middle Ages (and in some way up to the present day) there existed a duality between the Church Slavonic language used as some kind of 'higher' register (not only) in religious texts and the popular tongue used as a 'lower' register for secular texts. It has been suggested to describe this situation as Diglossia is a term in linguistics, used to describe a situation where, in a given society, there are 2 (often) closely-related languages, one of high-prestige, which is generally used by the government and in formal texts, and one of low-prestige, which is usually the spoken vernacular tongue... diglossia, although there do exist mixed texts where it is sometimes very hard to determine why a given author used a popular or a Church Slavonic form in a given context.


History of the dialects

History of the East Slavic A dialect (from the The word Greek has a number of meanings relating to Greece, including: Architecture of Ancient Greece Art in Ancient Greece Greek alphabet Greek colonies Cuisine of Greece Ethnic Greek Greco-Turkish relations Greece Hellenes History of Greece History of Mycenaean Greece History of Ancient Greece History... dialect groups
History of The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian History of Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic   ... Belarusian History of Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian
Preliterary History of Russia series, History of Ukraine, and History of Belarus Early East Slavs Kievan Rus’ Volga Bulgaria Khazaria Mongol invasion Golden Horde Muscovy Imperial Russia Revolution of 1905 Revolution of 1917 Russian Civil War Soviet Union Russian Federation The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into... East Slavic dialects of the This article or section should include material from Common Slavonic Proto-Slavic is a reconstructed language which is a common ancestor of all Slavic languages. See also: Common Slavonic Categories: Articles to be merged | Stub | Slavic languages ... Proto-Slavic language Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андре... Nov-
go-
rod?
11th c. Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. It was the capital of historic Galicia from its foundation in the mid-11th century until the... Halych/
The region of Podolia (Polish Podole, Ukrainian Podillya) lies in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine. Podolia lies: south of Volhynia southwest of the Kyiv region northeast of Moldova, across the Dniester River east of Galicia, across the Zbrucz, or Rodvocha, a tributary of the... Podolia
For other uses, see Kiev (disambiguation). Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine... Kiev/
Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South... Polesie
Polatsk/
Ryazan (Рязань) is a city in Central Russia federal district, an administrative center of the Ryazan Oblast. It is located on the Oka River 196 km south-east of Moscow. Population: 521,700 (census 2002) Ryazan is twinned with Münster. History It is argued... Ryazan
For other cities named Novgorod see The name Novgorod is used for the following cities. Velikiy Novgorod, Russia (also known as simply Novgorod) Nizhny Novgorod, Russia Novhorod-Volynsky, Ukraine Novhorod-Siverskyy, Ukraine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Novgorod/
Suzdal (Су́здаль) is a town in Vladimir Oblast, Russia. It stands 26 km from the city of Vladimir, on the river Kamenka. The history of the town dates back to at least the year 1024. For centuries it functioned as the capital of... Suzdal
Since 16th c. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic   ... Belarusian Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian
SW SE N SW C NE S C N
Dialect classification and periodization according to Yury Šerech [= Shevelov], Problems in the formation of Belorussian, New York 1953 (= Word: Journal of the Linguistic Circle of New York, vol. 9, supplement, monograph no. 2), p. 93.

The first divergence among the Old East Slavic texts is evident during the (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 12th century, during the era of Kievan Rus', i.e. some texts can be linguistically located to areas that are now in Russia, Ukraine or Belarus. This leads many Russian scholars to speak of the existence of a separate Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian language as early as the (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 12th century.


Mutual Influences


This section has no data added yet, but you can help Wikipedia is a Web-based free content encyclopedia designed to be read and edited by anyone, with editions of varying sizes in 190 languages. About 6,000 (dec.2004) active users collaboratively edit and maintain the English edition Wikipedia, which has allowed it in just over four years of operation... Wikipedia by adding additional info.


See also

  • The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. They form a distinct group of Indo-European languages, with speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. Contents // 1 Branches... Slavic languages
  • This article or section should be merged with List of South Slavic languages South Slavic languages is one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). There are around 30 million speakers of these languages, mainly in the Balkans. The South Slavic languages are further subdivided... South Slavic languages
  • This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q.v.) that includes Czech, Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian. Categories: Articles to be merged | Stub ... West Slavic languages
  • Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. It was used by them for translation of the Bible and other... Old Church Slavonic language
  • Belarusian (Беларуская мова in Cyrillic) Pronunciation: {{{pronunciation}}} Spoken in: Belarus, Poland, and 14 other countries Region: Total speakers: 7-8 million Ranking: Not in top 100 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Slavic   East Slavic   ... Belarusian language
  • Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4-7 Genetic classification... Russian language
  • Rusyn, though by most outsiders considered one language and even having only one SIL code (namely, RUE), is in fact the name of two independent languages spoken by Rusyns: Carpatho-Rusyn (also called Ruthenian) Pannonian-Rusyn (also called Rusnak) Contents // 1 Carpatho-Rusyn (Ruthenian) 2 Pannonian-Rusyn (Rusnak) 3 Literature... Rusyn language
  • The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian language

  Results from FactBites:
 
East Slavic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1185 words)
Current East Slavic languages are Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian, and Rusyn (a small language spoken in Eastern Slovakia, South Eastern Poland, Eastern Hungary and South Western Ukraine and regarded by many as a Ukrainian dialect).
The history of the East Slavic languages is a very 'hot' subject, because it is interpreted from various political perspectives by the East Slavs "like all mortals, wishing to have an origin as ancient as possible" ("sicut ceteri mortalium, originem suam quam vetustissimam ostendere cupientes"), as Aeneas Sylvius observed in his Historia Bohemica in 1458.
The first divergence among the Old East Slavic texts is evident during the 12th century, during the era of Kievan Rus', i.e.
Slavic Languages (815 words)
Slavic languages is a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.
The Slavic group of languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, that si why some scholars combine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Members of the Slavic subfamily are more conservative and thus closer to Proto-Indo-European than languages in the Germanic and Romance groups, as is witnessed by their preservation of seven of the eight cases for the noun that Proto-Indo-European possessed and by their continuation of aspects for the verb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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