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Encyclopedia > East Prussia
The Province of East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871.
The Province of East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871.

East Prussia (German: Ostpreußen [ˈɔstˌpʁɔɪ̯sən] ; Lithuanian: Rytų Prūsija or Rytprūsiai; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия or Vostochnaya Prussiya) refers to the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to 1945.[1] From 1772-1829 and 1878-1945, the Province of East Prussia was a province of the German state of Prussia. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Map-Prussia-EastPrussia. ... Image File history File links Map-Prussia-EastPrussia. ... East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links De-Ostpreußen. ... A cropped image of Prussia from Spread of German settlements to the Eastward, 800-1400. (Full map. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


East Prussia enclosed the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians, whose language became extinct by the 18th century. During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights. The indigenous Balts who survived the conquest were gradually converted to Christianity. Because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans became the dominant ethnic group, while Poles and Prussian Lithuanians formed minorities. Prussian tribes settlements. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Languages German and Lithuanian Religions Lutherans Related ethnic groups Germans and Lithuanians The term Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuwininkai refers to a separate ethnic group[1] native to former East Prussia. ...


From the 13th century on, East Prussia was part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, which became the Duchy of Prussia in 1525.[2] The duchy entered into a personal union with the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg, as Brandenburg-Prussia in 1618. Because the duchy was outside of the Holy Roman Empire, the prince-electors of Brandenburg were able to proclaim themselves as kings in Prussia in 1701. Approximately one-third of East Prussia's population and the last speakers of Old Prussian died in the plague and famine of 1709-1711.[3][4] After the annexation of most of Polish Royal Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, the territory of the former Duchy of Prussia was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia the following year. Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire &#8212; German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) &#8212; were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language, once spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to the German colonization of the area which began in the 13th century. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: , Belarusian: , Ukrainian: ) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871. ...


Between 1829 and 1878, the Province of East Prussia was joined with West Prussia to form the Province of Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia became the leading state of the German Empire after its creation in 1871. The Treaty of Versailles following World War I then made East Prussia an exclave from the rest of Germany, and separated also the Memelland. Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II in 1945, the territory was partitioned between Soviet Union (the Kaliningrad Oblast), Polish People's Republic (now the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship), and Lithuanian SSR (the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region).[5] The East Prussian capital of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. The German population of the province largely evacuated during the war, but several hundreds of thousands died[citation needed] during the years 1944–46 and the remainder were subsequently expelled. West Prussia (German: ( (help· info)), Polish: Prusy Zachodnie) was a province (1772–1824 and 1878–1918) of the Kingdom of Prussia. ... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This cites very few or no references or sources. ... Klaip&#279;da Region (Memel Region, Memelland) is the name of the coastland of Lithuania around Klaip&#279;da (formerly known as Memel) and the Curonian Lagoon, on the right bank of river Nemunas. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Capital city Olsztyn Area 24,191. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...

Contents

History

From Catholic monastic state to Protestant duchy

The fortress Ordensburg Marienburg, founded in 1274, the world’s largest brick castle and the Teutonic Order's headquarters on the River Nogat.
The fortress Ordensburg Marienburg, founded in 1274, the world’s largest brick castle and the Teutonic Order's headquarters on the River Nogat.

Upon the invitation of Duke Konrad I of Masovia, the Teutonic Knights invaded "Old Prussia" in the 13th century and created a monastic state to administer the conquered Old Prussians. The Knights' expansionist policies brought them into conflict with the newly-reunited Kingdom of Poland and embroiled them in several wars, culminating in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War, whereby the united armies of Poland and Lithuania, bolsted by Bohemian mercenaries, defeated the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410. Its defeat was formalised in the Second Treaty of Thorn in 1466 ending the Thirteen Years' War, leaving western Prussia under Polish control as the province of Royal Prussia and eastern Prussia remaining under the Knights, but as a fief of Poland. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Malbork Castle (German: ) was built by the Teutonic Order as Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally Marys Castle). The city which grew around it was also named Marienburg, now called Malbork. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Konrad I of Masovia. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Old Prussia was the land extending from the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea to the Masurian Lakes district, known as Prussia, was called Brus in the 8th century map of the Bavarian Geographer. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ...

Ethnic settlement in East Prussia by the 14th century.
Ethnic settlement in East Prussia by the 14th century.
Monument of Grand Master Albert, the first Duke of Prussia; Malbork, Poland
Monument of Grand Master Albert, the first Duke of Prussia; Malbork, Poland

The Teutonic Order lost eastern Prussia when, with the advance of Lutheranism, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order in 1525, after having converted to Lutheran Protestantism. Albert established himself as the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia and a vassal of the Polish crown (see Prussian Homage). Walther von Cronberg, the next Grand Master, was enfeoffed with the title to Prussia after the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, but the Order never regained possession of the territory. In 1569 the Hohenzollern prince-electors of the Margraviate of Brandenburg became co-regents with Albert's son, the feeble-minded Albert Frederick. Albert's line died out in 1618, and the Duchy of Prussia passed to the Electors of Brandenburg, forming Brandenburg-Prussia. Through the treaties of Wehlau, Labiau, and Oliva, Elector and Duke Frederick William succeeded in revoking Polish sovereignty over the largely Germanized[citation needed] Duchy of Prussia in 1660. Image File history File links Ethnic map of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Ethnic map of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1329x1775, 1252 KB) Opis en: Statue of Albrecht von Hohenzollern-Ansbach, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Castle of Malbork, Poland pl: Pomnik Albrechta von Hohenzollern-Ansbach, Wielkiego Mistrza Zakonu Krzyżackiego, Zamek w Malborku, Polska Author: Jan JerszyÅ„ski (2005... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1329x1775, 1252 KB) Opis en: Statue of Albrecht von Hohenzollern-Ansbach, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Castle of Malbork, Poland pl: Pomnik Albrechta von Hohenzollern-Ansbach, Wielkiego Mistrza Zakonu Krzyżackiego, Zamek w Malborku, Polska Author: Jan JerszyÅ„ski (2005... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... Malbork Castle 2003. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Albert of Prussia Albert (German: ; Latin: ; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia, which was the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Prussian Homage by Jan Matejko The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Polish: hoÅ‚d pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia. ... Reading of the Confessio Augustana by Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg, 1530 The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire in the German city of Augsburg. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire &#8212; German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) &#8212; were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Albert Frederick (7 May 1553- 28 August 1618) was duke of Ducal Prussia from 1568 until his death. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... The Treaty of Welawa was a political act signed in the Prussian town of Welawa (German Wehlau) between Poland and Brandenburg-Prussia during the Swedish Deluge on September 9, 1657. ... The Treaty of Labiau was a treaty signed between Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg and King Charles X Gustav of Sweden on November 20, 1656 in Labiau, Ducal Prussia. ... Treaty of Oliwa. ... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ...


Kingdom of Prussia

Although Brandenburg remained theoretically subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor, the Prussian lands were not within the Holy Roman Empire and were outside the jurisdiction of the Emperor. In return for supporting Emperor Leopold I in the War of the Spanish Succession, Elector Frederick III was allowed to crown himself "King in Prussia" in 1701. The new kingdom ruled by the Hohenzollern dynasty became known as the Kingdom of Prussia. The designation "Kingdom of Prussia" was gradually applied to the various lands of Brandenburg-Prussia. To differentiate from the larger entity, the former Duchy of Prussia became known as Altpreußen ("Old Prussia"), the province of Prussia, or "East Prussia". The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


After the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Warmia, part of the former Polish province Royal Prussia, was merged with the former Duchy of Prussia. On January 31, 1773, King Frederick II announced that the newly annexed lands were to be known as the Province of West Prussia, while the former Duchy of Prussia and Warmia became the Province of East Prussia. The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871. ...


From 1824-1878, East Prussia was combined with West Prussia to form the Province of Prussia, after which they were reestablished as separate provinces. The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ...


German Empire

Along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, East Prussia became part of the German Empire during the unification of Germany in 1871. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ...


In 1875 the ethnic make-up of East Prussia was 73.48% German-speaking, 18.39% Polish-speaking, and 8.11% Lithuanian-speaking (according to Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego). 2,189 people of 1,958,663 living in East Prussia in 1890 were not German citizens. From 1885 to 1890 Berlin's population grew by 20%, Brandenburg and the Rhineland gained 8.5%, Westphalia 10%, while East Prussia lost 0.07% and West Prussia 0.86%. This stagnancy in population despite a high birth surplus in eastern Germany was because many people from the East Prussian countryside moved westward seeking work in the expanding industrial centres of the Ruhr Area and Berlin (see Ostflucht). This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... The Ostflucht (flight from the East) was a movement by residents of the historically eastern German regions, such as East Prussia, West Prussia, Silesia and Province of Posen beginning around 1850, to the more industrialized western German Rhine and Ruhr provinces. ...


The population of the province in 1900 was 1,996,626 people, with a religious make up of 1,698,465 Protestants, 269,196 Roman Catholics, and 13,877 Jews. The Low Prussian dialect predominated in East Prussia, although High Prussian was spoken in Warmia. The numbers of Poles (Masurians) and Prussian Lithuanians decreased over time due to the process of Germanization. The Polish-speaking Prussians concentrated in the south of the province (Masuria and Warmia), while Lithuanian-speaking Prussians concentrated in the northeast (Lithuania Minor). The Old Prussian ethnic group became completely Germanized over time and the Old Prussian language died out in the 18th century. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Low Prussian (Niederpreußisch) is a dialect of East Low German, which was spoken in formerly German areas, that belong to Poland, Russia and Lithuania. ... High Prussian (German: ), sometimes known simply as Prussian (Preußisch), is a dialect of East Central German that developed in the region of East Prussia. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Mazurs are Polish ethnic group from Mazovia (Catholics) or East Prussia (Protestant), the latter often called Masurians in English. ... Languages German and Lithuanian Religions Lutherans Related ethnic groups Germans and Lithuanians The term Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuwininkai refers to a separate ethnic group[1] native to former East Prussia. ... Sailing on Lake Mikołajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ... Lithuania Minor (Lithuanian: ; German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) or Prussian Lithuania (Lithuanian: ; German: , Polish: ) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ...


World War I

At the beginning of World War I, East Prussia became a theatre of war when the Russian Empire invaded the country. The Russian Army encountered little resistance at first because the bulk of the German Army had been directed towards the Western Front according to the Schlieffen Plan. In the Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 and the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes in 1915, however, the Russians were decisively defeated and had to retreat, followed by the German Army advancing into Russian territory. The majority of the civilian population fled from the invading Russian Army and some thousand remaining civilians were deported to Russia. Treatment of civilians by the armies was mostly disciplined, however, in contrast to later conduct in World War II. The region had to be rebuilt owing to damage caused by the war. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... Image:AlfredGrafVonSchlieffen. ... Combatants  Russian Empire  German Empire Commanders Alexander Samsonov, Paul von Rennenkampf Paul von Hindenburg, Erich Ludendorff Strength 190,000 150,000 Casualties 30,000 killed or wounded; 95,000 captured 20,000 The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 was a decisive engagement between the Russian Empire and the German Empire... The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers offensive on the Eastern Front (World War I) in the winter of 1915. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Weimar Republic

East Prussia from 1923 to 1939 between the wars
East Prussia from 1923 to 1939 between the wars

With the abdication of Emperor William II in 1918, Germany became a republic. Most of West Prussia and the former Prussian Province of Posen, territories annexed by Prussia in the 18th century Partitions of Poland, were ceded to the Second Polish Republic according to the Treaty of Versailles. East Prussia became an exclave of Germany, separated by the Polish Corridor. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (743x801, 23 KB) Summary Germanys province of East Prussia from 1923 to 1939, with Memelland occupied by Lithuania Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (743x801, 23 KB) Summary Germanys province of East Prussia from 1923 to 1939, with Memelland occupied by Lithuania Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and Prussia from 15 June 1888 to... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ...


In 1920 amidst the backdrop of the Polish-Soviet War, plebiscites in eastern West Prussia and southern East Prussia were held under Allied supervision to determine if the areas should join the Second Polish Republic or remain in the Free State of Prussia's Province of East Prussia. 96.7% of the people voted for remaining within Germany. Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30...


The Memel Territory, a League of Nations mandate since 1920, was occupied by Lithuania in 1923 without giving the inhabitants a choice on the ballot. Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ...


Nazi Germany

In 1938 the Nazis altered about one-third of the toponyms of the area, eliminating, Germanizing, or simplifying a number of linguistically Baltic, Old Prussian names, as well as those Polish or Lithuanian names originating from refugees to Prussia during and after the Protestant Reformation. All persons who did not co-operate with the rulers of Nazi Germany, including activist members of minorities with Polish roots (see Masurians), were sent to concentration camps and kept there until their liberation (unless they died in captivity before liberation). The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Mazurs are members of a WestslPolish ethnic group in the Masovian and Warmian-Masurian [[voivodship]avic in Poland. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ...


World War II

Partitions of Eastern Europe before, during, and after World War II
Partitions of Eastern Europe before, during, and after World War II

In 1939 East Prussia had 2.49 million inhabitants, 85% of them ethnic Germans, the others being Polish Masurians speaking Masurian (Slavic) in the south or Lietuvininkai speaking Lithuanian (Baltic) in the northeast. Most German East Prussians, Masurians, and Lietuvininkai were Lutheran, while the population of Warmia was mostly Roman Catholic. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (900 × 770 pixels, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (900 × 770 pixels, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to de. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mazurs are Polish ethnic group from Mazovia (Catholics) or East Prussia (Protestant), the latter often called Masurians in English. ... Masurian (also known as Mazurian, Masovian, and Mazovian) is a dialect of Polish from Masovia and Masuria. ... Language(s) German and Lithuanian Religion(s) Lutherans Related ethnic groups Germans, Kursenieki The term Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuwininkai [1] (singular: Lietuwininkas) refers to a separate ethnic group[2][3] native to East Prussia. ... Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ...


During World War II, the province was extended (see Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany). Despite Nazi propaganda presenting all the regions annexed as possessing significant German populations that wanted reunification with Germany, the Reich's statistics in 1939 show that only 31,000 out of 994,092 people in the annexed Polish western territories were German. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda, much of which was centered around Jews, who were consistently alleged to be the source of Germanys economic problems. ...


Many inhabitants of East Prussia were killed in the war, many of whom were young Germans[citation needed] conscripted into the Wehrmacht and killed in action. The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


Evacuation of East Prussia

In 1944 the medieval city of Königsberg, which had never been severely damaged by warfare in its 700 years, was almost entirely destroyed by two Allied air raids on the night of 26/27 August 1944 and three nights later on the 29/30 August 1944. Winston Churchill (The Second World War, Book XII) erroneously[citation needed] considered the city "a modernised heavily defended fortress". The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


Gauleiter Erich Koch protracted the evacuation of the German civilian population until the Eastern Front approached the East Prussian border in 1944. The population of the province had been systematically disinformed by Endsieg Nazi propaganda about the real military state of affairs. As a result many civilians fleeing westward were overtaken by retreating Wehrmacht units and the rapidly advancing Red Army. Reports of Soviet atrocities at Nemmersdorf and organised rape spread fear and desperation among the civilian populace. Thousands lost their lives during the sinkings of the Wilhelm Gustloff, the Goya, and the General von Steuben. The capital Königsberg surrendered on April 9, 1945, following the desperate four-day Battle of Königsberg. The exact number of civilian victims has never been determined but is estimated to be at least 300 000,[citation needed] with most of them dying under miserable conditions. However, most of the German inhabitants, which at that point consisted mainly of children, women, and old men, did escape the Red Army as part of the largest exodus of people in human history.[citation needed]"A population which had stood at 2.2 million in 1940 was reduced to 193,000 at the end of May 1945."[6] A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... Erich Koch (June 19, 1896, Elberfeld - November 12, 1986, Barczewo) was a Gauleiter of the NSDAP in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945, and Reichskomissar in Ukraine from 1941 until 1944. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Endsieg is German for final victory. The term is today almost exclusively used with reference to its meaning under Nazi doctrine: Temporary losses (including of civilian lives) nonwithstanding, the Third Reich would ultimately prevail, and thus any breakdown in allegiance to Nazi ideology was not to be tolerated. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Mayakovskoye (Russian: ; German: ) is a settlement in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. ... The Wilhelm Gustloff slides into the water during launch ceremonies. ... The Goya was a German refugee ship which was originally built as the freighter Akers in Oslo in 1940 with a length of 131 m and width of 17 m. ... The Dampfschiff (DS) General von Steuben[1] (formerly called the München (after Munich), but renamed in 1938) was a German luxury passenger ship which was turned into an armed transport ship in World War II. She was named after Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus Steuben, a famous German officer from... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ...


Post-World War II

Germany's eastern territories were eroded after each world war, dividing East Prussia among several countries.
Königsberg Castle, 1895
Königsberg Castle, 1895

Shortly after the end of the war in May 1945, some Germans who had fled in early 1945 tried to return to their homes in East Prussia. However, they were stopped. The remaining German population of East Prussia was almost completely expelled by the Communist regime. During the war and shortly thereafter, many people were also deported as forced labourers to eastern parts of the Soviet Union, including the Gulag camp system. German place names were changed to either Russian or Polish names. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2565x3493, 3361 KB) Description Königsberg Castle tower and Emperor Williams Monument, Kaliningrad, Russia Original image Photochrom print (color photo lithograph) Created between 1890 and 1905 Source Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photochrom Prints Collection, reproduction number LC... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2565x3493, 3361 KB) Description Königsberg Castle tower and Emperor Williams Monument, Kaliningrad, Russia Original image Photochrom print (color photo lithograph) Created between 1890 and 1905 Source Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photochrom Prints Collection, reproduction number LC... Königsberg Castle, 1895 The ruins of the Köningsberg Castle were destroyed in 1968 The Königsberg Castle (German: , Russian: ) was a castle in Kaliningrad, Russia (formerly Königsberg, Germany), and one of the landmarks of the East Prussian capital Königsberg. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


In April 1946, northern East Prussia became an official province of the Russian SFSR, with the Memel Territory becoming part of the Lithuanian SSR. In July of that year, the historic city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad and the area named the Kaliningrad Oblast. After the expulsion of the German population, beginning in late 1947 ethnic Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians were settled in the northern part, and Polish expatriates from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union were settled in the southern part of East Prussia, now the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... For the band, see Expatriate (band). ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno country with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... Capital city Olsztyn Area 24,191. ...

"House of the Soviets", built on the site of the former Königsberg Castle
"House of the Soviets", built on the site of the former Königsberg Castle

In the Soviet part of the region, a policy of eliminating all remnants of German history was pursued. In 1967 this resulted in the demolition of the remains of Königsberg Castle by order of Leonid Brezhnev to make way on the site for the new "House of Soviets". Aimed at Polonization of the southern part was the policy of Communist Poland after the war, as German names were systematically removed, churchyards and gravestones were ploughed under or demolished, and houses were stripped of elements that recalled the past Germanisation of the area. A policy was made which punished the usage of the German language by the partially Germanised Masurians, many of whom spoke fluent German rather than their native Polish dialect, especially elderly inhabitants. Image File history File links Object: So called House of the Soviets in Kaliningrad, Russia Description: The building of so called house of the soviets begun in 1970 on the place where old kastle of Königsberd stood before it was destroyed in late 60s due to idealogical reasons (it... Image File history File links Object: So called House of the Soviets in Kaliningrad, Russia Description: The building of so called house of the soviets begun in 1970 on the place where old kastle of Königsberd stood before it was destroyed in late 60s due to idealogical reasons (it... Königsberg Castle, 1895 The ruins of the Köningsberg Castle were destroyed in 1968 The Königsberg Castle (German: , Russian: ) was a castle in Kaliningrad, Russia (formerly Königsberg, Germany), and one of the landmarks of the East Prussian capital Königsberg. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Mazurs are Polish ethnic group from Mazovia (Catholics) or East Prussia (Protestant), the latter often called Masurians in English. ...


Since the fall of Communism in 1991, some German groups, among them also nationalists from the West have tried to help settle Volga Germans from eastern parts of Russia in the Kaliningrad Oblast. This initiative was only a small success, however, as most impoverished Volga Germans preferred to emigrate to the richer Federal Republic of Germany, where they could become German citizens through the right of return. The Cold War (1985-1991) discusses the period within the Cold War between the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in...


Although the 1945-1949 expulsion of Germans from the northern part of former East Prussia often was conducted in a violent and aggressive way by Soviet officials seeking revenge for Nazi crimes in the Soviet Union, the present Russian inhabitants of the Kaliningrad Oblast have much less animosity towards Germans. German names have been revived in commercial Russian trade and there is sometimes talk of reverting Kaliningrad's name back to the original name of Königsberg. Because the exclave during Soviet times was a military zone which nobody was allowed to enter without special permission, many old German villages are still intact, though they have become dilapidated over the course of time. The city centre of Kaliningrad, however, was completely rebuilt, as British bombs (1944) and the Soviet siege (1945) had left it in ruins. A closed city (town) is a city/town with travel and residency restrictions in the former Soviet Union, or in a CIS country. ...


Bibliography

Publications in English

  • Baedeker, Karl, Northern Germany, 14th revised edition, London, 1904.
  • Beevor, Antony (2002). "chapters 1-8", Berlin: The Downfall 1945. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-88695-5.  (on the years 1944/45)
  • Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950, 1994, ISBN 0-312-12159-8
  • Dickie, Reverend J.F., with E.Compton, Germany, A & C Black, London, 1912.
  • von Treitschke, Heinrich, History of Germany - vol.1: The Wars of Emancipation, (translated by E & C Paul), Allen & Unwin, London, 1915.
  • Powell, E. Alexander, Embattled Borders, London, 1928.
  • Steed, Henry Wickham, Vital Peace - A Study of Risks, Constable & Co., London, 1936.
  • Newman, Bernard, Danger Spots of Europe, London, 1938.
  • Wieck. Michael: A Childhood Under Hitler and Stalin: Memoirs of a "Certified Jew," University of Wisconsin Press, 2003, ISBN 0-299-18544-3.
  • Woodward, E.L., Butler, Rohan; Medlicott, W.N., Dakin, Douglas, & Lambert, M.E., et al (editors), Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939, Three Series, Her Majesty's Stationary Office (HMSO), London, numerous volumes published over 25 years. Cover the Versailles Treaty including all secret meetings; plebiscites and all other problems in Europe; includes all diplomatic correspondence from all states.
  • Previté-Orton, C.W., Professor, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press, 1952 (2 volumes).
  • Balfour, Michael, and John Mair, Four-Power Control in Germany and Austria 1945-1946, Oxford University Press, 1956.
  • Kopelev, Lev, To Be Preserved Forever, ("Хранить вечно"), 1976.
  • Koch, H.W., Professor, A History of Prussia, Longman, London, 1978/1984, (P/B), ISBN 0-582-48190-2
  • Koch, H.W., Professor, A Constitutional History of Germany in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Longman, London, 1984, (P/B), ISBN 0-582-49182-7
  • MacDonogh, Giles, Prussia, Sinclair-Stevenson, London, 1994, ISBN 1-85619-267-9
  • Nitsch, Gunter, Weeds Like Us, AuthorHouse, 2006, ISBN 9781425967550

Karl Baedeker (not Baedecker) (3 November 1801 - 4 October 1859) was a publisher whose company set the standard for authoritative guidebooks for tourists. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... Alfred-Maurice de Zayas (born 1947) is a Cuban-born American lawyer, writer, and historian. ... A & C Black is a British book publishing company. ... Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ... Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Lev Kopelev Lev Kopelev (Russian: Лев Зиновьевич Копелев, German spelling Lew Kopelew: April 9, 1912 – June 18, 1997) was a Soviet Russian author and a dissident. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ...

Publications in German

  • B. Schumacher: Geschichte Ost- und Westpreussens, Würzburg 1959
  • Boockmann, Hartmut: Ostpreußen und Westpreußen (= Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas). Siedler, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-88680-212-4
  • Buxa, Werner and Hans-Ulrich Stamm: Bilder aus Ostpreußen
  • Dönhoff, Marion Gräfin v. :Namen die keiner mehr nennt - Ostpreußen, Menschen und Geschichte
  • Dönhoff, Marion Gräfin v.: Kindheit in Ostpreussen
  • Falk, Lucy: Ich Blieb in Königsberg. Tagebuchblätter aus dunklen Nachkriegsjahren
  • Suchenwirth, Dr.Richard, Deutsche Geschichte, Dollheimer, Leipzig, 1934.
  • Kibelka, Ruth: Ostpreußens Schicksaljahre, 1945-1948
  • Bernd, Martin (1998). "Masuren, Mythos und Geschichte". Karlsruhe: Evangelische Akademie Baden. ISBN 8385135936. 
  • Wieck, Michael: Zeugnis vom Untergang Königsbergs: Ein "Geltungsjude" berichtet, Heidelberger Verlaganstalt, 1990, 1993, ISBN 3-89426-059-9.

Publications in French Pierre Benoit, Axelle Georges Blond, L'agonie de l'Allemagne Michel Tournier, Le roi des aulnes


Publications in Polish

  • K. Piwarski (1946). "Dzieje Prus Wschodnich w czasach nowożytnych". 
  • (1969–2003) in Gerard Labuda: "Historia Pomorza", vol. I–IV. 
  • collective work (1958–61). "Szkice z dziejów Pomorza", vol. 1–3. 

See also

Lithuania Minor (Lithuanian: ; German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) or Prussian Lithuania (Lithuanian: ; German: , Polish: ) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived. ... This article is a translation of the German Wikipedia article called Liste der Städte in Ostpreußen . ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... The Landsmannschaft Ostpreußen (German for Territorial Association of East Prussia) is a non-profit organization formed on October 3, 1948 by German refugees to Western Germany displaced from their homes in East Prussia by the Soviet occupation and Expulsion of Germans after World War II from Ex-German Eastern... Sailing on Lake Mikołajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition (2001-05), East Prussia
  2. ^ Ostpreußen: The Great Trek
  3. ^ A Treatise on Political Economy
  4. ^ The Prussians, “Ideal Prussians”, Old Prussian and New Prussian
  5. ^ The Family Donhoff, or the futility of revenge
  6. ^ Beevor, Antony, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books (2002). ISBN 0-670-88695-5

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
East Prussia (479 words)
The territory of East Prussia was sparsely populated and colonized by the Germans and Poles (the southern parts).
East Prussia was in turn extended by the eastern districts (shown in green and in cyan) of the former Province of West Prussia which remained German after 1920.
German inhabitants of East Prussia either escaped in 1945 or were expelled from there afterwards.
East Prussia - LoveToKnow 1911 (596 words)
EAST PRUSSIA (Ost-Preussen), the easternmost province of the kingdom of Prussia, bounded on the N. by the Baltic, on the E. and S.W. by Russia and Russian Poland, and on the W. by the Prussian province of West Prussia.
East Prussia is the coldest part of Germany, its mean annual temperature being about 44° F., while the mean January temperature of Tilsit is only 25°.
East Prussia is the headquarters of the horse-breeding of the country, and contains the principal government stud of Trakehnen; numerous cattle are also fattened on the rich pastures of the rivervalleys.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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