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Encyclopedia > East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Emblem of Pakistan

This article is part of the series:
Historical regions of Pakistan Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh_(1971). ... Image File history File links Emblem_Pakistan. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ...

Map of Pakistan with East Pakistan highlighted
Capital
Dhaka
Area
144,000 kmĀ²
Main language(s) Bengali
Established October 14, 1955
Abolished March 25, 1971 (Declared)

December 16, 1971 (Recognized) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x700, 8 KB) Licencing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা Đhaka; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the Dhaka District. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...

Historic regions of Pakistan
Original Provinces



One-Unit Provinces The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) around Karachi was the original capital territory of Pakistan. ... This article details the historical North-West Frontier Province. ... The Sind is a former province of Pakistan and British India which existed from 1936 to 1955. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ...

Former States
Other subdivisions
Government of Bangladesh

East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. It replaced the former province of East Bengal and occupied the area now known as Bangladesh. West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972... Amb was a small princely state in what is today the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... The State of Bahawalpur was a princely state of the Punjab in what is now Pakistan, stretching along the southern bank of the Sutlej and Indus Rivers, with its capital city at Bahawalpur. ... The State of Chitral, or Chitrāl (Urdu: ریاست چترال), was a former princely state of Pakistan and British India which ceased to exist in 1969. ... This article details the historical State of Dir Dir, see Dir The State of Dir was a small former princely state located in the modern North-West Frontier Province in Pakistan. ... This article is about the former State of Hunza, for the main article see Hunza Valley Hunza (Urdu: ہنزہ) is a former princely state in the northernmost part of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, which existed until 1974. ... State of Kalat or State of Qalat (Urdu: ریاست قلات) was a princely state located in the centre of the modern province of Balochistan. ... The State of Khayrpur was a princely state on the Indus River in what is now Pakistan, with its capital city at Khayrpur. ... The State of Kharan was an autonomous princely state of both British India and Pakistan, located in the southwest of modern Pakistan. ... The State of Las Bela was princely state of Pakistan and British India which existed until 1955. ... The State of Makran was an autonomous princely state of both British India and Pakistan, which ceased to exist in 1955. ... The State of Nagar is a former princely state in the northernmost part of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, which existed until 1974. ... The State of Phulra was a minor princely state of both Pakistan and British India, located in the modern North-West Frontier Province. ... The State of Swat (Urdu: ریاست سوات) was a princely state which existed in the north of the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan until it was dissolved in 1969. ... This article details the former Pakistani region of the Baluchistan States Union. ... The Gilgit Agency was an occupied province of the Maharaja of Kashmir before November 1, 1947. ... Trans-Karakoram Tract is occupied by China now, having been part of Pakistan-occupied Jammu & Kashmir until 1963, when Pakistan had handed over it to China according to the border agreement. ... The Divisions of Pakistan were previously the third tier of government in Pakistan until they were abolished in 2000. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ...

Contents

Post Independence

When British India was partitioned in 1947, into the independent states of Pakistan and India, Bengal was split between them. The western part belonged to India with the eastern part becoming East Bengal with a population composition of: Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... The Partition of Bengal in 1947 divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ...

The latter formed one of the vital provinces of unified Pakistan. The other four Pakistani provinces (West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and the Northwest Frontier Province) were positioned on the other side of India, forming West Pakistan. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, and Muhajirs and various other groups. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972...


After independence from British rule, East Bengal was dominated and neglected by the Pakistani government, which was dominated by the Pakistani military, which mostly belonged to West Pakistan. A major cause of resentment among the Bengalis was economic exploitation. For example, between 1948 and 1960, East Pakistan's export earnings had been 70% of national total, while it only received 25% of the earnings. Between 1950 and 1970, only 34% of the development expenditure was spent in East Bengal despite having more than half the population [1]. Growing tensions led to the One-Unit Policy, implemented in 1955, which abolished the provinces. Under this policy, West Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, and the Northwest Frontier were merged under the nominal designation of West Pakistan and East Bengal became East Pakistan. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972...


Tensions peaked in 1971, following the cancellation by Pakistani President Yahya Khan of election results that gave the Awami League a majority in the parliament. The Awami League won almost all the seats in East Pakistan, but none in West Pakistan. East Pakistan had more than half the parliamentary seats because it was home to more than half the population. Although the Awami League was in a position to form a government without any coalition partner, it was forced to start negotiations with the Pakistan Peoples Party which had won most of the seats in West Pakistan. The negotiations failed and a 'military government' cancelled the results of the elections in 'East Pakistan'. Under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Bangladesh began its struggle for independence. The official onset followed a harsh repression carried out by the Pakistan army on Bengali civilians on 25th March, 1971, with an estimated 1-1.5 million Bengali deaths during the war [2]. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ... West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


Independence of Bangladesh

See also: Bangladesh Liberation War

The tension between East and West Pakistan reached a climax when in 1970 the Awami League, the largest East Pakistani political party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national elections. The party won 167 of the 169 seats allotted to East Pakistan, and thus a majority of the 300 seats in the National Assembly. This gave the Awami League the constitutional right to form a government. However, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the leader of the Pakistan People's Party, refused to allow Rahman to become the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This finally convinced the East that independence was necessary. Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora General A. A. K. Niazi Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan Army: 365,000 Paramilitary: 280,000[1] Casualties India: 1,426 KIA 3,611 Wounded (Official) Mukti Bahini: NA... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ...


As the crisis grew more dire, General Yahya Khan declared at a meeting of the military top brass: "Kill 3 million of them and the rest will eat out of our hands." Accordingly, on the night of 25th March 1971, the Pakistani Army launched Operation Searchlight to "crush" Bengali resistance in which Bengali members of military services were disarmed and killed, students and the intelligentsia systematically liquidated and able-bodied Bengali males just picked up and gunned down.[3] On the same day, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, being identified as a major influencer of the Bengalis, was arrested by the Pakistani Government. Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Operation Searchlight was a planned pacification carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan in 1971. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ...


On 26th March 1971, the day after the military crackdown on civilians in East Pakistan, Major Ziaur Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. This started the Bangladesh Liberation War in which the Mukti Bahini, joined in December 1971 by 400,000 Indian soldiers in December, faced the Pakistani Army of 100,000. On 16th December 1971, the Pakistani Army surrendered to the Mitro Bahini (Allied Forces of Bangladesh Forces and Indian Army). Bangladesh quickly gained recognition from most countries and with the signing of the Shimla Accord, most of the countries accepted the new nation. Bangladesh joined the United Nations in 1974. Ziaur Rahman (Bengali: Ziaur Rôhman) (January 19, 1936 — May 30, 1981) was the 6th President of Bangladesh and founder of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora General A. A. K. Niazi Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan Army: 365,000 Paramilitary: 280,000[1] Casualties India: 1,426 KIA 3,611 Wounded (Official) Mukti Bahini: NA... Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Bangla: মুক্তি বাহিনী) (Liberation Army), was a guerrilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. ... The Indian Armed Forces is Indias primary defence organisation. ... Pakistan Army Coat of Arms Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistan Military responsible for land based military operations. ... Mitro Bahini (meaning Allied forces in Bangla) was a military force composed of Bangladesh Army (as part of Mukti Bahini) and the Indian Army in December 1971 during the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... The Indian Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of India and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. ... Shimla Accord (named after Shimla) is a treaty signed between India (Prime Minister Indira Gandhi) and Pakistan (Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) after their 1971 war. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Government of East Pakistan

On 14th October 1955, the last governor of East Bengal (Amiruddin Ahmad) became the first Governor of East Pakistan. At the same time the last Chief Minister of East Bengal became the first Chief Minister of East Pakistan. This system lasted until the military coup of 1958 when the post of Chief Minister was abolished in both East Pakistan and West Pakistan. From 1958 to 1971 the administration was largely in the hands of the President of Pakistan and the Governor of East Pakistan who at times held the title of Martial Law Administrator. East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ...

Tenure Governor of East Pakistan
14th October 1955 - March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad
March 1956 - 13th April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq
13th April 1958 - 3rd May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting)
3rd May 1958 - 10th October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad
10th October 1958 - 11th April 1960 Zakir Hussain
11th April 1960 - 11th May 1962 Lt Gen Mohammad Azam Khan
11th May 1962 - 25th October 1962 Ghulam Faruque
25th October 1962 - 23rd March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan
23rd March 1969 - 25th March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda
25th March 1969 - 23rd August 1969 Muzaffaruddin (martial law administrator)
23rd August 1969 - 1st September 1969 Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (martial law administrator)
1st September 1969 - 7th March 1971 Syed Mohammad Ahsan
7th March 1971 - 31st August 1971 Tikka Khan (martial law administrator)
31st August 1971 - 14th December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik
14th December 1971 - 16th December 1971 A. A. K. Niazi (martial law administrator)
16th December 1971 Province of East Pakistan dissolved
Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan Political Party
August 1955 - September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 - March 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 - 18th June 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
18th June 1958 - 22nd June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22nd June 1958 - 25th August 1958 Governor's Rule
25th August 1958 - 7th October 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
7th October 1958 Post abolished
16th December 1971 Province of East Pakistan dissolved

Sher-e-Bangla (Urdu phrase meaning The Tiger of Bengal) Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq (Bangla:আবুল কাসেম ফজলুল হক) (born 26 October 1873-died 27 April 1962) was a famous Bengali statesman in the first half of the 20th century. ... The late Khan Bahadur Ghulam Faruque Khan (1899-1992) was a Politician and Industrialist of Pakistan. ... Sahabzada Yaqub Ali Khan Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (born 1920) was the International Face of Pakistan for many years. ... Tikka Khan (Urdu: ٹکا خان) (b. ... Lt. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ...

Transportation

The creation of East Pakistan as part of Pakistan created problems of transportation both for India and especially Pakistan. While the former had its train links from Assam and Bengal rerouted through the Chicken's Neck and had to reroute all the road links via the same route increasing costs, the issue for Pakistan was far worse. With no direct road link to West Pakistan, the bulk of the transportation had to take place over the water route that had to go around Sri Lanka to reach a Pakistani port. The only other means for a faster transport was through the prohibitive airline links, which also irregular since in the case of any war or strained relations between India and Pakistan, airlinks were the first to be severed by India, putting even greater pressure.


See also

Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders • General M A G Osmani • General Jagjit Singh Aurora General A. A. K. Niazi Strength India: 500,000+ Mukti Bahini: 100,000[1][2] Pakistan Army: 365,000 Paramilitary: 280,000[1] Casualties India: 1,426 KIA 3,611 Wounded (Official) Mukti Bahini: NA... Biharis also refers to the natives or citizens of Bihar state of independent India (including non-Mulsims). ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops[] 400,000+ troops[] Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Archer Kent Blood (1923-2004) was an American diplomat in Bangladesh. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Bangladesh Liberation War
  2. ^ War Statistics
  3. ^ South Asia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved on 2005-06-23.

 
 

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