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Encyclopedia > East Jerusalem
Map of East Jerusalem.
Map of East Jerusalem.

East Jerusalem is a disputed Middle Eastern place name. Image File history File links EastJerusalemMap. ... Image File history File links EastJerusalemMap. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In an international context it usually refers to the part of the West Bank that Israel incorporated in the jurisdiction of the Jerusalem municipality following the Six-Day War in 1967. This definition refers to a territory measuring 70 square kilometers in area. It consists of Jerusalem's Old City and the adjacent Arab-Jerusalem downtown, as well as surrounding countryside that is being developed by dozens of significant Israeli settlements and Palestinian villages integrating into the Jerusalem metropolitan area. Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is the capital of Israel. ... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan 55... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... A territory is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution (from the word terra, meaning land). In politics, a territory is an area of land under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ... Urbanization (or Urbanisation see here) is a natural expansion of an existing population, namely the proportion of total population or area in urban localities or areas (cities and towns), or the increase of this proportion over time. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ...


The term may also refer to the part of Jerusalem proper which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. Further, "East Jerusalem" is sometimes used to refer specifically to the territory of the pre-1967 Jordanian municipality. Its size is 6 square kilometers and forms part of the area Israel annexed in 1967. Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is the capital of Israel. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt  Syria Transjordan  Lebanon  Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Hasan Salama. ... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan 55...


All existing definitions of East Jerusalem include the Jerusalem Old City and some of the holiest sites in the Jewish, Christian and Muslim religions, including the Western Wall, the Temple Mount (containing the Dome of the Rock in the Al-Aqsa Mosque), and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Western Wall by night Wailing Wall redirects here. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: הַר הַבַּיִת, without niqqud: הר הבית, translit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Dung Gate. ... Al-Aqsa Mosque For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ...


Israeli law does not recognize a distinction between West and East Jerusalem. Therefore, some sources write "east Jerusalem" with a lower-case "e," or call it "eastern Jerusalem". Mount Scopus, which was an Israeli enclave during Jordanian rule, is not considered part of East Jerusalem. Mount Scopus (הר הצופים, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic جبل المشارف Jabal al-Mašārif, جبل المشهد Jabal al-Mašhad, جبل الصوانة ) is a mountain in East Jerusalem. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


No country has recognized Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 rejected it as a violation of international law. East Jerusalem also lies at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Palestinian National Authority has insisted on East Jerusalem as the capital of the Palestinian state in final status negotiations [1]. Israel has rejected this possibility, insisting that "united Jerusalem" will always be "one indivisible city under Israeli sovereignty" and "Israel's eternal capital" [2]. Many Israelis are opposed to any division of Jerusalem, based on cultural, historic, and religious grounds, although there is increasing public discourse in Israel about reinstating as part of the West Bank and the eventual Palestinian state, outlying Palestinian villages and neighborhoods which were not part of Jordanian East Jerusalem from 1949 until 1967 and were annexed by Israel to Jerusalem in 1967. In a recent poll, 49% of Israelis back Jerusalem division i.e. willing to cede parts of Jerusalem in the framework of peace deal with Palestinians [3] United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. This resolution, not taken under chapter VI or VII of the charter (the binding chapters), advised member... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Anthem: Biladi Capital None. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is the capital of Israel. ...


Most Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem (about 250,000) are not Israeli citizens, but hold legal permanent resident status to live and travel within Israel. According to 1988 Israeli Supreme court ruling, this status also makes them eligible for Israel Social Security benefits and state-provided health care. [4]. However, Palestinians often complain that the status is lost following even temporary residence outside Israel proper or East Jerusalem and is not automatically conferred to children. They also claim that East Jerusalem has increasingly been cut off from the rest of the West Bank, which thereby has lost its main economic hub.

Contents


History

Jordanian Rule

According to the 1947 UN Partition Plan, Jerusalem was supposed to be an international city, not part of either the proposed Jewish or Arab state. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, West Jerusalem was captured by Israel, while East Jerusalem (including the Old City) was captured by Jordan. Upon its capture, the Jordanians immediately expelled all the Jewish residents of the Jewish Quarter, most of whom from families that had been living there for centuries. Many synagogues were destroyed, and the Jewish Quarter was bulldozed. The ancient Jewish cemetery on Mount of Olives was desecrated. In 1950 East Jerusalem, along with the rest of the West Bank, was annexed by Jordan. However, the annexation of the West Bank was recognized only by the United Kingdom, which did not recognize the annexation of East Jerusalem. East Jerusalem absorbed some of the refugees from West Jerusalem's Arab neighborhoods that came under Israeli rule. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly, at the UN World Headquarters in New York. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt  Syria Transjordan  Lebanon  Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Hasan Salama. ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... The Hurva Synagogue, with Israeli flag on it. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ...


During the period of Jordanian rule, East Jerusalem lost much of its importance, as it was no longer a capital, and losing its link to the coast diminished its role as a commercial hub. It even saw a population decrease, with merchants and administrators moving to Amman. On the other hand, it maintained its religious importance, as well as its role as a regional center. Amman, sometimes spelled Ammann (Arabic عمان ʿAmmān), is the capital of the Kingdom of Jordan, a city of more than 1. ...


During the 1960s Jerusalem saw economic improvement and its tourism industry developed significantly, and its holy sites attracted growing numbers of Christian and Muslim pilgrims (Jews were not allowed access to their holy sites in the city). The Kendall Town Scheme was commissioned by the Jordanian government in 1966 with the purpose of linking the city with the surrounding towns and villages, integrating them into a metropolitan area. This plan was not implemented, as East Jerusalem came under Israeli rule the following year. El Nido, Philippines Tourism is the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and business, and the provision of services for this act. ... For albums named Pilgrim, see Pilgrim (album). ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ...


Israeli Rule

During the Six-Day War of 1967 Israel captured the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and eventually annexed 6.4 km² of Jordanian Jerusalem and 64 km² of the nearby West Bank to the City of Jerusalem, including several villages and lands from neighboring villages.[5] The annexation excluded many of East Jerusalem's suburbs and divided several villages. Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan 55...


Under Israel, members of all religions were largely granted access to their holy sites, with the Muslim Waqf maintaining control of the Temple Mount and Muslim holy sites there. The old Mughrabi Quarter (Morrocan) neighborhood in front of the Western Wall was demolished and replaced with a large open air plaza. A waqf (Arabic: وقف, plural awqāf) is an inalienable religious endowment in Islam, typically devoting a building or plot of land for Muslim religious or charitable purposes. ... The Moroccan Quarter (Arabic حارة المغاربة Harat al-Maghariba) was a neighborhood in the southeast corner of the Old City of Jerusalem, bordering on the western wall of the Al-Aqsa Mosque on the east (including the Western Wall), the Old City walls on the south (including the Dung Gate), the Jewish...


Following annexation, Israel conducted a census in the annexed territory and granted permanent Israeli residency to those present at the time of the census (those not present lost the right to reside in Jerusalem). They were permitted to apply for Israeli citizenship on condition they swore allegiance to Israel and renounce all other citizenships, which most of them refused to do. Those rejecting Israeli citizenship can still vote in municipal elections and play a role in the administration of the city.


Israel has a national holiday to commemorate the unification of both sides of the city, called Jerusalem Day. In 1980 Israel enacted its "Jerusalem Law" formally declaring East and West Jerusalem together, "whole and united" to be "the capital of Israel". In response the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 478 (the U.S. abstained), declaring the annexation to be a violation of international law. In 1988, Jordan, while rejecting Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem, withdrew all its claims to the West Bank (including Jerusalem). The Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles, signed September 13, 1993, leaves open the final status of Jerusalem, though Israel did not cede sovereignty until final negotiations on the city's status. Jerusalem Day 2004 at the Western_Wall Jerusalem Day - Yom Yerushalayim (Hebrew: *יום ירושלים - כח באייר) is an annual Israeli national holiday celebrated on Iyar 28. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. The resolution instructed member states to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


With the stated purpose of preventing infiltration during the Second Intifada, Israel has decided to surround East Jerusalem with a separation barrier. The planned barrier would cut off East Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank. The separation barrier has raised much criticism, and the Israeli Supreme Court has ruled that the alignment of sections of the barrier (including East Jerusalem sections) must be amended. The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... The Supreme Court is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ...


In the January 25, 2006 Palestinian Legislative Elections, 6,300 East Jerusalem Arabs were registered and permitted to vote locally. All other residents had to travel to West Bank polling stations. Hamas won four seats and Fatah two, even though Hamas was barred by Israel from campaigning in the city. Fewer than 6,000 residents were permitted to vote locally in the prior 1996 elections. January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ...


Demographics

The population of East Jerusalem is about 410,000, comprising 58% of Jerusalem's residents. Of these, 184,000 (45%) are Jews (comprising 38% of the 478,000 Jewish population of Jerusalem, west and east) and 226,000 (55%) are Arabs).


In 1990, there was still a majority of 150,000 Palestinians against 120,000 Jews in the eastern part of the city, the ratio has been reversed to the benefit of the latter. In 1993, East Jerusalem counted 155,000 Palestinians (non-Jews, as they are called by the Israelis) against 160,000 Israeli Jews. Some 250,000 Israelis live in West Jerusalem


Mayors of Al-Quds (East Jerusalem)

See also: List of mayors of Jerusalem

This is the list of Mayors of Jerusalem. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Aref al-Aref (1891-1973) was a Palestinian journalist, author and politician. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ruhi al-Khatib was the mayor of Al-Quds (East Jerusalem) from 1957 to 1967. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Amin al-Majaj is the titular mayor of East Jerusalem 1967-1999, not recognized as such by the government of Israel. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

External links

References

  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
East Jerusalem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1062 words)
Sometimes, "East Jerusalem" is used to refer specifically to the territory of the pre-1967 Jordanian municipality, including the Old City and the adjacent Arab neighborhoods.
East Jerusalem lies at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
In 1950 East Jerusalem, along with the rest of the West Bank, was annexed by Jordan.
Jerusalem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3738 words)
Jerusalem is situated in 31°46′45″N, 35°13′25″E, upon the southern spur of a plateau the eastern side of which slopes from 2,460 ft. above sea-level north of the Temple area to 2,130 ft. at the southeastern extremity.
To the east and the southeast of the Old City, where little grows without constant irrigation, promenades with parks were developed, which allow walkers to enjoy the view of the Old City, the Judean Desert, the irrigated vegetation, and - depending on location and weather conditions - the Dead Sea and Jordanian mountains.
According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, the average wage for a Jerusalem worker was NIS 5,568 in 2000.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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