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Encyclopedia > East Germany
Deutsche Demokratische Republik
German Democratic Republic

1949–1990
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
German: "Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!"
English translation: Workers of the world, unite!
Anthem
"Auferstanden aus Ruinen"
Capital East Berlin
Language(s) German
Government Socialist republic
Head of State
 - 1949–1960 Wilhelm Pieck
 - 1960–1973 Walter Ulbricht
 - 1973–1976 Willi Stoph
 - 1976–1989 Erich Honecker
 - 1989 Egon Krenz
 - 1989–1990 Manfred Gerlach
Head of Government
 - 1949–1964 Otto Grotewohl
 - 1964–1973 Willi Stoph
 - 1973–1976 Horst Sindermann
 - 1976–1989 Willi Stoph
 - 1989–1990 Hans Modrow
 - 1990 Lothar de Maizière
Legislature Volkskammer
Historical era Cold War
 - Established October 7, 1949
 - Final Settlement September 25, 1990
 - German reunification October 3, 1990
Area
 - 1990 108,333 km² (41,828 sq mi)
Population
 - 1990 est. 16,111,000 
     Density 148.7 /km²  (385.2 /sq mi)
Currency East German mark
Internet TLD .dd
Calling code +37
1Although .dd was reserved as corresponding ISO code for East Germany, it was not put into the root before the country was dissolved.
2Country code 37 was retired in Spring 1992. The number range was subdivided, and re-allocated amongst former USSR states.

The German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a socialist state created by the Soviet Union in the Soviet Zone of occupied Germany and the Soviet sector of occupied Berlin. East Germany existed from 1949 until 1990, when its re-established states acceded to the adjacent Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), thus producing the current form of the state of Germany. Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... A Global Depository Receipt or Global Depositary Receipt (GDR) is a certificate issued by an international bank which can be subject of worldwide circulation on capital markets. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_East_Germany. ... Flag ratio: 3:5 From the establishment of East Germany in 1949 to 1959, the flag of East Germany was the same as the Flag of West Germany, and the current Flag of Germany. ... The coat of arms The Coat of Arms of the German Democratic Republic featured a hammer, a pair of compasses, surrounded by a ring of rye. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Coat of Arms of the Soviet Union, with the slogan emblazoned on the ribbons The political slogan Workers of the world, unite!, (German: Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt euch!) one of the most famous rallying cries of socialism, comes from Karl Marxs and Friedrich Engelss The Communist... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Auferstanden aus Ruinen (Risen from the Ruins) was the national anthem of East Germany (German Democratic Republic, German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR). ... File links The following pages link to this file: East Germany Categories: GFDL images ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist politician. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ... Manfred Gerlach (born 1928) acted as Chairman of the Council of State and thus head of state in East Germany from December 6, 1989 to April 5, 1990. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... Horst Sindermann (September 5, 1915 - April 20, 1990) was Chairman of the Council of Ministers of East Germany (GDR) from 1973 to 1976. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... Hans Modrow (born January 27, 1928) served as one of the last leaders of East Germany and as of 2003 functions as honorary Chairman of the Party of Democratic Socialism. ... Lothar de Maizière [] (born 2 March 1940) is a German conservative politician who served as the last and only democratically elected Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... ISO 4217 Code DDM User(s) German Democratic Republic Pegged with Deutsche Mark = M11 Subunit 1/100 pfennig Symbol M Plural Mark pfennig Pfennig Coins Freq. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .dd was the ISO 3166-1 code for the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), the letters coming from the German name of the country: Deutsche Demokratische Republik. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... .dd was the ISO 3166-1 code for the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), the letters coming from the German name of the country: Deutsche Demokratische Republik. ... Former USSR is the name given to the region of Europe and Asia comprising former republics of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), which dissolved in 1991. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... The Control Council headquarters The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, was a military occupation governing body of Germany after the end of World War II in Europe; the members were the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ...


Until 1952 it consisted of the German states of Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, and Saxony. Those were formed by pre-war German provinces or what was left of them with the new borders after the Potsdam Agreement. It claimed East Berlin as its capital. Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


Prior to reunification, it consisted of 14 smaller districts and East Berlin which received the equivalent status of a district in 1961. The districts were named after their metropoles: Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Schwerin, Potsdam, Frankfurt (Oder), Magdeburg, Cottbus, Halle, Leipzig, Erfurt, Dresden, Karl-Marx-Stadt (called Chemnitz until 1953 and again after 1990), Gera, and Suhl.


In 1955 the Republic was declared by the Soviet Union to be fully sovereign; however, Soviet troops remained, based on the four-power Potsdam agreement, just as British, Canadian and American forces remained in West Germany. As NATO troops remained in West Berlin and West Germany, East Germany and Berlin in particular became focal points of Cold War tensions. East Germany was a member of the Warsaw Pact and a close ally of the Soviet Union. Following the initial opening of sections of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, new elections were held on March 18, 1990, and the governing party, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, lost its majority in the Volkskammer (the East German parliament) soon after. On August 23, the Volkskammer decided that the territory of the Republic would accede to the ambit of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany on October 3, 1990. As a result of the unification on that date, the German Democratic Republic officially ceased to exist. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... -1... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In negotiation, an ambit claim is an extravagant initial demand made in expectation of an eventual counter-offer and compromise. ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the German Democratic Republic

The territories of East Germany were settled by Germanic peoples during the last few centuries BC. During the post-Roman migration period, many of these populations left for other lands, and Slavic Wends settled in their wake. German imperial rulers conquered the area during the Middle Ages. The newly acquired land was organized in margravates, German feudal states on the land of Slavs. Consequent waves of German settlements, which in subsequent centuries later included French Huguenots and Jews, gradually modified the originally Slavic composition of the land, except for the small community of Sorbs in Lusatia, and eventually most of what is now East Germany formed a large part of the historical Kingdom of Prussia. The flag of the German Democratic Republic, 1959–90 The German Democratic Republic (GDR), German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), often known in English as East Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... AD redirects here. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Vend redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count or an earl. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Lusatia (German: , Upper Sorbian: , Lower Sorbian: , Polish: , Czech: ) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern Czech Republic. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...

Districts from 1952 until reunification (1990)
Districts from 1952 until reunification (1990)

In Imperial Germany and later during the time of the Weimar Republic, territory that would become East Germany was situated in the center of the state. This territory was known as "Mitteldeutschland" (Middle Germany), while the designation "East" was reserved for provinces such as eastern Pomerania, eastern Brandenburg, Silesia and East and West Prussia. During World War II, Allied leaders decided at the Yalta Conference that post-war borders of Poland would be moved westward to the Oder-Neisse line, just as Soviet borders were also moved westward into formerly Polish territory. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Pommern redirects here. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ...


Discussions at Yalta and Potsdam also outlined the planned occupation and administration of post-war Germany under a four-power Allied Control Council, or ACC (composed of the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union). At the end of World War II, at the Potsdam Conference in 1945, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union decided to divide Germany into four occupation zones. Each country would control a part of Germany until its sovereignty was restored. Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...


The Länder (states) of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, fell in the Soviet Zone of Germany (in German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone, or SBZ). Soviet objections to economic and political changes in western (US, UK, and French) occupation zones led to Soviet withdrawal from the ACC in 1948 and subsequent evolution of the SBZ into East Germany, including the Soviet sector of Berlin. Concurrently, the Western occupation zones consolidated to form West Germany (or the Federal Republic of Germany, FRG). Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...

Three German states and divided Berlin in late 1949. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) consists of the American, British and French Zones (without the Saarland). The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed from the Soviet Zone.
Three German states and divided Berlin in late 1949. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) consists of the American, British and French Zones (without the Saarland). The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed from the Soviet Zone.

Officially, both the western Allies and the Communists committed to maintaining a unified Germany after the war in the Potsdam Agreement, at least on paper. The 1952 Stalin Note proposed German reunification and superpower disengagement from Central Europe, but the United States and its allies rejected the offer. Stalin died in early 1953. Though powerful Soviet politician Lavrenty Beria briefly pursued the idea of German unification once more following Stalin's death, he was arrested and removed from office in a coup d'etat in mid-1953. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, firmly rejected the idea of handing eastern Germany over to be annexed, marking the end of any serious consideration of the unification idea until the collapse of the Communist East German government in 1989. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... The four occupation zones in post-war Germany The 1952 Stalin Note, a. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ...


Just as Germany was divided after the war, Berlin, the former capital of Germany, was divided into four sectors. East Germany and the rest of the Eastern bloc considered East Berlin to be the capital of East Germany, although the legality of this was disputed by the western Allies, as the entire city was formally considered an occupied territory governed by martial law through the Allied Control Council. In practice, the Allied Control Council quickly became moot as the Cold War intensified, and the eastern government ignored the technical legal restrictions on how East Berlin could be used. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... An occupied territory is a region that has been taken over by a sovereign power after a military intervention, see belligerent occupation. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Conflict over the status of West Berlin led to the Berlin Blockade, when the Soviet government prohibited overland transit between the western zones of Germany and West Berlin, prompting the massive Berlin Airlift. Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ...

History of Germany
The Reichstag building at the end of the nineteenth century
Ancient times
Germanic peoples
Migration Period
Frankish Empire
Medieval times
East Francia
Kingdom of Germany
Holy Roman Empire
East Colonisation
Sectionalism
Building a nation
Confederation of the Rhine
German Confederation
German Revolutions of 1848
German Reichsflotte Navy
North German Confederation
Unification of Germany
The German Reich
German Empire
World War I
Weimar Republic
Nazi Germany
World War II
Post-war Germany since 1945
Occupation + Ostgebiete
Expulsion of Germans
FR Germany + GDR
German reunification
Present day Germany
Federal Republic of Germany
Topical
Military history of Germany
Territorial changes of Germany
Timeline of German history
History of the German language
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The first leader of East Germany was Wilhelm Pieck, the first (and as it turned out, only) President of the Republic. However, after 1950 the real power rested with Walter Ulbricht, first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, the ruling Communist party. The History of Germany begins with the establishment of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806 . ... Download high resolution version (976x718, 175 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Eastern Francia were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. ... The Kingdom of Germany was a medieval state[1] which grew out of that of East Francia in the tenth century, when the term regnum Teutonicum first came into informal use. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Image File history File links Den_tyske_ordens_skjold. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kleinstaaterei, a German word for the occurence of (many) petty states is a polyvalent term, mainly used for the internal state of Germany (and neighbouring regions) during the Holy Roman Empire, especially in its late phase, when it was officially known as Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... Image File history File links Wappen_Deutscher_Bund. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 38 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... During World War I, the German Empire was one of the Central Powers that ultimately lost the war. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links War_Ensign_of_Germany_1938-1945. ... The history of Germany during World War II closely parallels that of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler. ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration and ethnic cleansing of German nationals (Reichsdeutsche) and ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) from Germany and parts of territory formerly claimed by Germany in the first three years after World War II. The policy... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Bundeswehr_Kreuz. ... While German-speaking peoples have a long history, Germany as a nation-state dates only from 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... This is a timeline of German history. ... The history of German as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist politician. ... The name Socialist Unity Party can refer to at several different organizations, most of them defunct. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ...


On June 16, 1953, following a production quota increase of 10 percent for workers building East Berlin's new boulevard the Stalinallee, (today's Karl-Marx-Allee), demonstrations by disgruntled workers broke out in East Berlin. The next day the protests spread across East Germany with more than a million on strike and demonstrations in 700 communities. Fearing revolution the government requested the aid of Soviet occupation troops and on the morning of the 18th tanks and soldiers were dispatched who dealt harshly with protesters. The result was some fifty deaths and a wave of arrests and jail sentences numbering over 10,000.[1] Transit between West and East Berlin was relatively free at the time, meaning that the protests and the harsh Soviet reaction unfolded in full view of many western observers. See Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl-Marx-Allee, towards Strausberger Platz. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ...


During the early stages of the occupation, the Red Army seized a great deal of industrial equipment from eastern Germany to be shipped back to the Soviet Union as war reparations, crippling the East German economy for years. The increasing economic prosperity of West Germany led large numbers of East Germans to flee to the West. Since the 1940s, East Germans had been leaving the Soviet zone of Germany to emigrate to the west. The ongoing emigration of East Germans further strained the East German economy. Although the border between the two German states was largely closed by the mid-1950s (see Inner German border), the sector borders in Berlin were relatively easy to cross. Due to the lure of higher salaries in the West and political oppression in the East, many skilled workers (such as doctors) crossed into the West, causing a 'brain drain' in the East. However, on the night of August 13, 1961, East German troops sealed the border between West and East Berlin and started to build the Berlin Wall, literally and physically enclosing West Berlin. Travel was greatly restricted into, and out of, East Germany. A highly effective security force called the Stasi monitored the lives of East German citizens to suppress dissenters through its network of informants and agents. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... Republikflucht is the German term given to the process by which people left the German Democratic Republic (GDR) for a life in West Germany or indeed any other Western country. ... The sectors of occupation in 1949. ... This article is about the emigration term. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


In 1971, Ulbricht was forced out as head of state under Soviet pressure, and replaced by Erich Honecker. Ulbricht had experimented with a few reforms, but Honecker tightened the reins and imposed a new constitution that used the word "German" sparingly and defined the country as a "republic of workers and peasants." East Germany was generally regarded as the most economically advanced member of the Warsaw Pact. Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often known in English as East Germany, was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990. ... -1...


Until the 1970s, West Germany regarded East Germany as an illegally constituted state, and under the Hallstein Doctrine refused to have diplomatic relations with any country (except the Soviet Union) that recognized East Germany as a separate country. In the early 1970s, Ostpolitik led by Willy Brandt led to a form of mutual recognition between East and West Germany. The Treaty of Moscow (August 1970), the Treaty of Warsaw (December 1970), the Four Power Agreement on Berlin (September 1971), the Transit Agreement (May 1972), and the Basic Treaty (December 1972) helped to normalize relations between East and West Germany and led to both German states joining the United Nations. The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key doctrine in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) between 1955 and 1969. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... For the Oz character, see Willy Brandt (Oz). ... The Treaty of Moscow, was signed on August 12, 1970 between the USSR and West Germany. ... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... The Transit Agreement of May 1972 arranged access to and from West Berlin from West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)) and secured the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic (GDR)) and also secured the rights of GDR citizens to... The Basic Treaty in common usage stands for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The Basic Treaty of 1972 was part of the Ostpolitik under Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt. ... UN redirects here. ...


Competition with the West was also conducted on a sporting level. East German athletes dominated several Olympic disciplines. Of special interest was the only football match ever to occur between West and East Germany, a first round match during the 1974 World Cup. Though West Germany was the host and the eventual champion, East beat West 1-0. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from June 13 to July 7. ...


In 1989, following widespread public anger over the results of local government elections that spring, many citizens applied for exit visas, or left the country illegally. In August 1989 Hungary removed its border restrictions and unsealed its border and more than 13,000 people left East Germany by crossing the "green" border via Czechoslovakia into Hungary and then on to Austria and West Germany.[2] Many others demonstrated against the ruling party, especially in the city of Leipzig. Kurt Masur, the conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra led local negotiations with the government, and held town meetings in the concert hall.[3] The demonstrations eventually led Erich Honecker to resign in October, and he was replaced by a slightly more liberal Communist, Egon Krenz. Monday demonstration in Leipzig The 1989 Monday demonstrations in the East German city of Leipzig were a series of peaceful political protests against the East German government. ... Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra is a German orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany. ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ...


On November 9, 1989, a few sections of the Berlin Wall were opened, resulting in thousands of East Germans crossing into West Berlin and West Germany for the first time. Soon, the governing party of East Germany resigned. Although there were some small attempts to create a permanent, democratic East Germany, these were soon overwhelmed by calls for unification with West Germany. After some negotiations (2+4 Talks, involving the two German states and the former Allied Powers United States, France, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union), conditions for German unification were agreed upon. East Germany recreated the original five states that had been abolished in 1952. On October 3, 1990; the five East German states officially joined the Federal Republic of Germany, while East and West Berlin united as a third city-state (in the same manner as Bremen and Hamburg). is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ...


To this day, there remain vast differences between the former East Germany and West Germany (for example, in lifestyle, wealth, political beliefs and other matters) and thus it is still common to speak of eastern and western Germany distinctly. The Eastern German economy has struggled since unification, and large subsidies are still transferred from west to east.


Politics

The SED emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946
The SED emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946
Communism  v  d  e 

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was created as a socialist republic in 1949 and began to institute a government based on that of the Soviet Union. ... Download high resolution version (786x949, 50 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (786x949, 50 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... Religious communism is a form of communism centered on religious principles. ... Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy and less aligned to the partyline of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Karl_Marx_001. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Engels redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lenin. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rosa_Luxemburg. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Stalin1. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x617, 59 KB) Summary I obtained this image from here. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Image File history File links Mao. ... Mao redirects here. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communist symbolism usually incorporates symbols representing the industrial workers and/or the peasants of a country. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... -1... Left wing redirects here. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The New Left were the left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that, unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism, instead adopted a broader definition of political activism commonly called social activism. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... CCCP redirects here. ...

Political organization

The ruling political party in East Germany was the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, SED). It was created in 1946 through the Soviet-directed merger of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in the Soviet controlled zone. The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... SPD redirects here. ...


The Potsdam Agreement committed the Soviets to supporting a democratic form of government in Germany, and, unlike some Warsaw Pact countries, other political parties were permitted. The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... -1...


All parties operating in East Germany were obliged to join the "National Front of Democratic Germany", ostensibly a united coalition of anti-fascist political parties. It was completely controlled by the SED. Members included: The National Front was a united front of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...

Elections took place to a parliament called the Volkskammer, but were effectively controlled by the SED/state hierarchy, as Hans Modrow has noted. Elections were held in less-than-secret conditions, with voters given the choice of approving or rejecting "unity lists" put forward by the National Front. As was the case in most Communist countries, approval rates of 90 percent or more were routine. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany was an East German political party founded in 1945. ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany. ... The Democratic Farmers Party of Germany (German: Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (DBD)) was an East German political party. ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany. ... The Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (German: Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands (LDPD)) was a political party in East Germany. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... The National Democratic Party (German: Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or NDPD) was an East German political party that acted as an organisation for former members of the NSDAP and the Wehrmacht. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Hans Modrow (born January 27, 1928) served as one of the last leaders of East Germany and as of 2003 functions as honorary Chairman of the Party of Democratic Socialism. ...

Palast der Republik, the seat of the Volkskammer

The Volkskammer also included representatives from the mass organisations like the Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend or FDJ), or the Free German Trade Union Federation. In an attempt to include women in the political life of East Germany, there was a Democratic Women's Federation of Germany, with seats in the Volkskammer. The Palast der Republik in 2003 Inside the Palast der Republik in 2003, after asbestos and interior furnishings were removed Demolition work on the Palast der Republik, 2006 The Palast der Republik (Palace of the Republic) was a building in Berlin, on the bank of the River Spree between Schlossplatz... The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... The Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend or FDJ) was the official youth movement of the government of the German Democratic Republic. ... Register of members of the FDGB. Daten zur Ausstellung des Mitgliedsbuches. ... Democratic Womens Federation of Germany (in German, Demokratischer Frauenbund Deutschlands/DFD) was a mass organisation with representation in the Volkskammer which primarily fought for womens issues in East Germany. ...


Important non-parliamentary mass organisations in East German society included the German Gymnastics and Sports Association (Deutscher Turn- und Sportbund or DTSB), and People's Solidarity (Volkssolidarität, an organisation for the elderly). Another society of note (and very popular during the late 1980s) was the Society for German-Soviet Friendship. The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often called East Germany, had founded a separate National Olympic Committee for East Germany on 22 April 1951 in the Rotes Rathaus of East Berlin, two years after the National Olympic Committee for Germany, recognized by the IOC, had been founded in 1949 to continue... Peoples Solidarity, or Volkssolidarität in German, was an organisation for elderly people in East Germany from 1949 to 1990. ... Categories: Organization stubs ...


A highly effective secret police force called the Stasi infiltrated and reported on most private activity in East Germany, limiting opportunity for non-sanctioned political organisation. All formal organisations except for churches were directly controlled by the East German government. Churches were permitted to operate more or less free from government control, as long as they abstained from political activity. This article is about secret police as organizations. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


Following German reunification, the SED was renamed the "Party of Democratic Socialism" (PDS) which subsequently merged with the West German WASG to form the Left Party (Die Linke). The Left Party continues to be a political force in many parts of Germany, albeit drastically less powerful than the SED. Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (German: or WASG) was a German political party founded in 2005 by activists disenchanted with the Social Democratic-Green government. ... The Left Party (In German: , officially with a period at the end), formerly Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) is a left-wing socialist political party in Germany. ...


Persons of note in East Germany

Erich Honecker

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Political representatives

  • Hermann Axen, editor-in-chief of the SED paper "Neues Deutschland" 1956–1978, SED secretary for international relations 1966-1989
  • Johannes R. Becher, first minister for culture 1954–1958, wrote the lyrics of the national anthem
  • Hilde Benjamin, Vice President of the GDR Supreme Court 1949–1953, Minister of Justice 1953–1967, dubbed "red guillotine" for her relentless persecution of political opponents
  • Otto Grotewohl, Chairman of the East German SPD 1945–1946; joint chairman of the SED 1946–1954; Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1949–1964
  • Erich Honecker, General Secretary of the SED Central Committee 1971–1989; Chairman of the Council of State 1976–1989
  • Margot Honecker née Feist, minister for education 1963–1989
  • Heinz Kessler, Minister of Defence 1985–1989 (deputy minister since 1957)
  • Egon Krenz, General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party and chairman of Council of State from October to December 1989; he had been Honnecker's deputy and "crown prince" since 1983
  • Erich Mielke, Minister of State Security 1957–1989
  • Günter Mittag, SED secretary for economics 1962–1973, 1976–1989
  • Hans Modrow, SED district secretary for Dresden 1973–1989, last SED prime minister November 1989 – March 1990
  • Wilhelm Pieck, Chairman of the East German KPD 1945–1946; joint chairman of the SED 1946–1954; State President 1949–1960
  • Günter Schabowski, SED district secretary for Berlin 1985–1989; as party spokesperson he caused the fall of the Berlin wall
  • Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski, head of the department of "commercial coordination" in the Ministry of Foreign Trade.
  • Karl Schirdewan, SED secretary 1953–1958, dismissed for "faction building"
  • Horst Sindermann, Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1973–1976; president of parliament 1976–1989
  • Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler, telecaster on East German television, infamous for his propaganda programme "Der schwarze Kanal"
  • Willi Stoph, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) 1964–1973 and 1976–1989; Chairman of the Council of State 1973–1976
  • Harry Tisch, head of the Free German Trade Union Federation 1975–1989
  • Walter Ulbricht, General Secretary of the SED Central Committee 1950–1971; Chairman of the Council of State 1960–1973)
  • Markus "Mischa" Wolf, head of the GDR's foreign intelligence department 1952–1986

// Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Neues Deutschland is a German newspaper. ... Johannes Robert Becher (* May 22, 1891 in Munich; † October 11, 1958 in Berlin) was a German poet. ... Hilde Benjamin (February 5, 1902 in Bernburg – April 18, 1989 in Berlin; née Hilde Lange) was an East German judge and minister of justice. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... SPD redirects here. ... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Margot Honecker née Feist (born April 17, 1927 in Halle/Saale, Germany) is a German Communist politician who served as Minister for National Education in East Germany (1963-1989). ... Kessler, Heinz Also spelled Heinz Keßler (Born 26 January, 1920 in Lauban, Silesia) Born into a communist family, joins the Red Young Pioneers, the youth organization of the KPD (German Communist Party) at age 6. ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ... Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (December 28, 1907 - May 21, 2000 in Berlin), was a German Communist. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Hans Modrow (born January 27, 1928) served as one of the last leaders of East Germany and as of 2003 functions as honorary Chairman of the Party of Democratic Socialism. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Günter Schabowski (born January 4, 1929) was an official of the SED party in East Germany, famous for accidentally beginning the destruction of the GDR border system. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski (3 July 1932 _) was an East German politician and trader. ... Horst Sindermann (September 5, 1915 - April 20, 1990) was Chairman of the Council of Ministers of East Germany (GDR) from 1973 to 1976. ... Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler (April 28, 1918 - September 20, 2001) was an East German journalist, propagandist, and host of the television show Der Schwarze Kanal (German: The Black Channel) from March 21, 1960 to October 30, 1989. ... Der schwarze Kanal (English: The Black Channel) was an East German television propaganda programme made up of bowdlerized programmes from West Germany with an added Communist commentary. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... The Stadthaus in Berlin, seat of the Ministerrat der DDR from 1961 until 1990 The Ministerrat (Council of Ministers) was the chief executive body of the East Germany since November 1950 until East Germany dissolved in 1990. ... Harry Tisch was the head of the Free German Trade Union Federation between 1975 and 1989. ... Register of members of the FDGB. Daten zur Ausstellung des Mitgliedsbuches. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist politician. ... Markus Wolf. ...

Other notable East Germans

  • John Heartfield, photographer
  • Bernhard Heisig, painter ("Leipziger Schule")
  • Uli Herzner, Fashion designer, Project Runway contestant
  • Henry Hübchen, actor
  • Sigmund Jähn, cosmonaut, first German in space
  • Walter Janka, communist resistance fighter in WW2, sentenced in 1957 for "counterrevolutionary activities",
  • Gustav Just, journalist
  • Walter Kaaden, engineer
  • Uwe Raab, racing cyclist
  • Ernst Busch, famous singer, songwriter and musician
  • Thomas Kretschmann, German actor
  • Manfred Krug, actor and jazz singer
  • Olaf Ludwig, racing cyclist
  • Lothar de Maizière, first (and only) freely elected prime minister, from April to October 1990
  • Kurt Masur, conductor and political activist
  • Wolfgang Mattheuer, painter ("Leipziger Schule")
  • Markus Meckel, Protestant pastor, deputy chairman of the East German Social Democrats 1989–1990, GDR foreign minister from April to August 1990
  • Armin Mueller-Stahl, actor
  • Heiner Müller, writer and dramatist, worked with the director Benno Besson at Volksbühne
  • All 6 members of the industrial metal band Rammstein.
  • Wolfgang Schnur, lawyer to dissidents, opposition politician (Democratic Awakening in 1990 but resigned after being detected as a former Stasi informer
  • Erwin Strittmatter, writer ("Der Laden")
  • Werner Tübke, painter ("Leipziger Schule")
  • Jan Ullrich - professional cyclist, Tour de France winner 1997
  • Katarina Witt, figure skater
  • Christa Wolf, writer ("Kassandra")
  • Fritz Geißler, composer
  • Paul Van Dyk, trance music DJ and producer
  • Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany since 2005
  • Hermann Kant, writer ("Der Aufenthalt")

Uwe Ampler (born October 11, 1964 in Zerbst) is a retired track and road cyclist from East Germany, who represented his native country at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. ... Manfred von Ardenne (January 20, 1907 - May 26, 1997) was a German inventor. ... Rudolf Bahro (18 November 1935 – 5 December 1997) was born in 1935 in Bad Flinsberg (now in Poland). ... Michael Ballack (born September 26, 1976 in Görlitz, Saxony) is a German footballer. ... First international Switzerland 5 - 3 Germany (Basel, Switzerland; April 5, 1908) Biggest win Germany 16 - 0 Russia (Stockholm, Sweden; July 1, 1912) Biggest defeat England amateur 9 - 0 Germany (Oxford, England; March 16, 1909) World Cup Appearances 16 (First in 1934) Best result Winners, 1954, 1974, 1990 European Championship Appearances... Jurek Becker (* September 30, 1937, Lodz (Poland), † March 14, 1997, Berlin) was a german writer. ... Jakob the Liar is a novel written by the Polish author Jurek Becker published in 1969. ... The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Karl Wolf Biermann (born 15 November 1936 in Hamburg) is a former East German dissident who works as a German Liedermacher (songwriter). ... Ibrahim Böhme (November 18, 1944 – November 22, 1999) was a human rights advocate during the late 1980’s associated with the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights, and for a short period of time after the collapse of the communist regime, a politician in the German Democratic Republic, also... SPD redirects here. ... Logotype of the DDRs Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Bärbel Bohley (born 24 May 1945) was an East German opposition figure and artist. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Ernst Degner (born 22 September 1931 in Gleiwitz, Germany) was a German Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. ... Hanns Eisler (July 6, 1898 - September 6, 1962) was a German and Austrian composer. ... Rainer Eppelmann (born February 12, 1943 in Berlin), is a German politician. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... Erwin Geschonneck (born December 27, 1906) is a German actor. ... Gregor Gysi Gregor Gysi (IPA: ; born January 16, 1948) is a German politician of the Left Party. ... Nina Hagen (born Catharina Hagen on March 11, 1955) is a singer from Berlin, Germany. ... Peter Hacks ( b. ... Wolfgang Harich (3 December 1923 - 21 March 1995) was a philosopher and journalist in East Germany. ... Robert Havemann (11 March 1910 - 9 April 1982) was a chemist, communist and an East German dissident. ... Karin Büttner Janz (* 17 February 1952 in Hartmannsdorf a district of Lübben (Spreewald)) is a habilitated lady doctor, German Olympic winner in the artistic gymnastics and chief lady doctor of the orthopedic one Vivantes hospital Friedrichshain, since March 1990. ... Self-portrait, 1920 Grave of John Heartfield in Berlin John Heartfield (June 19, 1891–April 26, 1968) is the anglicized name of the German photomontage artist Helmut Herzfeld. ... Ulrike Uli Herzner (born 23 April 1971) is a German American fashion designer, currently living in Miami, Florida. ... Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (born February 13, 1937) was the first German cosmonaut. ... Gustav Just (born June 16, 1921 in Reinowitz, Bohemia) was First Secretary of the (East) German Writers Union and later editor-in-chief of the East German weekly journal Sonntag until 1957 when he was sentenced to four years imprisonment after a show trial in which he was accused of... Ernst Busch (6 July 1885 - 17 July 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Essen-Steele, Germany, and was educated at the Groß Lichterfelde Cadet Academy. ... Thomas Kretschmann (born September 8, 1962) is a German actor who has also performed in Hollywood movies. ... Manfred Krug (born February 8, 1937 in Duisburg) is a German actor and singer. ... Olaf Ludwig (born April 13, 1960,Gera) is a former German racing cyclist. ... Lothar de Maizière [] (born 2 March 1940) is a German conservative politician who served as the last and only democratically elected Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990. ... Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... Markus Meckel (August 18, 1952 -) is a German theologian and politician. ... Armin Mueller-Stahl (born December 17, 1930) is a German film actor. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ... Industrial metal is a musical genre that draws elements from industrial music and heavy metal music. ... For other uses, see Ramstein. ... Democratic Awakening (German: Demokratischer Aufbruch) was an East German opposition political movement. ... Erwin Strittmatter (14 August 1912 in Spremberg - 31 January 1994 in Schulzenhof near Dollgow/Stechlin) was a German writer. ... Jan Ullrich (born December 2, 1973 in Rostock, East Germany, now Germany) is a retired German professional road bicycle racer. ... Katarina Witt (born December 3, 1965) is a German figure skater, in Germany she was commonly affectionately called Kati in the past, but today her full name is used more often. ... Christa Wolf (born March 18, 1929 in Landsberg an der Warthe, Germany (currently Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland) as Christa Ihlenfeld) is one of the best-known writers to emerge from the former East Germany. ... Kassandra look for Cassandra from mythology is a book writen by the german author Christa Wolf (published 1983) is a Venezuelan telenovela, involving a gypsy maiden marrying into a rich family. ... Fritz Geißler (born September 16, 1921 in Wurzen, Germany; died January 11, 1984 in Bad Saarow, Germany) is one of the importants composers of the German Democratic Republic. ... This article is about the DJ. For the American historian, see Paul Van Dyke. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Hermann Kant (* June 14, 1926) German writer who was born in Hamburg and lived until the German reunification in the GDR. Categories: Stub | 1926 births | German writers ...

Military

Main article: Nationale Volksarmee

Like all Soviet bloc countries, East Germany had its own armed forces, known as the Nationale Volksarmee (National People's Army - NVA) with four branches of service. Since East Germany was at the frontline of the Cold War, the GDR's military was considered to be the most advanced in the whole Warsaw Pact, excluding the Soviet Union. It was battle ready at all times, ready to be mobilized in a future war with NATO. The NVA was divided into the following four branches: Categories: Stub | East Germany ... Categories: Stub | East Germany ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... -1... This article is about the military alliance. ...

  • Army (Landstreitkräfte)
  • Navy (Volksmarine - People's Navy)
  • Air Force/Air Defense (Luftstreitkräfte/Luftverteidigung)
  • Border Troops of the GDR (Grenztruppen der DDR)

In addition, the GDR possessed various paramilitary forces in reserve in case war broke out, such as the "Combat Groups of the Working Class" (Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse) and in some cases, the Stasi. The German Navy has had several names depending on the political structure of Germany at the time: Deutsche Marine (German Navy) (1848)-(1852) Norddeutsche Bundesmarine (Northern German Federal Navy) (1866-1871) Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) (1872-1918) Vorläufige Reichsmarine (1919-1921) Reichsmarine (State Navy) (1921-1935) Kriegsmarine (War Navy... MIG-21PFM with marking of the NVA Die Luftstreitkräfte der NVA, was the Air Force of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Grenztruppen der DDR (1961-90) was the East German frontier troops during the time of the hottest communism. ... Emblem of the Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse The Combat Groups of the Working Class (German: Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse, KdA) was a paramilitary organisation in East Germany, founded in 1953 and abolished in 1990. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


All young East German men had to join the NVA. Attendance was compulsory for 18 months, except for serious medical reasons. As an alternative to military service for conscientious objectors, the so-called Baueinheiten (construction units) were created in 1964 under pressure from the national Protestant church. However, service in the Baueinheiten was strongly discouraged; these soldiers were subjected to various forms of harassment during their service, and there were also consequences after their term of service was complete - e.g., denial or difficulty in obtaining admission to higher education, etc. John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...


Administrative divisions

In 1952, as part of the reforms designed to centralize power in the hands of the SED's Politbüro, the five Länder of East Germany were abolished, and East Germany was divided into fifteen Bezirke (districts), each named after the largest city: the northern Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was divided between the Bezirke Rostock, Schwerin and Neubrandenburg; Brandenburg (surrounding Berlin) was reorganized into the Bezirke of Potsdam, Frankfurt (Oder) and Cottbus; Saxony-Anhalt split into the Bezirke of Halle and Magdeburg; the south-western Land Thuringia became the Bezirke of Erfurt, Gera and Suhl; finally, the south-eastern Land Saxony was divided between Leipzig, Dresden and Karl-Marx-Stadt (formerly and following the GDR's collapse again known as Chemnitz). The GDR capital, East Berlin formed the 15th Bezirk, though it retained a special legal status in the GDR until 1968, when East Berliners voted with the rest of the GDR to approve the draft of the new constitution. From this point onwards, irrespective of the Four Power Status and the western allies' objections that East Berlin was merely the Soviet occupied sector of the German capital, East Berlin was treated as a Bezirk like any other. Subdivisions of the German Democratic Republic Subdivisions of the German Democratic Republic from 1952 Following the redrawing of Germanys national boundaries after 1945, there were five states or Länder in the Soviet controlled eastern zone: Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Saxony (Sachsen), Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt), and... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Motto: Within your walls be concordance and public welfare Rostock (pronounced // from Polabian Roz toc, literally to flow apart) is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. ... Capital Schwerin Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 1161  - Partitioned to Schwerin     and Sch-Wittenburg   1279  - Partitioned to create     Sch-Boizenburg   1323  - Inherited Tecklenburg 1328  - Sch-Schwerin comital line     extinct   1344  - Sch-Wburg-Bburg extinct 1349  - Comital line extinct; sold     to Mecklenburg-Schwerin   1358 Capital Schwerin Government... Neubrandenburg is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... Cottbus (Lower Sorbian: Chóśebuz, Polish: Chociebuż) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the River Spree. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Halle (also called Halle an der Saale (literally Halle on the Saale, and in some historic references is not uncommonly called Saale after the river) in order to distinguish it from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest city in the German State of Saxony-Anhalt. ... This article is about the German city. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... Gera is the largest Town in the east of Thuringia, Germany. ... Suhl is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


Economy

Economic activity in the GDR.
Economic activity in the GDR.

East Germany's economy had a poor start in the aftermath of World War II's devastation. The Soviet Union demanded heavy reparation payments, and Lower Silesia, which contained coal mines, and Stettin, a prominent natural port, were given to Poland. Like other East European communist states, East Germany had a centrally planned economy (CPE), similar to the one in the former Soviet Union, in contrast to the more familiar market economies or mixed economies of most Western states. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x1084, 133 KB) Summary Economic activity in the GDR. From German wikipedia: http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x1084, 133 KB) Summary Economic activity in the GDR. From German wikipedia: http://de. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg...


Like other East European socialist states, East Germany had a centrally planned economy (CPE), similar to the one in the former Soviet Union, in contrast to the market economies or mixed economies of most Western states. The GDR became a member of the COMECON trading block in 1950. The state established production targets and prices and allocated resources, codifying these decisions in a comprehensive plan or set of plans. The means of production were almost entirely state owned. In 1985, for example, state-owned enterprises or collectives earned 96.7 percent of total net national income. To secure constant prices for inhabitants, the state bore 80% of costs of basic supplies, from bread to housing. The per capita income in 1989 was an estimated $27,100[citation needed], though the currency conversion used to create this figure is difficult to conduct. In 1976 average annual GDP growth was roughly 5.9%.[4] Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... Collective can also refer to the collective pitch flight control in helicopters A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ...


Examples of products exported were cameras under the Praktica brand, automobiles under the Trabant, Wartburg and IFA brands, hunting rifles, sextants and watches. A camera is a device used to take images (usually photographs), either singly or in sequence, with or without sound, such as with video cameras. ... Praktica, the successor of Zeiss Ikon, is mainly a camera brand name from Dresden, (eastern) Germany, long time the worlds largest camera production location. ... Car redirects here. ... This article is about the automobile. ... The Wartburg was a car manufactured in East Germany. ... IFA F8 convertible Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau (Trade association construction of vehicles), often abbreviated as IFA, was a conglomerate and a union of companies for vehicle construction in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... This page is about timekeeping devices. ...


In the 1970s the World Bank reported the GDR had a higher GDP per capita than the UK [5]. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


The ultimate directing force in the economy, as in every aspect of the society, was the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED), particularly its top leadership. The party exercised its leadership role formally during the party congress, when it accepted the report of the general secretary, and when it adopted the draft plan for the upcoming five-year period. The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ...


The private sector of the economy was small but not entirely insignificant. In 1985 about 2.8 percent of the net national product came from private enterprises. The private sector included private farmers and gardeners; independent craftsmen, wholesalers, and retailers; and individuals employed in so-called free-lance activities (artists, writers, and others). Although self-employed, such individuals were strictly regulated; in some cases the tax rate exceeded 90 %. In 1985, for the first time in many years, the number of individuals working in the private sector increased slightly. According to East German statistics, in 1985 there were about 176,800 private entrepreneurs, an increase of about 500 over 1984. Certain private sector activities were quite important to the system because those craftsmen provided rare, specially made spare parts.


Culture

Though the government and the Stasi strictly controlled society, a culture of East Germany developed nonetheless. ...

Music

Artists were expected to sing songs only in German at first, which changed with the end of the sixties. This seemed a logical constraint by the Party leaders but it was rather unpopular among young people. There were strict rules that regulated that all artistic activity ought to be censored for any open or implied anti-socialist tendencies[citation needed]. The band Renft, for example, was prone to political misbehaviour, which eventually led to its split. The Klaus Renft Combo is a veteran German rock band, formed in Leipzig, in what was then East Germany, in 1958. ...


The Puhdys and Karat were some of the most popular mainstream bands, managing to hint at critical thoughts in their lyrics without being explicit. Like most mainstream acts, they appeared in popular youth magazines such as Neues Leben and Magazin. Other popular rock bands were Wir, Dean Reed, City, Silly and Pankow. Most of these artists recorded on the state-owned AMIGA label. Die Puhdys (IPA: [ˈpuːdis]) are a veteran German rock band, formed in Oranienburg, in what was then East Germany, in 1969, although they had been performing together, with various lineups, as the Puhdys since 1965. ... Karat in 2006. ... Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter who lived a great part of his adult life in South America, then in Communist East Germany. ... City are a German music band formed in East Berlin in 1972 by Fritz Puppel (Guitar), Klaus Selmke (Drums), Ingo Doering (Bass Guitar), Klaus Witte (Keyboards), Frank Pfeiffer (Vocals) and Andreas Pieper (Flute) as the City Band Berlin. ... Silly is an East German rock group from the 80s and 90s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Amiga Records was a state-run record label in East Germany. ...


Influences from the West were heard everywhere, because TV and radio that came from the Klassenfeind (class enemy, meaning "enemy of the working class") could be received in many parts of the East, too (a notorious exception being Dresden, with its geographically disadvantageous position in the Elbe valley, giving it the nickname of “Valley of the Clueless”). The Western influence led to the formation of more "underground" groups with a decisively western-oriented sound. A few of these bands were Die Skeptiker, as well as Feeling B. Additionally, hip hop culture reached the ears of the East German youth. With videos such as Beat street and wild style, young East Germans were able to develop a hip hop culture of their own.[6] East Germans accepted hip hop as more than just a music form. The entire street culture surrounding rap entered the region and became an outlet for oppressed youth.[7] This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Die Skeptiker was a Punk band founded 1986 in East Berlin. ... Feeling B was one of the first punk bands in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... For other uses, see Wild Style (disambiguation). ...


Classical music was highly supported, so that there existed over 50 classical symphony orchestras in a country with a population about 16 million. See also:

Johann Sebastian Bach was born in East German territory and his birthplace in Eisenach was turned into a museum of his life, which, among other things, included more than 300 instruments from Bach's life. In 1980 this museum was receiving more than 70,000 visitors annually. The Thomanerchor is a choir featuring boy sopranos in Leipzig, Germany. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (Engl: Saxon State Orchestra Dresden) is an orchestra based in Dresden, Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Berlin Symphony Orchestra (also known as BSO; Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester in German) is a major symphony orchestra from Berlin, Germany. ... Berlin State Opera (in German: Staatsoper Berlin) is a prominent German opera company. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ...


In Leipzig, an enormous archive with recordings of all of Bach's music was compiled, along with many historical documents and letters both to and from him.


Every other year, school children from across East Germany gathered for a Bach competition held in East Berlin. Every four years an international Bach competition for keyboard and strings was held.


Theatre

East German theatre was originally dominated by Bertolt Brecht, who brought back many artists out of exile and reopened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with his Berliner Ensemble. Alternatively, other influences tried to establish a "Working Class Theatre", played for the working class by the working class. {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Visitor card from about 1908 Berliner Ensemble at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm The Theater, Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, was opened on 19 November 1892 as Neues Theater Which means new theater. The adress is am Schiffbauerdamm 4a/5 in Berlin Germany. ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ...


After Brecht's death, conflicts began to arise between his family (around Helene Weigel) and other artists about Brecht's heritage. Heinz Kahlau, Slatan Dudow, Erwin Geschonneck, Erwin Strittmatter, Peter Hacks, Benno Besson, Peter Palitzsch and Ekkehard Schall were considered to be among Bertolt Brecht's scholars and followers. Born in Vienna in 1900 the daughter of a Jewish Lawyer, she was one of the most outstanding German actors of her generation, a Communist Party member from 1930 and Artistic Director of The Berliner Ensemble after her husband Bertholt Brechts death in 1956. ... Slatan Theodor Dudow was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films in the Weimar Republic and East Germany. ... Erwin Geschonneck (born December 27, 1906) is a German actor. ... Erwin Strittmatter (14 August 1912 in Spremberg - 31 January 1994 in Schulzenhof near Dollgow/Stechlin) was a German writer. ... Peter Hacks ( b. ... The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... Ekkehard Schall (May 29th, 1930 - Sept. ...


In the 1950s the Swiss director Benno Besson with the Deutsches Theater successfully toured Europe and Asia including Japan with "The Dragon" by Jewgenij Schwarz. In the 1960s, he became the Intendant of the Volksbühne often working with Heiner Müller. The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ...


After 1975 many artists left the GDR due to increasing censorship. A parallel theatre scene grew up, creating theatre "outside of Berlin" in which artists played at provincial theatres. For example Peter Sodann founded the neues theater in Halle/Saale and Frank Castorf at the theater Anklam. Map of Germany showing Halle Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Map of Germany showing Anklam Anklam or Anclam is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, situated on the banks of the Peene river, 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, and 85 km northwest of Stettin, on the railway to Stralsund. ...


Theatre and Cabaret had high status in the GDR, which allowed it to be very pro-active. This often brought it into confrontation with the State. Benno Besson once said: "In contrast to artists in the west, they took us seriously, we had a bearing."


Important theatres:

The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ...

Cinema

In the GDR, the movie industry was very active. The head-group for film-productions was the DEFA[12], Deutsche Film AG, which was subdivided in different local groups, for example Gruppe Berlin, Gruppe Babelsberg or Gruppe Johannisthal, where the local teams shot and produced films. Besides folksy movies, the movie-industry became known worldwide for its productions, especially children's movies ("Das kalte Herz", film versions of the Grimm brothers fairy-tales and modern productions such as "Das Schulgespenst"). Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft, better known as DEFA, was the national film company in the German Democratic Republic (GDR/DDR). ... Castle of Babelsberg with the river Havel as one part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Observatory on the Babelsberg UEFA Womens Cup final Potsdam-Babelsberg or short Babelsberg is the largest district of the city of Potsdam, Germany today. ... The Johannisthal Air Field, located 10 miles southeast of Berlin, was Germanys first airfield. ... Grimm could mean: Brothers Grimm, collectors of German fairy tales Grimms Fairy Tales, the collected tales Grimms Fairy Tale Classics, a cartoon based on their tales Grimm (film), a 2003 Dutch film directed by Alex van Warmerdam Grimm (band), a folk metal band from the Dutch provence Brabant...


Frank Beyer's "Jakob der Lügner" (about persecution of Jews in Third Reich) and, "Fünf Patronenhülsen"(Five Bullet Shells) about resistance against fascism, became internationally famous. Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Jakob the Liar is a novel written by the Polish author Jurek Becker published in 1969. ...


Movies about problems of everyday life such as "Die Legende von Paul und Paula" (directed by Heiner Carow) and "Solo Sunny" (directed by Konrad Wolf and Wolfgang Kohlhaase) were also very popular. Die Legende von Paul und Paula (The Legend of Paul and Paula) is a 1973 tragicomic East German film directed by Heiner Carow. ... Konrad Wolf (Hechingen 20 October 1925 - Berlin, 7 March 1982) was a East German film director, son of Friedrich Wolf, brother of Markus Wolf. ...


The film industry was remarkable for its production of Ostern, or Western-like movies. Indians in these films often took the role of displaced people who fight for their rights, in contrast to the American westerns of the time, where Indians were often either not mentioned at all or are portrayed as the villains. Yugoslavians were often cast as the Indians, due to the small number of American Indians in eastern Europe. Gojko Mitić was well-known in these roles, often playing the righteous, kindhearted and charming chief ("Die Söhne der großen Bärin" directed by Josef Mach). He became an honorary Sioux chief when he visited the United States of America in the 90s and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe one of his movies. American actor and singer Dean Reed, an expatriate who lived in East Germany, also starred in several films. These films were part of the phenomenon of Europe producing alternative films about the colonization of America. See also Spaghetti Western and the West German Winnetou films (adaptations of novels of Karl May). The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries take on the Western movie. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... Gojko Mitic (1940-) was a famous director, actor, stuntman, and author. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Sons of the Great Mother Bear, or Die Söhne der großen Bärin was a German language Red Western of 1966. ... Josef Mach is a writer and film director from the Czech Republic, best known for the Red Western he did for the East German DEFA The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (1966) Josef Mach was born on February 25th, 1909 in Prostejov and died on July, 7th 1987 in... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter who lived a great part of his adult life in South America, then in Communist East Germany. ... Once Upon a Time in the West, in true Sergio Leone style, ends with an extended shootout scene between Harmonica (Charles Bronson) and Frank (Henry Fonda). ... Winnetou is the Native-American hero of several novels written by Karl May (one of the best selling German writers of all time), in German including the sequel Winnetou I to Winnetou III. According to Karl Mays story, first-person-narrator Old Shatterhand encounters Winnetou and after initial dramatic... Karl May. ...


Because of censorship a certain number of very remarkable movies were forbidden at this time and reissued after the Wende in 1990. Examples are "Spur der Steine" (directed by Frank Beyer) and "Der geteilte Himmel" (directed by Konrad Wolf). German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR - in English often called East Germany) were incorporated into The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (FRG). ... Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Konrad Wolf (Hechingen 20 October 1925 - Berlin, 7 March 1982) was a East German film director, son of Friedrich Wolf, brother of Markus Wolf. ...


Cinemas in the GDR also showed foreign films. Czechoslovak and Polish productions were more common, but also certain western movies were shown, but the numbers were limited because it cost foreign exchange to buy the licences. Further, movies representing or glorifying capitalistic ideology were not bought. Comedies enjoyed great popularity, such as the Danish "Olsen Gang" or movies with the French comedian Louis de Funès. Scene from the fourteenth and last Olsen Gang film (1998). ... Louis Germain David de Funès de Galarza () (July 31, 1914 – January 27, 1983) was a French actor who is considered by many to be one of the giants of French comedy. ...


Jazz

Main article: Jazz in Germany

Sports

For a small country, the people of East Germany achieved some remarkable results in many sports including cycling, weightlifting, swimming, track and field, boxing, skating and other winter sports. One reason for the success was started with late 1960s leadership of Dr. Manfred Hoeppner. Anabolic steroid doping allowed East Germany, with its small population, to become a world leader in the following two decades, winning a large number of Olympic and world gold medals and records.[13] Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5α-dihydrotestosterone. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Another factor for success was the furtherance-system for young people in GDR. When some children were aged around 6 until 10 years old (or older) sport-teachers at school were encouraged to look for certain talents in every pupil. For older pupils it was possible to attend grammar-schools with a focus on sports (for example sailing, football and swimming). This policy was also used for talented pupils with regard to music or mathematics.


Sports clubs were highly subsidized, especially sports in which it was possible to get international fame. For example, the major leagues for ice hockey and basketball just included each 2 teams (excluding the school and university sport). Football (soccer) was the most popular sport after team handball. Club football sides like Dynamo Dresden, 1. FC Magdeburg, FC Carl Zeiss Jena, 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig and FC Hansa Rostock did have some success in European competition. Many East German players became integral parts of the reunified national football team, for example Matthias Sammer. Other sports enjoyed great popularity like figure skating, especially because of sportswomen like Katharina Witt. Soccer redirects here. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Dynamo Dresden are a German football club, based in Dresden, Saxony. ... 1. ... FC Carl Zeiss Jena is a German football club based in Jena, Thuringia. ... Club Crest FC Lokomotive Leipzig is a football club from Leipzig, Germany, earlier known as VfB Leipzig. ... FC Hansa Rostock is a German football club of the 2. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Katarina Witt (born December 3, 1965 in Staaken (today Berlin-Staaken)) is a world famous German figure skater. ...


East Germans patriotically supported their athletes to success in international competitions for similar reasons as those in other countries, and this no doubt played its part in the success that state enjoyed. However, as with other Soviet states, a widely held perception existed that international athletic success advertised their political and economic system to a worldwide audience. In the special case of East Germany, being the minority section of the divided Cold War era Germany, the particular success of that state was considered to foster international acceptance of the GDR as a state in its own right. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Stamps and philately

Main article: Deutsche Post of the GDR
Stamp celebrating the GDR's 25th anniversary in 1974.
Stamp celebrating the GDR's 25th anniversary in 1974.

Communist States gave much importance to philately and the GDR was one of those which printed the most beautiful stamps. However, their philatelic value was sometimes questioned in the West since GDR stamps were usually part of a 3- or 4-stamp series and one of them would be very difficult to find and then would acquire an expensive value in the philatelic market. In the 1970s, as several States, such as the GDR, Paraguay, and later some Emirates, would print beautiful stamps that would not be in normal circulation but would rather be sold directly in the international market, philatelical associations began to disqualify some of these products. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1375x1385, 157 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1375x1385, 157 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Television and radio

Television and radio in East Germany was state controlled. Rundfunk der DDR was the official radio broadcasting organisation from 1952 until German reunification. The organization was based in the Funkhaus Nalepastraße in East Berlin. Deutscher Fernsehfunk (DFF), from 1972–1990 known as Fernsehen der DDR or DDR-FS, was the state television broadcaster from 1952. Broadcasting in East Germany was owned by the state, and was under its tight control and censorship. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


Telecommunications

By the mid-1980s, East Germany possessed a well-developed communications system. There were approximately 3.6 million telephones in usage (21.8 for every 100 inhabitants), and 16,476 telex stations. Both of these networks were run by the Deutsche Post der DDR (East German Post Office). East Germany was assigned telephone country code 37; in 1991, several months after reunification, East German telephone exchanges were incorporated into country code 49.


An unusual feature of the telephone network, was that in most cases, direct dialing for long distance calls was not possible. Although area codes were assigned to all major towns and cities, they were only used for switching international calls. Instead, each location had its own list of dialing codes - with shorter codes for local calls, and longer codes for long distance calls. This was due to the way the calls were routed over the trunk network. After reunification, the existing network was largely replaced, and area codes and dialing became standardised. Somebody who knows the internal number of his corespondent can enter it, thus he is not routed through the operator. ... Long distance in telecommunications, refers to telephone calls made outside a certain area, usually characterized by an area code outside of a local call area. ... This article or section should be merged with Telephone numbering plan __ ran (talk) 21:23, Jan 30, 2005 (UTC) The area code is a part of a telephone number normally occurring at the beginning of the number, that usually indicates a geographical area. ... In telephony, the term local call has the following meanings: Any call using a single switching facility; that is, not traveling to another telephone network; A telephone call made within a local calling area as defined by the Local exchange carrier; Any call for which an additional charge, , toll charge... Long distance in telecommunications, refers to telephone calls made outside a certain area, usually characterized by an area code outside of a local call area. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... This article or section should be merged with Telephone numbering plan __ ran (talk) 21:23, Jan 30, 2005 (UTC) The area code is a part of a telephone number normally occurring at the beginning of the number, that usually indicates a geographical area. ...


In 1976 East Germany inaugurated the operation of a ground-based radio station at Fürstenwalde for the purpose of relaying and receiving communications from Soviet satellites, and serve as a participant in the international telecommunications organization established by the Soviet government, Intersputnik. ... The Intersputnik International Organization of Space Communications commonly known as Intersputnik is an international satellite communications services organization founded on November 15, 1971 in Moscow by the Soviet Union along with a group of eight formerly socialist states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Mongolia, and Cuba). ...

Further information: Communications in Germany

Instrumental in founding the Universal Postal Union, Germany early on set standards for international communications and the development of an integrated internal system, which has developed with technological advances from land mail (Turn und Taxis), to telegraph, to modern-day telephone and satellite communications. ...

Holidays

Date English Name German Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Neujahr  
March 8 Women's Day Internationaler Frauentag Was not a day off for women.
Moveable feast Good Friday Karfreitag  
Moveable feast Easter Sunday Ostersonntag  
Moveable feast Easter Monday Ostermontag Was not an official Holiday after 1967.
May 1 May Day Tag der Arbeit International Workers' Day
Moveable feast Father's Day / Ascension Day Vatertag / Christi Himmelfahrt Thursday after the 5th Sunday after Easter. Was not an official holiday nor a day off, but still widely celebrated.
Moveable feast Whitmonday Pfingstmontag 50 days after Easter Sunday
October 7 Republic Day Tag der Republik National holiday
December 25 First Day of Christmas 1. Weihnachtsfeiertag  
December 26 Second Day of Christmas 2. Weihnachtsfeiertag  

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic cultures. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... Fathers Day is a celebration inaugurated in the early twentieth century to complement Mothers Day in celebrating fatherhood and male parenting, and to honor and commemorate fathers and forefathers. ... For other meanings see Ascension (disambiguation) The Ascension is one of the great feasts in the Christian liturgical calendar, and commemorates the bodily Ascension of Jesus into Heaven forty days after his resurrection from the dead. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Republic Day is the name of a public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became republics. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ...

See also

Germany

Armed Forces Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often known in English as East Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990, on roughly the territory between the Elbe and Oder rivers. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Stadthaus in Berlin, seat of the Ministerrat der DDR from 1961 until 1990 The Ministerrat (Council of Ministers) was the chief executive body of the East Germany since November 1950 until East Germany dissolved in 1990. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...

Media The National People’s Army (German: Nationale Volksarmee) served as the military of the German Democratic Republic. ... MIG-21PFM with marking of the NVA Die Luftstreitkräfte der NVA, was the Air Force of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... The German Navy has had several names depending on the political structure of Germany at the time: Deutsche Marine (German Navy) (1848)-(1852) Norddeutsche Bundesmarine (Northern German Federal Navy) (1866-1871) Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) (1872-1918) Vorläufige Reichsmarine (1919-1921) Reichsmarine (State Navy) (1921-1935) Kriegsmarine (War Navy... Grenztruppen der DDR (1961-90) was the East German frontier troops during the time of the hottest communism. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The Volkspolizei (German for Peoples Police) was the national police of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), whose officers were commonly nicknamed VoPos. ... Shoulder board of East German soldier Construction Unit (Bausoldat) There was a high level of conscientious objection in East Germany. ...

Transport Broadcasting in East Germany was owned by the state, and was under its tight control and censorship. ... During the Cold War, the two Countries of Germany — the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic — viewed themselves among other things as representatives of their respective ideological systems and political camps. ... - Aktuelle Kameras opening (English: Good evening, ladies and gentlemen, its Current Camera — The Headlines. ... A Radio Berlin International QSL card This media has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Der Tunnel is a 2001 film by German director Roland Suso Richter that is loosely based on a true story about an expanding group of people who dug a tunnel in Berlin in the early 1960s to get friends and family from the East Germany to West Germany. ... Education in East Germany was a high priority for the communist government, and was compulsory from age six to age sixteen. ...

Other For the 1920-1945 company of the same name, see Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft. ... Interflug was the former state airline of the German Democratic Republic from 1963 until 1991, when it ceased operations following German reunification. ... This article is about the automobile. ... Barkas was the East German manufacturer of small delivery vans and minibuses named the B1000. ... The Wartburg was a car manufactured in East Germany. ...

The Sportvereinigung Dynamo was a German sports club of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... For the fall of the Iron Curtain, see Revolutions of 1989. ... Tourism in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was tightly controlled by the communist government, though it was nonetheless possible to enjoy a holiday in East Germany. ... With widespread censorship of literature, the media and the arts, political jokes were one of the main outlets for internal criticism of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Ostalgie is a German term (the English equivalent would be eastalgia) referring to nostalgia for life in the former East Germany. ... The Palast der Republik in 2003 Inside the Palast der Republik in 2003, after asbestos and interior furnishings were removed Demolition work on the Palast der Republik, 2006 The Palast der Republik (Palace of the Republic) was a building in Berlin, on the bank of the River Spree between Schlossplatz... Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter who lived a great part of his adult life in South America, then in Communist East Germany. ... The Fichtelberg is a mountain with two main peaks in the middle of the Erzgebirge (English: ore mountains) in south-eastern Germany, in Saxony near the Czech border. ...

References

  • Thomas A. Baylis, David Childs, and Marilyn Rueschemeyer, eds.; East Germany in Comparative Perspective Routledge. 1989
  • Fulbrook, Mary. The People's State: East German Society from Hitler to Honecker Yale University Press, 2005. 352 pp. ISBN 0-300-10884-2.
  • Fulbrook; Mary. Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR, 1949-1989 Oxford University Press, 1995
  • William Glenn Gray; Germany's Cold War: The Global Campaign to Isolate East Germany, 1949–1969 University of North Carolina Press. 2003
  • Jonathan Grix; The Role of the Masses in the Collapse of the GDR Macmillan, 2000
  • Konrad H. Jarausch and Eve Duffy; Dictatorship as Experience: Towards a Socio-Cultural History of the GDR Berghahn Books, 1999
  • Andrew I. Port, Conflict and Stability in the German Democratic Republic Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Jonathan R. Zatlin, The Currency of Socialism - Money and Political Culture in East Germany. Cambridge University Press, 2007 ISBN 0521869560

Notes

  1. ^ East Berlin June 17, 1953: Stones Against Tanks, Deutsche Welle, Accessed 2007-05-16
  2. ^ The Berlin Wall (1961–1989) German Notes, Accessed 2006-10-24
  3. ^ Darnton, Robert, Berlin Journal (New York, 1992, W.W. Norton) pp.98–99
  4. ^ Business America. (27 February, 1989). German Democratic Republic: long history of sustained economic growth continues; 1989 may be an advantageous year to consider this market - Business Outlook Abroad: Current Reports from the Foreign Service.. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  5. ^ Taylor, Frederick. The Berlin Wall: 13 August 1961 - 9 November 1989. Bloomsbury 2006
  6. ^ Brown, Timothy S. “‘Keeping it Real’ in a Different ‘Hood: (African-) Americanization and Hip-hop in Germany.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, pp.137-150. London; A
  7. ^ Elfein, Dietmar. From Krauts with Atittudes to Turks with Attitudes: Some a Aspects of Hip-Hop History in Germany. pp.225-265 Popular Music vol. 17:3. October 1998.
  8. ^ http://www.deutsches-theater.de
  9. ^ http://www.berliner-ensemble.de
  10. ^ http://www.volksbuehne-berlin.de
  11. ^ http://www.gorki.de
  12. ^ http://www.defa-stiftung.de
  13. ^ Tagliabue, John. - "Political Pressure Dismantles East German Sports Machine" - New York Times - February 12, 1991 | Janofsky, Michael. - "OLYMPICS; Coaches Concede That Steroids Fueled East Germany's Success in Swimming" - New York Times - December 3, 1991 | Kirschbaum, Erik. - "East German dope still leaves tracks" - Rediff from Reuters - September 15, 2000 | Ungerleider, Steven (2001). Faust's Gold: Inside The East German Doping Machine. Thomas Dunne Books ISBN 0312269773 | "Little blue pills and a lot of gold..." - Shorel.com | Culture & Lifestyle: "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany" - Deutsche Welle - February 26, 2003 | "The East German Doping Machine" - International Swimming Hall of Fame | Culture & Lifestyle: "East Germany's Doping Legacy Returns" - Deutsche Welle - January 10, 2004 | Longman, Jere. - "East German Steroids' Toll: 'They Killed Heidi'" - New York Times - January 26, 2004 | Harding, Luke. - "Forgotten victims of East German doping take their battle to court" - The Guardian - November 1, 2005 | Jackson, Guy. Winning at Any Cost?: "Doping for glory in East Germany" - UNESCO - September 2006 | "Ex-East German athletes compensated for doping" - Associated Press - (c/o ESPN) - December 13, 2006 | "East German doping victims to get compensation" - Associated Press - (c/o CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) - December 13, 2006 | Starcevic, Nesha. - "East German doping victims to get compensation" - Associated Press - (c/o San Diego Union-Tribune) - December 13, 2006 | "Germany completes $4.1M payout to doping victims" - USA Today - October 11, 2007 | "East Germany’s Secret Doping Program" - Secrets of the Dead - Thirteen/WNET - May 7, 2008

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The San Diego Union-Tribune is a daily newspaper published in San Diego, California by the Copley Press. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Secrets of the Dead is television program airing (May 2001 - present) on American non-profit network PBS. The show explores historical occurrences, sometimes using computer imaging to help determine the causes in the manner of a forensic presentation. ...

External links

Germany Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
German Democratic Republic
Countries of the world  |  Europe
Preceded by
Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
German Democratic Republic
1949–1990

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Federal Republic of Germany 1949-1990

Succeeded by
Federal Republic of Germany

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East Germany (706 words)
East Germany's armed forces were established officially in 1956, though special "police" units had been given tanks and other heavy weapons as early as 1952.
From 1961 to 1989, when the borders were opened, hundreds died trying to escape from East Germany, including many who tried to cross the Berlin Wall.
Hans Modrow, chairman of East Germany's cabinet, took control of the government, though he was not a party head.
East Germany (941 words)
East Germany, formally known as the German Democratic Republic (GDR) (German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR)), was a Communist satellite state of the former Soviet Union which, together with West Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990 in Germany.
East Germany was heavily under the influence of the Soviet Union, becoming a Stalinist-style socialist country, and part of the Warsaw Pact.
Many who had come to East Germany as anti-fascists who were opposed to the quick reinstatement of Nazi functionaries and industry in the west found themselves captives of a dogmatic and economically weak state which, alone, was forced to pay reparations to the Soviet Union.
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