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Encyclopedia > East Frisia
The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia.
The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia.

East Frisia (Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. It connects Western Frisia (in the Netherlands) with the districts of Dithmarschen and Nordfriesland ("Northern Frisia") in Schleswig-Holstein, all of which belong to the historic and geographic Frisia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 421 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 421 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (transliterated as Laender in English, singular Land). ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Dithmarschen is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Nordfriesland (literally Northern Frisia) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ...


Ostfriesland consists of the districts of Aurich, Leer, Wittmund as well as of the city of Emden. Aurich is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Leer is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Wittmund is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ...


There is a chain of islands in front of the coast, called the East Frisian Islands (Ostfriesische Inseln). These islands are (from west to east) Borkum, Juist, Norderney, Baltrum, Langeoog, Spiekeroog and Wangerooge. A German verse to remember the first letters of the islands from east to west is Welcher Seemann liegt bei Nanni im Bett (which seaman lies with Nanny in bed). The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Borkum photographed from a lighthouse Borkum is an island in the Leer District in Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany. ... Juist is one of the seven inhabited East Frisian Islands at the edge of the lower saxon Wadden Sea in the southern North Sea, located between Borkum Island (west), Memmert Island (southwest) and Norderney (east). ... Norderney is one of the seven populated East Frisian Islands off the coast of Germany. ... Baltrum is an island near the coast of East Frisia, Germany. ... Langeoogis one of the seven inhabited East Frisian Islandsat the edge of the lower saxon Wadden Seain the southern North Sea, located between BaltrumIsland (west), and Spiekeroog(east). ... Spiekeroog is one of the East Frisian Islands, off the North Sea coast of Germany. ... Wangerooge is one of the 32 Frisian Islands in the North Sea that are located close to the coasts of the Netherlands , Germany and Denmark. ...

Contents


History

The geographical region of East Frisia was inhabited in paleolithic times by reindeer hunters of the Hamburg culture. Later there were mesolithic and neolithic settlements of various cultures leading up to the invasion of Germanic tribes belonging to the Ingvaeonic group. Those were Chauci and Frisians. The region between the rivers Ems and Weser was inhabited by the Chauks, who were partly displaced by Frisian expansion after about 500, and were later partially absorbed into the Frisian society. After the second Christian century there is no mention of the Chauks. Saxons also settled the region and the East Frisian population of later times is based on a mixture of Frisian and Saxon elements. Nevertheless, the Frisian element is predominant in the coastal area, while the population of the higher Geest area expresses more Saxon influence. The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Also referred to as Ingaevones, North Sea Germans (Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German). ... The Chauci were a populous Germanic tribe inhabiting the extreme northwestern shore of Germany during Roman times - basically the stretch of coast between Frisia in the west to the Elbe estuary in the east. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... EMS may stand for: Organizations Eastern Mountain Sports, an outdoor retailer Edinburgh Mathematical Society Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd, manufacturers of synthesisers European Monetary System, 1979 European Mathematical Society Environmental Middle School Engineering Music Society, Melbourne University Science and Engineering Physics and Chemistry Electromagnetic spectrum Ethyl methanesulfonate (or methanesulfonic acid... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... Map showing the Saxons homeland in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe Src: Freemans Historical Geographys. The Saxons or Saxon people are (nowadays) part of the German people with its main areas of settlements in the German Federal States of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony...


In the middle ages people could only settle on the higher situated Geest areas or by erecting so-called "Warften" (artificial hills to protect the settlement, whether a single farming estate or a whole village, against the North Sea floods) in the marsh-areas. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


In about 1000 BC the Frisians started building the large dikes along the North Sea shore. This had a great effect on establishing a feeling of national identity and independence. Until the late Middle Ages Ostfriesland resisted the attempts of German states to conquer the coasts. The first proven historical event was the arrival of a Roman fleet under Drusus in 12 BC; the ships sailed into the course of the Ems river and returned. Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional date) 1002 BC - Death... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the younger son of Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar, and her first husband, Tiberius... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... EMS may stand for: Organizations Eastern Mountain Sports, an outdoor retailer Edinburgh Mathematical Society Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd, manufacturers of synthesisers European Monetary System, 1979 European Mathematical Society Environmental Middle School Engineering Music Society, Melbourne University Science and Engineering Physics and Chemistry Electromagnetic spectrum Ethyl methanesulfonate (or methanesulfonic acid...


The period after prehistory can only be reconstructed from archaelogical evidence. Access to the early history of Ostfriesland is possible in part through archaelogy and in part through the studying of external sources such as Roman documents. The information becomes clearer by early Carolingian time, when a Frisian kingdom united the whole area from present-day West Frisia (the Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen and part of North Holland) throughout East Frisia up to the river Weser. It was ruled by kings like the famous Radbod whose known names were still mentioned in folk tales until recent times. Frisia was a short-lived kingdom, and it was crushed by Pippin of Herstal in 689. East Frisia then became part of the Frankish Empire. Charles the Great then divided East Frisia into two counties. At this time, Christianization by the missionaries Liudger and Willehad started; one part of East Frisia became a part of the diocese of Bremen, the other the diocese of Münster. Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... Capital Haarlem Queens Commissioner Mr. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... Several kings named Radbod (Frisian Redbod) were king of the Frisians, (dux in the Merovingian chronicles). ... Pippin of Herstal (or Pepin; Pépin), also known as Pippin the Middle, Pippin the Younger (as with his grandson), or Pippin II, (635 or 640–December 16, 714, Jupille) was the grandson of Pippin (I) the Elder through the marriage of Ansegisel and Begga, the daughter of the Elder. ... Events Battle of Coronate: The army of Cunincpert, king of the Lombards, defeat the followers of the usurper Alahis on the Adda River. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... Saint Ludger (also Lüdiger or Liudger) (b at Zuilen near Utrecht about 742; d 26 March 809 at Billerbeck) was a missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, founder of Werden Abbey and first Bishop of Münster in Westphalia. ... Willehad was born in Northumbria around the year 735 and probably received his education at York. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of todays North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. ...


With the decay of the Carolingian empire, East Frisia lost its former bindings, and a unity of independent self-governed districts established. Their elections were held every year to chose the "Redjeven" (councillors), who had to be judges as well as administrators or governors. This system prevented the establishment of a feudalistic system in East Frisia during mediaeval times. Frisians regarded themselves as free people not obliged to any foreign authority. This period is called the time of the "Friesische Freiheit" (Frisian freedom) and is represented by the still well-known salute "Eala Freya Fresena" (Get Up, Free Frisian!) that affirmed the non-existence of any feudality. Frisian representatives of the many districts of the seven coastal areas of Frisia met once a year at the Upstalsboom, a place at Rahe (near Aurich). Eala Freya Fresena is a Frisian proverb, roughly translated as Oh, you free Frisians!, but correct it means Get up Free Frisian! and reverses the feudal kneel down procedure. ... This is an article about the city Aurich. ...


During the 14th century the Redjeven constitution happened to decay. Catastrophies and epidemics such as pestilence intensified the process of destabilizing. This gave a chance for influential family-clans to establish a new rule. As chieftains (in Low German: "hovedlinge"; in standard German: "Häuptlinge") they took over the control over villages, cities, or regions in East Frisia; however, they still did not establish a feudal system as it was known in the rest of Europe. Instead, the system implemented in Frisia was a system of followship which has some similarity to older forms of rule known from Germanic cultures of the North. There was a specific relation of dependence between the inhabitants of the ruled area and the chieftain, but the people retained their individual freedom and could move where they wanted. Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the Low Germanic languages spoken mainly in northern Germany, southern Denmark and eastern Netherlands. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


The Frisians controlled the mouth of the Ems river and threatened the ships coming down the river. For this reason the state of Oldenburg made several attempts to subjugate East Frisia during the 12th century. Thanks to the swampy terrain, the Frisian peasants defeated the Oldenburgian armies every time. In 1156 even Henry the Lion failed to conquer the region. The conflicts lasted for the next few centuries. In the 14th century Oldenburg had given up all plans to conquer Ostfriesland, restricting their attacks to irregular invasions, killing the livestock and returning. EMS may stand for: Organizations Eastern Mountain Sports, an outdoor retailer Edinburgh Mathematical Society Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd, manufacturers of synthesisers European Monetary System, 1979 European Mathematical Society Environmental Middle School Engineering Music Society, Melbourne University Science and Engineering Physics and Chemistry Electromagnetic spectrum Ethyl methanesulfonate (or methanesulfonic acid... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since...


The East Frisian chieftains used to provide shelter for pirates like the famous Klaus Störtebeker and Goedeke Michel, who were a threat to the ships of the powerful Hanseatic League which they attacked and robbed. In 1400 a punitive expedition of the Hanseatic League against East Frisia succeeded. The chieftains had to promise to discontinue their support for the pirates. In 1402 Störtebeker, who was not a Frisian by birth, was captured and executed in Hamburg. Klaus Störtebeker (* around 1370; † October 20th 1401) was a leader and simultaneously the best known representative of a companionship of privateers known as the Victual Brothers. ... Carta marina of Baltic Sea (1539). ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ...


The range of power and influence was different between the chieftains. Some clans achieved a predominant state. One of these were the Tom Broks from the Brokmerland (also: Brookmerland) who ruled a large part of Eastern Friesland over several generations until a former follower, Fokko Ukena from Leer, defeated the last Tom Brok. But a party of opposing chieftains under leadership of the Cirksenas from Greetsiel defeated and expelled, Fokko who later died in a place near Groningen. Leer is a city in the Leer District of northwestern Germany on the border with the Netherlands, located at the river Ems. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel. ...


After 1465 one of the last chieftains from the house of Cirksena was made a count by Emperor Frederick III and accepted the sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire. However, in 1514 the emperor ordered that a duke of Saxony should be the heir to the count of East Frisia. Count Edzard of East Frisia refused to accept this order and was outlawed. Twenty-four German dukes and princes invaded Frisia with their armies. Despite their numerical superiority they failed to defeat Edzard, and in 1517 the emperor had to accept Edzard and his descendants as counts of East Frisia. Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... // 1517 Nothing Actuall 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 151== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517...


East Frisia played an important role in the Reformation period. Menno Simons, founder of the Mennonite church, found refuge there. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from the Dutch province of Friesland. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist (Re-baptizers) denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ...


In 1654 the counts of East Frisia, seated at Aurich, were elevated to the rank of princes. Their power, however, stayed reduced due to a number of factors. Externally East Frisia became a satellite of the Netherlands, Dutch garrisons being stationed in different cities permanently. Important cities like Emden were autonomously administrated by their citizens, the Prince not having much influence on them. A Frisian Parliament, the Ostfreesk Landschaft, was an assembly of different social groups of East Frisia, jaleously protecting the traditional rights and freedoms of the Frisians against the Prince. East Frisian independence ended in 1744, when the region was taken over by Prussia after the last Cirksena prince had died without issue. There was no resistance to this takeover, since it has been arranged by contract beforehand. Prussia was wisely respecting the traditional autonomy of the Frisians, governed by the Frisian chancellor Sebastian Homfeld. Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1894-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


In 1806 East Frisia (now called Oostfreesland) was annexed by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland and later became part of the French Empire. Most of East Frisia was renamed the Département Ems-Oriental, while a small strip of land, the Rheiderland, became part of the Dutch Département Ems-Occidental. The French Emperor Napoléon I undertook the greatest reform of Frisian society in history: He introduced mayors, where the local administration was still in the hands of autonomous groups of elders (like the Diekgreven, Kerkenolderlings etc.), introduced the Code Civil and reformed the ancient Frisian naming system by newly introducing family names in 1811.


After the Napoleonic Wars East Frisia was first occupied by Prussian and Russian soldiers in 1813 and re-annexed by Prussia. However, already in 1815 Prussia had to cede East Frisia to the Kingdom of Hanover. Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list Full list The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ...


Language

The genuine language of East Frisia was Frisian which now is almost extinct, largely replaced by East Frisian Low Saxon. Original East Frisian survived somewhat longer in several remote places as for example in the islands, such as Wangerooge. Today a modern variant of East Frisian can be found in the Saterland, a district near East Frisia. In former times people from East Frisia who left their homes under pressure had settled in that remote area surrounded by moors and kept their inherited language alive. This language which forms the smallest language-island in Europe is called Saterland Frisian or, by its own name, Seeltersk. It is spoken by about 1000 people. Frisian is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by around half a million members of an ethnic group living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... East Frisian Low Saxon, is a West Low German dialect spoken in the Eastern Friesland peninsula of northwestern Lower Saxony. ... Wangerooge is one of the 32 Frisian Islands in the North Sea that are located close to the coasts of the Netherlands , Germany and Denmark. ... Saterland (Saterland Frisian: Seelterlound) is a municipality in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


East Frisian Low Saxon (or Eastern Friesland Low Saxon, as some people prefer to say for a better distinction from East Frisian, which is Frisian but not a Low German) is a variant of Low German with many of its own features due to the Frisian substrate and some other influences originating in the varied history of East Frisia. East Frisian Low Saxon, is a West Low German dialect spoken in the Eastern Friesland peninsula of northwestern Lower Saxony. ... Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the Low Germanic languages spoken mainly in northern Germany, southern Denmark and eastern Netherlands. ...


In modern Germany, as in the Netherlands, Frisians in general are the traditional butt of ethnic jokes. This is mainly the case in the North; in the South, similar jokes are told about Austrians. A joke is a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader. ...


Tea culture in East Frisia

In an otherwise coffee drinking country, East Frisia is noted for its consumption of tea and its tea culture. Strong black tea is served whenever there are visitors to an East Frisian home or other gathering, as well as with breakfast, mid-afternoon, and mid-evening. Tea is sweetened with kluntjes, a rock candy sugar that melts slowly, allowing multiple cups to be sweetened. Heavy cream is also used to flavor the tea. The tea is generally served with small cookies during the week and cake during special occasions or on weekends as a special treat. The tea is rumored to cure headaches, stomach problems, and stress, among many other ailments. Coffee in beverage form Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... Tea leaves in a gaiwan. ... Tea Culture Without tea there would not be any Chinese nor Chinese culture! The original cup of tea was not invented but discovered as a course of daily affair of the simple inhabitants in the hills of Min-nan. ... Black tea Black tea is a true tea (i. ...


See also

Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Frisian is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by around half a million members of an ethnic group living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... The Frisian Islands form an archipelago in northwestern Europe that spreads across the coasts of three countries, from west to east, The Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ...

External links

  • Ostfriesland.de - only available in German and Dutch
  • Map of East Frisia in 1789

  Results from FactBites:
 
East Frisia - GenWiki (2709 words)
This historical and geographical area of East Frisia borders the North Sea and the surrounding contiguous marshlands of the coast.
The rest of the area under the rule of the Cirksena, the Grafs (Counts) of East Frisia and later Dukes and Princes, was Lutheran.
When in 1744, the last Prince of East Frisia died without any heirs, the Principality ended and the land was turned over, by prior contract and agreements, to the control of the Prussians.
East Frisia - Definition, explanation (1702 words)
East Frisia (Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
It connects Western Frisia (in the Netherlands) with the districts of Dithmarschen and Nordfriesland ("Northern Frisia") in Schleswig-Holstein.
Frisia was a short-lived kingdom, and it was crushed by Pippin of Herstal in 689.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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