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Encyclopedia > East Asian Tigers
East Asian Tigers
 - Traditional Chinese: 亞洲四小龍
 - Simplifed Chinese: 亚洲四小龙
 - Mandarin Pinyin: Yǎzhōu sì xiǎo lóng
 - Cantonese Jyutping: aa3 zau1 sei3 siu2 long4
 - Literal meaning: Asia's Four Little Dragons
Korean
 - Hangul: 아시아의 네마리 호랑이
 - Literal meaning: Four Tigers of Asia
Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
The skyline of Singapore's Central Business District (CBD) seen here at dusk
The skyline of Singapore's Central Business District (CBD) seen here at dusk
Taipei is Taiwan's largest city and financial center.
A street scene in Seoul, capital of South Korea
A street scene in Seoul, capital of South Korea

The term East Asian Tigers refers to the economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. They are also known as Asia's Four Little Dragons. These countries and territories were noted for maintaining high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s. In the early 21st century, with the original four Tigers at or near to fully developed status, attention has increasingly shifted to other Asian economies which are experiencing rapid economic transformation at the present time. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refer to one of two standard Chinese character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language, officially simplified by the government of the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin_method be merged into this article or section. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... The Chinese dragon, or Lóng (also spelled Loong,Long or Lung) in Chinese, is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern) dragon in the West. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of tigers in 1900 (red) and 1990 (green) Synonyms Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758 Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858 Tigris regalis Gray, 1867 Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four big cats in the Panthera genus. ... Image File history File links East_Asian_Tigers. ... Image File history File links East_Asian_Tigers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Today the country officially known as the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly known by the international community as Taiwan and occasionally as Chinese Taipei. It should not be confused with the other country officially known as the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is commonly known as China. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 243 KB)Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, China You are welcome to download the 1024 x 768 version and set as the wallpaper for your Windows desktop. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 243 KB)Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, China You are welcome to download the 1024 x 768 version and set as the wallpaper for your Windows desktop. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽngdÇŽo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... The Clock Tower in Tsim Sha Tsui is a famous landmark of Hong Kong. ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x972, 442 KB) Description: Singapore city skyline at dusk as viewed from the Pan Pacific Singapore. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x972, 442 KB) Description: Singapore city skyline at dusk as viewed from the Pan Pacific Singapore. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x554, 460 KB) Night view of Taipei City (Central) from Elephant Mountain, looking towards the northwest (photo by Jerome Chen http://beb. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x554, 460 KB) Night view of Taipei City (Central) from Elephant Mountain, looking towards the northwest (photo by Jerome Chen http://beb. ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas Government Official Website City of Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou Capital District Xinyi Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1120x840, 478 KB) Summary http://cheonggye. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1120x840, 478 KB) Summary http://cheonggye. ... Seoul (Sŏul[1] 서울)   is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ... Accumulated GDP growth for various countries. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2003). ...


The four Tigers share a range of characteristics with other Asian economies, such as China and Japan, and pioneered what has come to be seen as a particularly "Asian" approach to economic development. Key differences include initial levels of education and physical access to world markets (in terms of transport infrastructure and access to coasts and navigable rivers, which are essential for cheap shipping). Economic development is a sustainable increase in yoyoyoyoyoyoyoyoyooyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyooooooooo There are more than 20,000 professional economic developers employed world wide in this highly specialized industry. ...

Contents

Characteristics of the Tiger economies

The East Asian Tigers pursued an export-driven model of economic development; these countries and territories focused on developing goods for export to highly-industrialized nations. Domestic consumption was discouraged through government policies such as high tariffs. The East Asian Tigers singled out education as a means of improving productivity; these nations focused on improving the education system at all levels; heavy emphasis was placed on ensuring that all children attended elementary education and compulsory high school education. Money was also spent on improving the college and university system. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...


Since the East Asian Tigers were relatively poor during the 1960s, these nations had an abundance of cheap labor. Coupled with educational reform, they were able to leverage this combination into a cheap, yet productive workforce. The East Asian Tigers committed to egalitarianism in the form of land reform, to promote property rights and to ensure that agricultural workers would not become disgruntled. Also, policies of agricultural subsidies and tariffs on agricultural products were implemented as well. Egalitarianism can refer to moral as well as factual theories. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) is an often-controversial type of government-initiated or government-backed real estate property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. ...


The common characteristics of the East Asian Tigers are:

  • Focused on exports to richer industrialized nations
  • Trade surplus with aforementioned countries
  • Sustained rate of double-digit growth for decades
  • Non-democratic and relatively authoritarian political systems during the early years
  • High level of U.S. treasury bond holdings
  • High savings rate
  • A high degree of what is referred to as economic freedom. Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea are 1st, 2nd, 37th, and 45th respectively on the Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom.

The Heritage Foundation is an influential public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ...

Role of traditional philosophies

Economic success in Japan, followed by the East Asian Tigers, has been attributed to the existence of harmonious labor-management relations.( cf. W. Dean Kinzley, "Industrial Harmony in Modern Japan. The Invention of a Tradition", Routledge, London & New York, 1991). “Industrial Harmony” is this unique “Culture of harmony” that was consciously invented and developed over the last century in Japan. A semi-bureaucratic organization called the “Kyochokai” (The Co-operation and Harmony Society) was established in 1819 to meet the needs of an emerging industrial society. The “Kyochokai” took the lead in trying to define the values which would be suitable for a new Japanese-style industrial society, at the time of great social troubles in industrial Europe. The resulting "invented" tradition has played an important role in the evolution and character of Japanese economic values and behavior of social peace for economic development. ( cf. W. Dean Kinzley, "Industrial Harmony in Modern Japan. The Invention of a Tradition", Routledge, London & New York, 1991). [2]


Japanese experience appears to challenge unilinear theories of modernization, and to suggest that Japan’s uniqueness lies in the creation of its own kind of modernity, sharply divergent from that to be found in Western countries, and based paradoxically upon a reaffirmation of ancient Confucian values and native Japanese traditions of harmony, self-sacrifice and non-individualistic group striving in pursuit of a common cause. Japan’s emphasis on long-term growth, scrupulous market evaluation, and process engineering are all well regarded as important components of its economic development. Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


This "Industrial Harmony" is the foundation ("Grund" as it used to be) of "Asian Political economy".


Criticism of the export-driven trade model

The East Asian Tigers were strongly affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which impacted each Tiger to varying degrees. While Taiwan was not as strongly affected, South Korea was badly battered by the crisis. Because of the focus on export-driven growth, many of the Tigers became caught up in a game of currency devaluation. The current criticism of the East Asian Tigers is that these economies focus exclusively on export-demand, at the cost of import-demand. Thus, these economies are heavily reliant on the economic health of their targeted export nations. In addition, these nations have met difficulties after they lost their initial competitive edge, cheap productive labour. India and China have now emerged as fast-growing economies based on cheap labour, largely replacing the Tigers. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ...


Some economies were becoming overheated, stock prices were overvalued, property prices were sky-high and investors were jittery and nervous. Because of the structural weaknesses in the regulatory framework, once capital flight began, the stock market nosedived and the major Asian currencies depreciated significantly. This caused social unrest, political instability, regime change and financial bailing out by the International Monetary Fund. This also gave impetus to some Asian governments to impose capital controls to restrict currency outflows and maintain monetary and financial stability. Malaysia maintained a currency peg to the US Dollar. Taiwan created legislation requiring all outgoing capital transfers to be declared. However, there were no direct restrictions. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fixed exchange rate. ...


Since the crisis most of the Tiger economies have become financially stable with resilient institutions and companies and regulatory frameworks in place to prevent another crisis. This has also shown many Asian governments that the easy and predictable prosperity of export-led growth and cheap labour costs won't last forever. To better compete with the emerging manufacturing giants like China and India, they will have to create new industries, move up the value-add chain and create stronger service sectors in their economies.


Comparisons

Mainland China

Nanjing Road, Shanghai (南京路), one of the world's busiest shopping streets.
Nanjing Road, Shanghai (南京路), one of the world's busiest shopping streets.

Comparison between mainland China and the Tigers can be divided between the Maoist era and the era of reform starting with Deng Xiaoping. The main question that has been raised with respect to the Maoist era is to what extent the economic performance of the Tigers was reproducible in Mainland China in the 1960s. The main question that has been raised with respect to the post-Maoist era is to what extent the development of the PRC is sustainable. For the purpose of this article, the economies of the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau are treated separately from the rest of the Peoples Republic of China, and are excluded from this article. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 319 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 319 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nanjing Road is one of the worlds busiest shopping streets. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the eighth largest in the world. ... This page lists leading upscale shopping streets and districts by city. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is a geopolitical term which is usually synonymous with the area currently administered by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


An important question is the relevance of the experience of the Tigers to current economic growth in Mainland China. In the 1980s it was common to argue that the export-centered growth of the Tigers was of limited relevance to Mainland China because the Tigers were small and any effort to mimic them would result in more exports than the developed world could handle. This objection was later less often raised since the pattern of economic growth has been for exports to trigger economic growth in the coastal regions, and for these coastal regions to serve as markets and triggers for growth in the interior.


Since the late 1990s, some of the heat has dissipated from this debate, in part because its become of more historical than current interest: as a result of the Deng Xiaoping reforms, the PRC has one of the world's highest rates of per capita GDP growth. Furthermore, the Communist Party of China and Kuomintang today both view Taiwan independence as a common adversary and are much less likely to assert superiority over the other. Ironically, and to the chagrin of many western observers, it is now common for the Communist Party of China to use the experience of the Asian Tigers as justification for its authoritarian rule. The argument by the Party is that at the current stage of economic development the PRC needs a non-democratic system similar to those that the Tigers had in the early years of growth. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name, though almost universally known in English as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: 台灣獨立; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan (out of the lands currently administered by the...


Taiwan and mainland China compared

The busiest port in Taiwan is at Kaohsiung.
The busiest port in Taiwan is at Kaohsiung.

The Asian Tigers' spectacular ascent to economic prominence attracted much attention and analysis. Some Western economists, notably at the World Bank, depicted it as a vindication of free-market principles, and this interpretation of the Tigers' success formed a large part of the Washington consensus. This view is not without controversy. Many economists have pointed out that the governments of the tigers were quite active in their economies. East Asian Tigers all practiced aggressive land reform and made large investments in public health and elementary education. In addition, while the tigers relied on export markets to develop their economies, they also put in place high trade barriers which protected local industries from foreign competition. Some Western observers have argued that mainland China would have reached Taiwan's contemporary level of development if the Kuomintang had stayed in power. However, this claim has been disputed by those who point out that Taiwan is by no means a microcosm of the mainland. Image File history File linksMetadata Ddm_2004_028_Kaohsiung_Harbor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ddm_2004_028_Kaohsiung_Harbor. ... Nickname: The Harbor City (港都) Coordinates: Country  Republic of China(Taiwan) Region Southern Taiwan Capital Linya Dist(苓雅區) Mayor Chen Chu(陳菊) Area    - City 153. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... The Washington Consensus is a phrase initially coined in the early 1990s to describe a relatively specific set of ten macroeconomic policy prescriptions that were considered by the phrases originator to constitute a standard reform package promoted for crisis-wracked countries by Washington-based institutions such as the International... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is a geopolitical term which is usually synonymous with the area currently administered by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative...


First, one million Kuomintang supporters fled to the island in 1949, establishing the small island of six million as the seat of the Republic of China. Taiwan thus benefited from the flight of many well-educated, bourgeois Chinese. A disproportionately high share of the immigrants were governing elites, merchants, Chinese capitalists, and well-educated professionals. While a large number (60%) were also poorly-educated Kuomintang soldiers, the wave of immigrants was not a reflection of Chinese society. Furthermore, many in the ROC leadership accused of corruption and incompetence on the mainland were either exiled or purged from the Kuomintang following defeat in the civil war. The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Today the country officially known as the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly known by the international community as Taiwan and occasionally as Chinese Taipei. It should not be confused with the other country officially known as the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is commonly known as China. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese...


Second, Taiwan, and for that matter all four of the Tigers, benefitted economically from previous foreign rule or influence, whether it was British commerce in Hong Kong and Singapore, or Japanese industrialization and American land reform in Taiwan and South Korea. Furthermore, three of the Tigers were "artificial" polities severed from larger neighbors—Mainland China in the case of Taiwan and Hong Kong, Malaysia in the case of Singapore. Likewise, South Korea was a product of postwar division and bloody civil war. Each therefore felt acute insecurity, which was translated into political structures that restricted civil liberties and subordinated short-term social well-being for economic growth. The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is a geopolitical term which is usually synonymous with the area currently administered by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC...


Third and perhaps most important, Taiwan's economy, wrenched in quick succession from Japan's orbit and then mainland China's, could not have developed without direct American aid, which constituted more than 30 percent of domestic investment from 1951 to 1962. Land reform, government planning, U.S. aid and investment, and free universal education brought huge advancement in industry and agriculture, and in living standards. In addition, land reform was an essential step in modernization. In conducting land reform on Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek was aided by American encouragement in addition to the fact that many of the large landowners were Japanese who had fled there after World War II, and the remaining indigenous landowners had little voice in government. Most agree that it is extremely unlikely that Chiang Kai-shek would have revolutionized Mainland Chinese society to that extent if he had defeated the Communists led by Mao Zedong. 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In summary, the transformation of Taiwan cannot be understood without reference to the larger geopolitical framework. Although aid was cut back in the 1970s, it was crucial in the formative years, spurring industrialization. In addition, even after the cutoff of aid, security and economic links were maintained. Uncertainty about the U.S. commitment accelerated the country’s shift from subsidized import-substitution in the 1950s to later export-led growth. Like South Korea, Taiwan moved from cheap, labor-intensive manufactures, such as textiles and toys, into an expansion of heavy industry and infrastructure in the 1970s, and then to advanced electronics in the subsequent decades. In response, it has been argued that the role of United States aid and direct investment is overstated. In particular, it is pointed out that the capital for investment came largely from indigenous sources and that foreign aid had ended before the economy had taken off. Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ... A teddy bear A toy is an object meant to be played with. ... The field of electronics comprises the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) and semiconductors. ...


India

Main article: Economy of India
India is the world's second fastest growing major economy. Shown here is downtown Mumbai, the financial capital of India.
India is the world's second fastest growing major economy[1]. Shown here is downtown Mumbai, the financial capital of India.

India has not had a land reform as consistent and thorough as Korea's or Taiwan's. The liberalisation of the post-colonial Indian economy occurred in 1991 under the finance minister, Manmohan Singh, the current prime minister of India. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, India's socialist-inspired economic policies which had stagnated growth in the 1970s, after initial periods of success following independence from Britain, were put under pressure as India's main supporter disappeared, and a balance of payment crisis, as well as rapid decline in foreign exchange reserves threatened financial meltdown. The economy of India is the fourth largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US $3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2496x1664, 2284 KB) Downtown at night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2496x1664, 2284 KB) Downtown at night. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई, IPA: ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, the most populous city of India, and by some measures the most populous city in the world with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006). ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The economy of India is the fourth largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US $3. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Foreign exchange has several meanings: In telecommunications, Foreign exchange service is a type of network service. ...


Unlike many other fast-growing Asian economies, India's growth is largely driven by domestic consumption, like many advanced economies of the West. India's vast educated workforce is responsible for its ongoing information technology (IT) and services boom. This has helped other industries such as retail, finance, construction and hospitality to benefit from the buoyant domestic demand. India's competitive IT industry has also created a new-found confidence in Indian industry in general, protected from international competition till 1991. The current focus is on developing world-class infrastructure and industrialization to encourage large manufacturing clusters. India aims to divert a significant part of the 60% of India's workforce, currently dependent on agriculture, to industry. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with consumption (economics). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Services are: plural of service Tertiary sector of industry IRC services Web services the name of a first-class cricket team in India This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham, Hunding and Sieglinde offering hospitality to Siegmund The act or practice of being hospitable, that is, the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers, with liberality and goodwill. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ...


Other "Tigers"

The Petronas Twin Towers form one of the landmarks of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The Petronas Twin Towers form one of the landmarks of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Over time, the term Tiger has become synonymous with nations that achieve high growth by pursuing an export-driven trade strategy. This entails creating industrial policy to attract high levels of foreign direct investments. Recently, the Southeast Asian nations of Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia have sometimes been considered Tigers or the Four New Asian Tigers. Vietnam, also sometimes considered in the list, meanwhile, shares an economic status that is much lower than formerlly mentioned countries. The term is not limited to Asian nations; in Europe, the Republic of Ireland has been called the Celtic Tiger for its rapid growth in the 1990s, while Estonia and Slovakia are recognized as the Baltic and Tatra Tigers respectively for their current high growth rates. In addition, Chile has been referred to as a Latin American Tiger for its solid economic policies and rapid export-led growth since the 1980s[citation needed]. Petronas towers, Kuala Lumpur; by Jpatokal File links The following pages link to this file: Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Skyscraper Petronas Towers Categories: GFDL images ... Petronas towers, Kuala Lumpur; by Jpatokal File links The following pages link to this file: Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Skyscraper Petronas Towers Categories: GFDL images ... The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were once the worlds tallest buildings when measured from the level of the main entrance to the structural or architectural top. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x603, 93 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x603, 93 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The City of Makati, or simply Makati, is one of the most important cities in the Philippines in terms of finance and commerce. ... For the article on the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... A fruit stand at a market. ... An industrial policy is any government regulation or law that encourages the ongoing operation of, or investment in, a particular industry. ... Foreign direct investment (FDI) is defined as a long-term investment by a foreign direct investor in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that in which the foreign direct investor is based. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Cartoon of the Celtic Tiger - the press media in Ireland use pictures of green striped tigers to symbolise or sometimes mock the Celtic Tiger The Celtic Tiger is a nickname for the Republic of Ireland during its period of rapid economic growth between the 1990s and 2001 or 2002. ... This article is about the year. ... A glass skyscraper – an icon of Estonias economic boom Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continues up to the present moment. ... Tatra Tiger is a nickname that refers to the economy of Slovakia following the ascendance of a right-wing coalition in September 1998 which engaged in a program of liberal economic reforms. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ...


See also

Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Hong Kong Portal The economy of Hong Kong is widely believed to be the economically freest in the world. ... Taiwan, formally including the Republic of China on Taiwan and other islands, has a dynamic capitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by the government. ... The Economy of Singapore is a highly developed and successful free market economy in which the state plays a major role. ... Currency 1 South Korean Won (W) = 100 Jeon(Chŏn) (theoretical) Fiscal year Calendar year Trade organisations APEC, WTO and OECD Statistics [1] GDP ranking 10th by volume (at nominal) (2005); 14th by volume (at PPP) (2005); GDP (Nominal) $801. ... For more information on the topic see Emerging Superpowers and Superpower The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is often considered an emerging superpower due to its large and stable population, its rapidly growing economy and military spending and capabilities [1]. However, it has several economic, political, and demographic problems... Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, and Yunnan province of China. ... Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, and countries culturally linked to Chinese culture. ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... A glass skyscraper – an icon of Estonias economic boom Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continues up to the present moment. ... Cartoon of the Celtic Tiger - the press media in Ireland use pictures of green striped tigers to symbolise or sometimes mock the Celtic Tiger The Celtic Tiger is a nickname for the Republic of Ireland during its period of rapid economic growth between the 1990s and 2001 or 2002. ... Tatra Tiger is a nickname that refers to the economy of Slovakia following the ascendance of a right-wing coalition in September 1998 which engaged in a program of liberal economic reforms. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]

External links

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  • BBC map of the Asian Tigers
  • ASEAN tigers
  • The Elephant at the Gate in China Economic Review

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Four Asian Tigers (0 words)
The Four Asian Tigers singled out education as a means of improving productivity; these nations focused on improving the education system at all levels; heavy emphasis was placed on ensuring that all children attended elementary education and compulsory high school education.
Furthermore, three of the Tigers were "artificial" polities severed from larger neighbors—Mainland China in the case of Taiwan and Hong Kong, Malaysia in the case of Singapore.
The term is not limited to Asian nations; in Europe, the Republic of Ireland has been called the Celtic Tiger for its rapid growth in the 1990s, while Estonia and Slovakia are recognized as the Baltic and Tatra Tigers respectively for their current high growth rates.
Definition of East Asian Tigers (1767 words)
The East Asian Tigers, sometimes also referred to as Asia's Four Little Dragons, referred to the economies of Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Singapore; these territories and nations were noted for maintaining high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s.
The East Asian Tigers singled out education as a means of improving productivity; these nations focused on improving the education system at all levels; heavy emphasis was placed on ensuring that all children attended elementary education and compulsory high school education.
The East Asian Tigers were able to move from third world status to first world status in a few decades and were able to progress past other developing areas, particularly Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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