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Encyclopedia > East African Campaign (World War II)
East African Campaign
Part of African Campaigns, World War II

Personnel from the King's African Rifles (KAR) collect weapons (mostly "Carcano 1891" rifles) captured from Italian forces at Wolchefit Pass, Ethiopia, near the end of the campaign (Photographer: Lt H. J. Clements).
Date 10 June 1940-27 November 1941
Location Sudan, British Somaliland, Kenya, Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia
Result Allied victory, fall of Italian East Africa
Combatants
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

Flag of Belgium Belgium 219. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Kings African Rifles (KAR) was a British colonial regiment in East Africa from 1902 until the independence of the various colonies in the 1960s. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was the name of Sudan between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Gold_Coast. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_British_Colonial_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Rhodesia-1939. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Southern_Rhodesia. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ...

Flag of Free French Forces Free France
Ethiopian irregulars Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Free_State. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Free_France_1940-1944. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... Image File history File links 1897_Ehiopia_flag. ... This article is about the African country. ...

Flag of Italy Italy
Commanders
Flag of the United Kingdom Archibald Wavell
Flag of the United Kingdom William Platt
Flag of the United Kingdom Alan Cunningham
Flag of Italy Duke of Aosta
Flag of Italy Guglielmo Nasi
Flag of Italy Luigi Frusci
Flag of Italy Pietro Gazzera
Flag of Italy Carlo De Simone
Strength
30,000-50,000 plus several thousand co-belligerent Ethiopian patriot forces, mainly deserting askaris from Italian colonial units, commanded by local warlords 91,000 Italians, 200,000 Askari (Eritrean and Ethiopian colonial troops)

The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought in East Africa during World War II. The battles of this campaign were fought between the forces of the British Empire, the British Commonwealth of Nations, and several allies on one side and the forces of the Italian Empire on the other. This campaign was one of the African campaigns of World War II. Combatants  United Kingdom  Canada  United States(1941–5)  Norway Poland Free French Navy  Germany  Italy (1940–3) Commanders  Sir Percy Noble  Sir Max K. Horton  Percy W. Nelles  Leonard W. Murray  Ernest J. King  Erich Raeder  Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ... 219. ...


This campaign fell under the British Middle East Command. The vast majority of the British allied forces involved were from British Commonwealth nations. The Commonwealth forces included troops from the Sudan, British Somaliland, British East Africa, the Indian Empire, South Africa, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, and British West Africa (Nigeria, Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia). There was even a small commando unit from the British Mandate of Palestine. In addition to the British and Commonwealth forces, there were Ethiopian irregular forces, Free French forces, and Free Belgian forces. During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Location of British West Africa. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... The Free Belgian Forces were members of the Belgian armed forces in World War II who continued fighting against the Axis after the surrender of Belgium and its subsequent occupation by the Germans. ...


The Italian forces included Italian nationals, East African colonials (Eritreans, Abyssinians, and Somali Dubats), and even a small number of German volunteers (German Motorized Company). The majority of the Italian forces were East African colonials led by Italian officers.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Dubats was the designation given to armed irregular bands employed by the Italian Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali or colonial army, in Italian Somalia from 1924 to 1941. ... The German Motorized Company (Italian: Compagnia Autocarrata Tedesca, German: Deutsche Motorisierte Kompanie) was formed from about 150 Germans who had fled from British-held Kenya and Tanganyika. ...

Contents

Background and political situation

On 9 May 1936, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed his "Italian East African Empire" (Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI). Mussolini's "Italian East African Empire" was formed from the newly-occupied Ethiopia and the Italian colonies of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. Italy did not come by its East African colony easily. During the First Italo-Abyssinian War from 1895 to 1896, Italy was thwarted in its colonial ambitions when the forces of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia soundly defeated the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) at the Battle of Adowa. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War from 1935 to 1936, the Italians again invaded Ethiopia and, by using weapons like poison gas, were finally able to defeat the Ethiopians. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The First Italian-Abyssinian War was one of the very few instances of successful armed African resistance to European colonialism in the 19th century. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Emperor Menelik II (Geez ምኒልክ) baptized as Sahle Maryam (August 17, 1844 – December 12, 1913), was of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Campo Teulada Italian Soldiers on Parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... Combatants Ethiopia Italy Commanders Emperor Menilek II Empress Taytu Ras Alula Engida Dejazmach Balcha Aba Nefso Fitawrari Gebeyyehu Ras Gobena Ras Makonnen Ras Mengesha Atikem Ras Mengesha Yohannes Ras Mikael of Wollo Ras Wale Betul Negus Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam Oreste Baratieri Strength ~100,000 (80,000 with firearms), Unknown... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 10 June 1940, when Mussolini entered World War II against the British and the French, the Italian forces in Africa became a potential threat to British supply routes along the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. An Italian invasion of either French Somaliland or British Somaliland were reasonable choices. But Mussolini initially looked past these small, isolated colonies and, instead, looked forward to propaganda triumphs in the Sudan and British East Africa (Kenya, Tanganyika, and Uganda). The Italian Central Command (Commando Centrale) was planning for a war starting after 1942. In the summer of 1940, they were not prepared for a prolonged war or to occupy extensive areas of the African continent.[1] is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the early part of the war, British General Archibald Wavell, Commander-in-Chief of the Middle East Command, had a total of 86,000 British and Commonwealth troops at his disposal to handle potential conflicts in Libya, Iraq, Syria, Iran, and East Africa. Worse, his forces were spread out in Egypt, Palestine, the Sudan, British Somaliland, Kenya, and several other locations. Faced with forces spaced out along the enemy frontiers at intervals of about eight men to the mile, Wavell resolved to fight the Italians with delaying actions at the main posts and hope for the best. The delaying actions, bolstered by aggressive raids into Italian territory, were fought with skill and spirit. From July 1940 onwards, British and Commonwealth reinforcements started to appear in significant numbers. Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (May 5, 1883 – May 24, 1950) was a British field marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only... During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Short of men, Wavell needed all of the local support he could find. One answer was Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. The deposed emperor had been living in England ever since the Italians invaded his country in 1936 during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ...


In July, the British government recognised Emperor Selassie and promised to help him to reclaim his throne. But, before July, related activities were already taking place. July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...


On 13 June, only three days after Mussolini declared war against Britain and France, a "Mr. Strong" took off in a Short Sunderland flying boat from Poole Harbour on the south coast of England. Emperor Selassie, alias Mr. Strong, was headed home. On 25 June, Mr. Strong arrived in Alexandria, Egypt. Seven days later, as "Mr. Smith," he flew to Khartoum in the Sudan. In Khartoum, Mr. Smith met Lieutenant-General William Platt. Emperor Selassie and Platt discussed plans to free Ethiopia from the Italian yoke.[2] is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The S.25 Sunderland was a flying boat patrol bomber developed for the Royal Air Force by Short Brothers, first flown on 16 October 1937. ... Poole Harbour is a harbour in Dorset, southern England, with the towns of Poole and Wareham on its shores. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ...


At the end of October 1940, because of the increasing Axis threat in the Middle East, the British Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden convened a conference in Khartoum. In attendance were Emperor Selassie, South African General Jan Smuts (who held an advisory brief for the region with Winston Churchill), the Commander-in-Chief of the Middle East Command, Archibald Wavell and the senior military commanders in East Africa including Lieutenant-General Platt and Lieutenant-General Cunningham. The general plan of attack, including the use of Ethiopian irregular forces, was agreed upon at this conference.[3] For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


In November 1940, the British and Commonwealth forces received an incredible intelligence advantage. The government code and cypher school at Bletchley Park broke the high grade cypher of the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) in East Africa. Later, during the same month, the replacement cypher for the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) was broken by the Combined Bureau, Middle East (CBME). From this point on, the commanders-in-chief in Cairo knew Italian plans as soon as they were issued.[4] For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Campo Teulada Italian Soldiers on Parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


Military situation

Further information: Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II)

The Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II) shows the ground forces available on both sides in East Africa when the Italians declared war. ...

Italian ground forces

Amedeo, Duke of Aosta was the Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa. He had between 250,000 and 280,000 Italian troops available to him. On 10 June 1940, the Italians were organized in four command sectors: the Northern Sector (the area near Asmara, Eritrea), the Southern Sector (Jimma, Ethiopia), the Eastern Sector (near border with French Somaliland and British Somaliland), and the Giuba Sector (southern Somalia near Kismayo, Italian Somaliland). Lieutenant-General Luigi Frusci commanded the Northern Sector. General Pietro Gazzera commanded the Southern Sector. General Guglielmo Nasi commanded the Eastern Sector. Lieutenant-General Carlo De Simone commanded the Giuba Sector. The Duke of Aosta commanded from Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Asmara (English) (Geez: አሥመራ Asmera, formerly known as Asmera, or in Arabic: Asmaraa) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. ... Jimma is the largest city in western Ethiopia; as of 1994 it had a population of 88,867 people. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Kismayo or Kismayu (Somali: ; Arabic: , transliteration: ; Italian: ) is a port city in the Jubbada Hoose region of Somalia and is the countrys third largest city (after Mogadishu and Hargeisa. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... Luigi Frusci (born 1879; died 1949) was an officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II. In April 1936, Frusci commanded the center column of three columns during General Rudolfo Grazianis advance on the southern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. ... Pietro Gazzera (born 1879; died 1953) was an officer in the Italian Army during World War II. General Gazzera commanded forces in Gimma during the East African Campaign 1926 Commanding Officer, Brigade Basilicata 1926 Commandant of War School General Officer Commanding, Division Genova 1928 - 1929 Under-Secretary Ministry of War... Guglielmo Ciro Nasi (born 21 February 1879; died 21 September 1971) was an Italian General who fought in the Italian East Africa during World War II. // Nasi was born in Civitavecchia, Italy. ... Carlo De Simone (born 1885) was an officer in the Italian Army during World War II. During most of the East African Campaign, Lieutenant-General De Simone commanded Italian forces in southern Italian Somaliland. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


The Duke of Aosta's command included two Italian infantry divisions: The 40th Infantry Division "Hunters of Africa" (Cacciatori d'Africa) and the 65th Infantry Division "Savoy Grenadiers" (Granatieri di Savoia). The Italians also had one battalion of elite mountain troops (Alpini), one battalion of highly-mobile infantry (Bersaglieri) battalions, numerous Fascist paramilitary Blackshirts (Camice Nere) battalions, MVSN Colonial Militia, and other smaller units. In the mid-13th century the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II made the County of Aosta (the Valle dAosta) a duchy, and its arms were carried in the Savoia arms until the reunification of Italy, 1870. ... The Alpini are a highly decorated elite infantry corps of the Italian Army. ... The Bersaglieri are a corps of the Italian army created by General Alessandro Lamarmora in 1836. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... MVSN Colonial Militia were based in the Italian African colonial possessions of Italian North Africa comprising Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, and in Italian East Africa comprising Eritrea, Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland. ...


Most of the Italian troops in East Africa (about 70%) were local East African askaris. While the askaris of the regular Eritrean battalions of the "Royal Corps of Colonial Troops" (Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali) were amongst the best Italian units in East Africa, the majority of the colonial troops in Italian East Africa were recruited, trained, and equipped to do no more than maintain order in the colony. The Somali Dubats recruited from border tribesmen provided useful light infantry and skirmishers but the irregular bande were much less effective. Ethiopian askaris and irregulars, recruited during the brief Italian occupation, deserted in large numbers after the outbreak of war. The Royal Corps of Colonial Troops included horse mounted Eritrean cavalry known as "Falcon Feathers" (Penne di Falcon). On one occasion a squadron of these horsemen charged British and Commonwealth troops throwing small hand grenades from the saddle.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... A drawing of an East African Askari in German service by Wilhelm Kuhnert Askari is an Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Swahili word meaning soldier (Arabic: ‘askarÄ«). It was normally used to describe indigenous troops in East Africa and the Middle East serving in the armies of European colonial powers. ... Dubats was the designation given to armed irregular bands employed by the Italian Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali or colonial army, in Italian Somalia from 1924 to 1941. ...


Equipment for the Italian ground forces in East Africa was a mixed bag. The forces were equipped with about 3,300 machine guns, 24 M11/39 tanks, a large number of L3/35 tankettes, 126 armored cars and 813 pieces of assorted artillery. The most common Italian rifle in East Africa was the Carcano Mod. 91. However, the Italian faced problems with isolation of the East Africa, with very little chance for reinforcements or resupply, leading to problems especially with ammunition. The Fiat M11/39 was an Italian light tank used from 1939 through World War II. Designed as a breakthrough tank, its career was cut short due to shortcomings such as a weak hull-mounted 37 mm gun and armor that was too light. ... The L3/35 was an Italian tankette that was developed along the lines of the British Carden-Loyd Mark VI and first appeared as the CV 29 (CV stod for Carro Veloce, fast tank) later built as the CV33 in 1933, but was retrofitted as the CV35 in 1935 and... For a discussion of this weapon as it pertains to the John F. Kennedy assassination, see John F. Kennedy assassination rifle. ...


Another problem that afflicted the Italian forces was the lack of medicine for diseases endemic to the Horn of Africa area. Chief among thes diseases was malaria. It is estimated that nearly one-quarter of the Italians troops defending Amba Alagi in April 1941 had malaria during the siege. Unfortunately, the Italians at Amba Alagi had no medicine for malaria, the Italian medicine at the time being all but gone during the last months of fighting in 1941. Even the commander of Amba Alagi, the Duke of Aosta, was himself afflicted with malaria during the siege. He died of tuberculosis and malaria on 3 March 1942, a few months after his surrender. The Horn of Africa. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Ambi-Alagi is a remote area in Ethiopia between Asmara and Addis Ababa. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


British and Commonwealth ground forces

Initially, the British and Commonwealth forces in East Africa amounted to about 30,000 men under Lieutenant-General William Platt in the Sudan, Lieutenant-General Alan Cunningham in British East Africa, and Colonel Arthur Reginald Chater in British Somaliland. The British and Commonwealth forces were slightly better equipped, had access to resupply and reinforcements. However, they were vastly outnumbered by the Italian forces available in Italian East Africa . To make matters worse for the British, the Italians had at least another 208,000 men (fourteen divisions) available in Libya.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ... Alan Cunningham, British Army Officer Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1st May 1887 _ 30th January 1983) was a British Army officer noted for victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II. He was the younger brother of the renowned Admiral Andrew Cunningham. ... British East Africa was a British protectorate in East Africa, covering generally the area of present-day Kenya and lasting from 1890 to 1920, when it became the colony of Kenya. ... Arthur Reginald Chater CB, CVO, DSO, OBE (born 1896; died 1979) was an officer in the British Army (Royal Marines) during World War I and World War II. During the Gallipoli Campaign, Chater was in the Chatham Battalion of the Royal Marine Brigade at Kaba Tepe. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


On 10 June 1940, in all of the Sudan, prior to the arrival of the Indian 4th Infantry Division and Indian 5th Infantry Division, Platt had only three infantry battalions (which were absorbed into the under-strength 5th Indian Division when it arrived)[5] and the machine-gun companies of the Sudan Defence Force. The three battalions were the 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment, the 1st Battalion Essex Regiment and the 2nd Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment which in mid-September became part of Indian 29th, 10th and 9th Infantry Brigades respectively. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... The Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was a Sudanese military unit formed in 1925 during the time of the Anglo-Egyptian co-dominium. ... The Worcestershire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, formed in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot and the 36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot. ... The Essex Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... The West Yorkshire Regiment (Prince of Waless Own) (the 14th of Foot) amalgamated with the East Yorkshire Regiment (the 15th of Foot) in 1958 to form The Prince of Waless Own Regiment of Yorkshire. ...


In Kenya, the King's African Rifles (KAR) was composed of two brigade-strength units organized as a "Northern Brigade" and a "Southern Brigade." In 1938, the combined strength of both units amounted to 94 officers, 60 non-commissioned officers, and 2,821 African other ranks. After the outbreak of war, these units provided the trained nucleus for the rapid expansion of the KAR. By March 1940, the strength of the KAR had reached 883 officers, 1,374 non-commissioned officers, and 20,026 African other ranks. The size of a KAR battalion was established at 36 officers, 44 non-commissioned officers and other ranks, and 1,050 African other ranks.[6] The Kings African Rifles (KAR) was a British colonial regiment in East Africa from 1902 until the independence of the various colonies in the 1960s. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially the KAR deployed as the 1st East African Infantry Brigade and the 2nd East African Infantry Brigade. The first brigade was responsible for coastal defense and the second was responsible for the defense of the interior. By the end of July, two additional East African brigades were formed, the 3rd East African Infantry Brigade and the 6th East African Infantry Brigade. Initially a Coastal Division and a Northern Frontier District Division were planned. But, instead, the 11th African Division and the 12th African Division were formed.[6] July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... The 1st (African) Division was formed on 24 July 1940 in East Africa. ... The 2nd (African) Division was a British colonial unit that fought in the East African Campaign during World War II. On 24 July 1940 , the 2nd (African) Division was formed in Kenya. ...


On 1 June, the first South African unit arrived in Mombassa, Kenya. By the end of July, the 1st South African Infantry Brigade Group joined the first unit. On 13 August, the 1st South African Division was formed. This division included the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Infantry Brigade Groups. By the end of the year, approximately 27,000 South Africans were serving in East Africa. The South Africans were either in the 1st South African Division, the 11th African Division, or the 12th African Division. Each South African brigade group consisted of three rifle battalions, an armored car company, and supporting signal, engineer, and medical units.[7] is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The South African 1st Infantry Division was an infantry division of the South African Army during World War II. // The division was formed on 13 August 1940 in South Africa with its HQ at the South African Military College. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The 1st (African) Division was formed on 24 July 1940 in East Africa. ... The 2nd (African) Division was a British colonial unit that fought in the East African Campaign during World War II. On 24 July 1940 , the 2nd (African) Division was formed in Kenya. ...


By July, under the terms of a war contingency plan, two brigades were provided on rotation for service in Kenya by the "Royal West African Frontier Force." One brigade was from the Gold Coast (Ghana) and one brigade was from Nigeria. The Nigerian brigade, together with two East African brigades (the KAR brigades) and some South Africans, formed 11th African Division. The 12th African Division had a similar formation with the Ghanaian brigade taking the place of the Nigerian brigade.[6] July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... The West African Frontier Force (RWAFF) was a multi-batallion field force, formed by the British Colonial Office in 1900 to administer the regular colonial forces of West Africa. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ...


In British Somaliland, Chater commanded the Somaliland Camel Corps and the re-inforcements that were trickling in. At the outbreak of hostilities, the camel corps had a total of 1,475 men to defend the colony. This number also includes a battalion of the Northern Rhodesian Regiment. Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... The Somaliland Camel Corps was a unit of the British Army based in British Somaliland. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ...


Ethiopian irregular forces

Further information: Gideon Force

A significant aspect of the Allied campaign to retake Ethiopia were Ethiopian irregular forces referred to by the British as "patriots" (or Arbegnoch). Wavell expected that these forces would be able to tie down large numbers of Italian units throughout the colony, although Platt in Khartoum did not believe that Hailie Selassie had the support of the majority of the people and was lukewarm towards providing support to the patriot groups.[8] From August 1940 Mission 101 under Colonel Daniel Sandford had been operating successfully in Gojjam province. Its role was to send "Operational Centres" - small groups of officers and NCOs - to supply arms and training to the Ethiopian patriots and coordinate attacks on Italian forces. Sandford, after serving with distinction in World War I, had spent the rest of his career in Ethiopia and the Sudan and had become a close friend and adviser to Hailie Selassie.[9] The Gideon Force was a British-led African guerrilla force fighting the Italian occupation forces in Abyssiania (modern-day Ethiopia) during the World War II. Leader and creator of the force was British major Charles Orde Wingate. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Daniel Sandford (born 1882; died 1972) was an officer in the British Army. ...


Hailie Selassie with the encouragement of Sandford had arrived in Khartoum in July 1940 to a cold reception from Platt.[9] However, Anthony Eden's Khartoum conference in October agreed to boost supplies and support to the Ethiopian irregular forces.[10] Part of the increased support saw the posting in early November of Major Orde Wingate (who had spent five inter-war years with the Sudan Defence Force and was later to gain fame in Burma with the Chindits) to Khartoum as a staff officer with the brief of liaising between Platt, Mission 101 and the Emperor.[8] Here he impressed Hailie Selassie with his drive and enthusiasm. Major General Orde Charles Wingate, DSO (February 26, 1903 – March 24, 1944), was a British major general and creator of two special military units during World War II. // Orde Wingate was born 26 February 1903 in Naini Tal, India to a military family. ... The Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was a Sudanese military unit formed in 1925 during the time of the Anglo-Egyptian co-dominium. ... The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 Indian 3rd Infantry Division) were a British Indian Army Special Force that served in Burma and India from 1942 until 1945 during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long range penetration groups trained...


However, Platt's poor opinion of Hailie Selassie, Sandford, and Wingate meant that he paid little attention to the operation and the resulting lack of clear areas of responsibility and chains of command (together with Wingate's naturally abrasive manner) meant that for the whole campaign there was friction and animosity between Wingate and the other commanders.[11]


Wingate formulated a plan for action in Ethiopia which he presented to Wavell and senior staff in Cairo in early December 1940. The plan included the formation of a small regular force under Wingate to act as a spearhead for military operations in Gojjam. He argued that:

To raise a revolt you must send in a Corps d'Elite to do exploits and not just as peddlers of war material and cash ... A thousand resolute and well-armed men can paralyse 10,000

This force, was named Gideon Force, after the biblical judge Gideon, and was composed of the Frontier battalion from the Sudan Defence Force and the 2nd Ethiopian Battalion. These forces were equipped with four 3-inch mortars (in place of artillery) and 15,000 camels to provide transport and carry supplies. Although he did not formally take command until 6 February 1941, Windgate set off with Gideon Force into Gojjam in January 1941.[12] The Gideon Force was a British-led African guerrilla force fighting the Italian occupation forces in Abyssiania (modern-day Ethiopia) during the World War II. Leader and creator of the force was British major Charles Orde Wingate. ... Gideon (גִּדְעוֹן, Standard Hebrew Gidʻon, Tiberian Hebrew Giḏʻôn), also known as Jerubbaal, is a character that appears in the Book of Judges, in the Bible. ... The Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was a Sudanese military unit formed in 1925 during the time of the Anglo-Egyptian co-dominium. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Gideon Force was able to travel relatively freely throughout the countryside. At any time during its brief history, the Italian East African Empire was only nominally under Italian control. It is estimated that as much as one third of Ethiopia remained under the control of Ethiopian nobles.[13]


The Italians did not endear themselves to the Ethiopians. On 22 May 1936, when General Rodolfo Graziani was made Viceroy of Ethiopia, the Italians may have possibly chosen the man least likely to pacify the country. On 6 June, Mussolini cabled Graziani: "All rebels captured are to be shot." This gave the new Viceroy, infamous for his pacification of Libya, all the power he needed.[14] Soon, Graziani's reputation for brutal repression earned him the title: "the Butcher of Ethiopia." Amedeo, the Duke of Aosta, replaced Graziani as Viceroy in 1937. But he was unable to undo much of the damage Graziani's brutality had already done. is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For their part, the Ethiopian patriots gave the Italian troops every reason to fear losing to them. The Ethiopians did not often take prisoners.[13]


Very important to the success of the operations in north west Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie I crossed the border from Sudan to join the force of Ethiopian patriots. Sizeable patriot forces were already concentrated in the provinces of Gojjam, Shoa, Gimma, Galla-Sidama, and Harage. Ras Desta and Ras Imru, two Ethiopian army commanders from the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and still loyal to Emperor Selassie, had continued a guerilla war against the Italians. They and the forces they commanded awaited the return of the emperor.[15] Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Gojjam, or Gojam, was a province in the north-western part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Debra Markos. ... Shoa may have the following meanings Shoah, or Holocaust Shoa, Ethiopia Part of a famous quote by Brandon ripper Vedas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jimma is the largest city in western Ethiopia; as of 1994 it had a population of 88,867 people. ... Sidamo was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Irgalem, and later at Awasa. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ...

Destroyed British motorized convoy near Berbera (august 1940)
Destroyed British motorized convoy near Berbera (august 1940)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Italian air power

ln June 1940, the Italian Regia Aeronautica (Royal Air Force) in East Africa had between two-hundred and three-hundred combat ready aircraft (Italian East Africa Air Command). Some of these aircraft were outdated, but the Italians also had Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 and Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers and Fiat CR-42 fighters. In relative terms, these were some of the best aircraft available to either side in East Africa in 1940. In addition, the Italian aircraft were often based at better airfields. As the war began, Italian pilots were relatively well trained and condifent of their abilities. But, cut off from Italy as they were, problems with with lack of fuel, munitions, spare parts, replacements started to rise eventually. For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (Italian: Sparrowhawk) was an Italian bomber of World War II. The three-engined airplane served well as torpedo and medium bomber. ... The Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 Pipistrello (Italian: bat) was a three-engined bomber/transport in the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II. History The SM.81 was a development of Savoia-Marchettis earlier SM.73 airliner, with similar cantilever wings, three engines, and fixed tail landing gear. ... The Fiat CR.42 Falco (Falcon) was a biplane which, at the outbreak of World War II, was used as the primary fighter of Italys Regia Aeronautica. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


British and commonwealth air power

The roughly one-hundred aircraft available to the British and Commonwealth forces at the beginning of the campaign were dispersed as follows: In the north (Sudan) were two Royal Air Force (RAF) bomber squadrons at Port Sudan (one of these squadron was equipped with obsolete aircraft) and the RAF Army Co-operation Squadron on the Sudan frontier. In the south (Kenya) were No. 12 Bomber Squadron of the South African Air Force (SAAF) (equipped with Junkers Ju 86 bombers), No. 11 Bomber Squadron of the SAAF (equipped with Fairey Battles), No. 40 Army Co-operation Squadron SAAF (equipped with Hawker Hartebees), No. 2 Fighter Squadron, SAAF (equipped with Hawker Furies), and No. 237 (Southern Rhodesian) Army Co-operation Squadron (equipped with Hawker Hardys). RAF redirects here. ... Location of Port Sudan Port Sudan (Arabic: ‎) is the capital of the state of Red Sea in Sudan and has nearly 475,000 residents. ... The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ... The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s by Junkers. ... Fairey Battle The Fairey Battle was a light bomber of the Royal Air Force built by Fairey Aviation in the late 1930s. ... 40 Squadron SAAF existed as a combat unit from early 1940 through to late 1945. ... The Hawker Hart was a two-seater biplane light-bomber of the Royal Air Force (RAF), which had a prominent role during the RAFs inter-war period. ... The Hawker Fury was a biplane fighter design used by the RAF in the 1930s. ... The Royal Rhodesian Air Force was the air arm of the British colonial state of Rhodesia. ... The Hawker Hart was a two-seater biplane light-bomber of the Royal Air Force (RAF), which had a prominent role during the RAFs inter-war period. ...


Unlike the Italians, the aircraft available to the British and Commonwealth forces got better with time. But, as can be seen above, much of the equipment initially available tended to be older and slower. Even so, the British and Commonwealth forces managed to make do with what they had. The South Africans even pressed an old Valencia biplane into service as a bomber.[16]


Italian Red Sea Flotilla

Further information: Red Sea Flotilla

The Regia Marina (Royal Navy) maintained presence in the Red Sea region with its "Red Sea Flotilla". Most vessels were stationed in the port of Massawa in the Italian colony of Eritrea. However, lesser port facilities existed at Mogadishu in Italian Somaliland and also at Assab in Eritrea. The Red Sea Flotilla included seven destroyers organized into two squadrons, five motor torpedo boats (MTB, or in Italian; Motoscafo Armato Silurante, MAS) organized into one squadron together with eight submarines organized into two squadons. The Italian Red Sea Flotilla was a naval force based in Massawa, Eritria, during the early stages of World War II. The Red Sea Flotilla was active from 10 June 1940 to the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Italian Red Sea Flotilla was a naval force based in Massawa, Eritria, during the early stages of World War II. The Red Sea Flotilla was active from 10 June 1940 to the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... Assab (or Aseb) is a port in Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the US and Royal Navies. ... A MAS-15 of World War I. Motoscafo Armato Silurante (Italian: Torpedo Armed Motorboat, commonly abbreviated as MAS) was a class of fast armed vessel used by the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. Originally, the acronym MAS referred to Motorbarca Armata SVAN (Armed Motorboat SVAN... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


The Italian naval squadrons were viewed by the British as a threat to Allied convoys heading from the Gulf of Aden to the Red Sea.[17] But, as Italian fuel supplies in Massawa dwindled, so did the Italian fleet's opportunity for offensive action in the Red Sea. Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


The Red Sea Flotilla and its homeport of Massawa did however represent a link between Axis occupied Europe and the naval facilities located in the concession zone in Tientsin in China. These Chinese facilities were maintained by Italy. Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... German and other Axis conquests (in blue) in Europe, during World War II. German occupied Europe was the name given to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945. ... In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by another entity than the state which holds sovereignty over it. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


British Eastern Fleet

Further information: Eastern Fleet

The British Eastern Fleet faced the Italian Red Sea Flotilla. Until World War II, the Indian Ocean had been considered a "British lake". The Indian Ocean was ringed by significant British and Commonwealth possessions. Much of the strategic supplies needed by the United Kingdom in both peace and war had to pass across the Indian Ocean. These included: Persian oil, Malayan rubber, Indian tea, and Australian and New Zealand foodstuffs. In war, Britain relied upon the loyalty and manpower of Australia and New Zealand and these had to be transported. Safe passage for British cargo ships was critical. The British Eastern Fleet (also known as the East Indies Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy during World War II. It operated in the Indian Ocean and was based in Trincomalee in Ceylon. ... The British Eastern Fleet (also known as the East Indies Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy during World War II. It operated in the Indian Ocean and was based in Trincomalee in Ceylon. ... The Italian Red Sea Flotilla was a naval force based in Massawa, Eritria, during the early stages of World War II. The Red Sea Flotilla was active from 10 June 1940 to the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...

Italian offensives in Africa during 1940, between June and August
Italian offensives in Africa during 1940, between June and August

Despite this, the Royal Navy had tended to station its older ships in the east and used the China Station and the Far East Station as sources of reinforcements for other theatres. Even when gravely threatened, the Eastern Fleet largely consisted of older capital ships that had been deemed too slow or too vulnerable to be of use in the Atlantic Ocean or the Mediterranean Sea. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The China Station was one of the geographical divisions into which the Royal Navy divided its world-wide responsibilities. ... The China Station was one of the geographical divisions into which the British Royal Navy divided its world-wide responsibilities. ... The British Eastern Fleet (also known as the East Indies Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy during World War II. It operated in the Indian Ocean and was based in Trincomalee in Ceylon. ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Opening moves

Starting in June 1940, the Italians tested the resolve of the British and Commonwealth forces along the borders of the Sudan and Kenya and in the shipping lanes of the Red Sea. For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


On 13 June, early in the morning, three Italian Caproni bombers appeared and bombed the Rhodesian air base at the fort located at Wajir in Kenya. The Rhodesian aircraft were still warming up and preparing to take-off on a dawn patrol. The Capronis bombed the fort, the landing-ground, and nearby housing. The King's African Rifles (KAR), then garrisoning the fort, lost four killed and eleven wounded. Two Rhodesian aircraft were badly damaged and a large dump of aviation fuel was set on fire. Following this, the air base at Wajir received regular visits from the Italians every second or third day and the Rhodesian pilots were made to realize the significant shortcomings in speed and fire-power of the Hawker Hardys they themselves flew. is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Caproni Ca. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Wajir is a town in North Eastern Province, Kenya. ... The Kings African Rifles (KAR) was a British colonial regiment in East Africa from 1902 until the independence of the various colonies in the 1960s. ... The Hawker Hart was a two-seater biplane light-bomber of the Royal Air Force (RAF), which had a prominent role during the RAFs inter-war period. ...


At dawn on 17 June, the Rhodesians struck back and supported a successful raid by the KAR on the Italian desert outpost of El Wak in Italian Somaliland, some ninety miles northeast of Wajir. The Rhodesians bombed and set alight the thatched mud huts and generally harassed the enemy troops. But, since the main fighting at that time was centered around Italian advances towards Moyale in Kenya, the Rhodesians concentrated on that town. In conjunction with the South African Air Force, the Rhodesians undertook the task of reconnaissance and bombing in that disputed area. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Moyale is a town on the border of Ethiopia and Kenya, with parts of it existing in both countries. ... The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ...


Early in July, Italian forces in Eritrea crossed the Sudan border and forced the small British garrison holding the railway junction at Kassala to withdraw. The Italians also seized the small British fort at Gallabat, just over the border from Metemma, some 200 miles to the south of Kassala. Even the villages of Ghezzan, Kurmuk and Dumbode on the blue Nile were conquered. Having taken Kassala and Gallabat, however, the Italians decided to venture no further - because of lack of fuel - and they proceeded to fortify Kassala with anti-tank defences, machine-gun posts, and strong-points. The Italians sent a brigade-strong garrison to Kassala. July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... Gallabat is a village in the Sudanese state of Al Qadarif. ... Metemma is a village in western Ethiopia, on the border with Sudan. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...


In Kenya, after heavy fighting, the Italians occupied "Fort Harrington" in Moyale. At the end of July, Italian forces reached Debel and Buna. These small villages, nearly one-hundred kilometers from the Ethiopian-Kenyan border, were to be the deepest points inside Kenya reached by the Italian army. Moyale is a town on the border of Ethiopia and Kenya, with parts of it existing in both countries. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Buna refers to: Bunna Lawrie, an Aboriginal musician in Australia HMAS Buna (L-132), a Landing craft of the Balikpapan class in the Royal Australian Navy from 1973 to 1974, then given to Papua New Guinea A village on the north coast of Papua-New Guinea, where the Battle of...


In the first days of August, an Italian force of irregular Eritreans raided,Port Sudan[18] as a prelude to the Italian campaign to conquer British Somaliland. For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... Location of Port Sudan Port Sudan (Arabic: ‎) is the capital of the state of Red Sea in Sudan and has nearly 475,000 residents. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


French Somaliland

Initially, an Italian force was assembled to capture the port city of Djibouti, the major French base in French Somaliland (modern Djibouti). The French commander, Brigadier-General Paul Legentilhomme, had some 7,000 men in seven battalions of Senegalese and Somali infantry. Legentilhomme also had three batteries of field guns, four batteries of anti-aircraft guns, a company of light tanks, four companies of militia and irregulars, two platoons of camel corps, and an assortment of aircraft. But, after the fall of France in June 1940, the Vichy French government's neutrality allowed the Italians to shift their focus to the more lightly defended British Somaliland.[19] The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... Paul Legentilhomme (Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme) (born 1884; died 1975) was an officer in the French Army during World War I and World War II. After the fall of France in 1940, he joined the forces of the Free French. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


On 18 June 1940, Legentilhomme left French Somaliland and joined the Free French. But French Somaliland, the colony Legentilhomme once commanded, remained Vichy until 28 December 1942.[20] is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Italian invasion of British Somaliland

Main article: Italian conquest of British Somaliland
Italian invasion of British Somaliland in August 1940.
Italian invasion of British Somaliland in August 1940.

On 3 August 1940, approximately 25,000 Italian troops invaded British Somaliland. The Italians were commanded by General Guglielmo Nasi.[21] Combatants United Kingdom British India British Somaliland N. Rhodesia British East Africa Italy Italian East Africa Commanders Alfred Godwin-Austen Arthur Chater Guglielmo Nasi Carlo De Simone Strength 4,000 24,000 Casualties 38 killed[1] 71 wounded[1] 49 missing[1] Total:205[2] Destroyed British convoy near Berbera... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Guglielmo Ciro Nasi (born 21 February 1879; died 21 September 1971) was an Italian General who fought in the Italian East Africa during World War II. // Nasi was born in Civitavecchia, Italy. ...


The Italian force attacking British Somaliland in August included five colonial brigades, three Blackshirt battalions, and three bands (banda) of native troops.[22] The Italians had armoured vehicles (a small number of both light and medium tanks), artillery, and, for the moment, superior air support. For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... The L3/35 was an Italian tankette that was developed along the lines of the British Carden-Loyd Mark VI and first appeared as the CV 29 (CV stod for Carro Veloce, fast tank) later built as the CV33 in 1933, but was retrofitted as the CV35 in 1935 and... The Fiat M11/39 was an Italian light tank used from 1939 through World War II. Designed as a breakthrough tank, its career was cut short due to shortcomings such as a weak hull-mounted 37 mm gun and armor that was too light. ...


The Italians were opposed by a British contingent of about four-thousand men consisting of the Somaliland Camel Corps (commanded by Colonel Arthur Reginald Chater), elements of the 2nd (Nyasaland) Battalion King's African Rifles (KAR) and the 1st Battalion Northern Rhodesian Regiment, the 3rd Battalion 15th Punjab Regiment, and the 2nd Battalion Black Watch.[23][24] The Somaliland Camel Corps was a unit of the British Army based in British Somaliland. ... Arthur Reginald Chater CB, CVO, DSO, OBE (born 1896; died 1979) was an officer in the British Army (Royal Marines) during World War I and World War II. During the Gallipoli Campaign, Chater was in the Chatham Battalion of the Royal Marine Brigade at Kaba Tepe. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Kings African Rifles (KAR) was a British colonial regiment in East Africa from 1902 until the independence of the various colonies in the 1960s. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... The 2nd Battalion, Black Watch was fromed in 1881 when the 42nd Regiment of Foot and the 73rd Regiment of Foot were amalgamated to form the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) . Categories: | ... For other uses, see Black Watch (disambiguation). ...


The Italians advanced in three columns, with the western column advancing towards Zeila, the central column towards Hargeisa, and the eastern column towards Odweina in the south. Lieutenant-General Carlo De Simone commanded the strong central column. Colonel Chater, used his camel corps to skirmish with and screen against the advancing Italians as the other British and Commonwealth forces pulled back towards Tug Argan. Saylac (also Seyla`, Seelaac, Zeila, Zeyla, Zeylac, Zayla, Séyla‘, Seylac, 11. ... Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa, Arabic: هرجيسا) is a city in Northwestern Somalia and the second largest city in Somalia. ... Carlo De Simone (born 1885) was an officer in the Italian Army during World War II. During most of the East African Campaign, Lieutenant-General De Simone commanded Italian forces in southern Italian Somaliland. ... Arthur Reginald Chater CB, CVO, DSO, OBE (born 1896; died 1979) was an officer in the British Army (Royal Marines) during World War I and World War II. During the Gallipoli Campaign, Chater was in the Chatham Battalion of the Royal Marine Brigade at Kaba Tepe. ...


Battle of Tug Argan

On 5 August, within two days of the invasion, the towns of Zeila and Hargeisa were taken. The occupation of Zeila effectively sealed British Somaliland off from French Somaliland. Odweina fell the following day and the Italian central and eastern columns combined to launch attacks against the main British and Commonwealth positions at Tug Argan. is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 7 August the British and Commonwealth forces in British Somaliland received reinforcements with the arrival of the 1st Battalion 2nd Punjab Regiment.[24] On 11 August, a new commander, Major-General Reade Godwin-Austen, reached Tug Argan. is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The appearance of a Sikh Soldier The British Indian Army had a number of Punjab regiments in its fold which was amalgamated to form two regiments, namely the 1st and the 2nd Punjab. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen (born 1889; died 1963) was a British officer during World War II. During the East African Campaign, Godwin-Austen commanded the British forces in British Somaliland when the Italians invaded the colony in 1940. ...


But, early on 15 August, Godwin-Austen concluded that further resistance to the Italians would be futile in Tug Argan. He contacted the British Middle East Command headquarters in Cairo, Egypt. Godwin-Austen requested and received permission to withdraw his forces from British Somaliland. The determined effort of the Black Watch battalion, which covered the retreat, allowed the entire British and Commonwealth contingent to withdraw to Berbera with reduced losses. By 17 August, most of the contigent was successfully evacuated from Berbera to Aden. Rather than evacuate, the Somaliland Camel Corps was disbanded. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Watch (disambiguation). ... Berbera (Somali Berbera) (coordinates:) is a city in the newly established Saaxil region of Somalia, and is currently part of the internationally unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... The Somaliland Camel Corps was a unit of the British Army based in British Somaliland. ...


Aftermath of the Italian invasion of British Somaliland

On 19 August 1940, the Italians took control of Berbera and then moved down the coast to complete their conquest of British Somaliland. The British colony was annexed to Italian East Africa.[25] is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


British and Commonwealth losses in the short campaign were relatively low:[26]

  • 38 killed in action (KIA)
  • 71 wounded
  • 49 missing

By contrast, the Italians losses were almost ten times that of the British:

The British Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, criticized General Archibald Wavell concerning the loss of British Somaliland. It was Wavell's Middle East Command which was responsible for the loss of the colony. Because of the low casualty rate, Churchill fretted that the British had abandoned the colony without enough of a fight. Colonial troops or colonial army refers to various military units usually used as garrison troops in various colonies. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ...


In response to this criticism, Wavell claimed that Somaliland was a textbook withdrawal in the face of superior numbers. He pointed out to Churchill that "A bloody butcher’s bill is not the sign of a good tactician." According to Churchill's staff, Wavell's retort moved Churchill to greater fury than they had ever seen before.[27]


The conquest of the British Somaliland was the only campaign Italy achieved victory in without the support of other Axis troops during World War II. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...

Italian M11/39 tanks in action at Zeila, British Somaliland, on August 1940.
Italian M11/39 tanks in action at Zeila, British Somaliland, on August 1940.

The main insights from this campaign are the following: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fiat M11/39 was an Italian light tank used from 1939 through World War II. Designed as a breakthrough tank, its career was cut short due to shortcomings such as a weak hull-mounted 37 mm gun and armor that was too light. ...

  • The invasion of British Somaliland showed that Italian forces could co-ordinate columns separated by many miles of desert.
  • British forces showed good discipline in the retreat and were able to salvage most of their forces.
  • The invasion of British Somaliland was the first campaign the Italians won in World War II.
  • British Somaliland was the first British colony to fall to enemy forces in World War II.
  • After the first months of the war were over, Mussolini boasted that Italy had conquered a territory the size of England in the Horn of Africa. Even if the Italians had nothing to show for their offensive efforts except for the colony of British Somaliland, the Sudanese border outposts of Karora, Gallabat, Kurmak and Kassala, and the area in Kenya around Moyale and Buna.

Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Horn of Africa. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... Moyale is a town on the border of Ethiopia and Kenya, with parts of it existing in both countries. ... Buna refers to: Bunna Lawrie, an Aboriginal musician in Australia HMAS Buna (L-132), a Landing craft of the Balikpapan class in the Royal Australian Navy from 1973 to 1974, then given to Papua New Guinea A village on the north coast of Papua-New Guinea, where the Battle of...

Action at sea

The Italian Red Sea Flotilla saw early action as they attempted to make their presence known. But they introduced themselves at a high cost. In mid to late June, four of the eight submarines based in Massawa were lost. On 15 June, the Italian submarine Macalle ran aground and was a total loss. On 16 June 1940, the Italian submarine Galileo Galilei sank the Norwegian tanker James Stove approximately 12 miles south of Aden. On 18 June, the Galileo Galilei captured the Yugoslav steamship Dravo but, in the end, released it. On 19 June, the Galileo Galilei was on patrol off of Aden and encountered the armed trawler Moonstone. During a gun duel, the commander of the Galileo Galilei was killed, and the submarine was then captured by the armed trawler. On 23 June, in the Gulf of Aden but off of French Somaliland, the Italian submarine "Evangelista Toricelli" was sunk by the British destroyers Kandahar and Kingston with assistance from the sloop Shoreham. During this action, the British destroyer Khartoum suffered an internal explosion and sank in shallow water off Perim Island. The British destroyer was a total loss. Later on 23 June, the Italian submarine Luigi Galvani sank the Indian patrol sloop Pathan in the Indian Ocean. However, on 24 June, the Luigi Galvani was sunk by the sloop Falmouth in the Gulf of Oman. The Italian Red Sea Flotilla was a naval force based in Massawa, Eritria, during the early stages of World War II. The Red Sea Flotilla was active from 10 June 1940 to the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian submarine Galileo Galilei was an Italian Archimede class submarine, serving in the Regia Marina during World War II before its capture by the Royal Navy in 1942. ... Tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... HMS Kandahar (F28) was a K-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Kingston (F64) was a K-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by J. Samuel White and Company at Cowes on the Isle of Wight on 6 October 1937, launched on 9 January 1939 and commissioned on 14 September 1939. ... The Shoreham class sloops were a class of eight small British warships built in the early 1930s. ... The J, K and N class was a class of 24 destroyers of the Royal Navy launched in 1938. ... Perim is a volcanic island in the Strait of Mandeb off the southwestern coast of Yemen. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Shoreham class sloops were a class of eight small British warships built in the early 1930s. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of...


During the time between the Italian conquest of British Somaliland and the Allied counter-offensive, much attention shifted to the naval sphere and to the activities of the Italian Red Sea Flotilla. Fuel and parts shortages continued to hamper the ability of the Italian flotilla to interfere with either convoys or even individual vessels of the vessels of the British Eastern Fleet. Combatants United Kingdom British India British Somaliland N. Rhodesia British East Africa Italy Italian East Africa Commanders Alfred Godwin-Austen Arthur Chater Guglielmo Nasi Carlo De Simone Strength 4,000 24,000 Casualties 38 killed[1] 71 wounded[1] 49 missing[1] Total:205[2] Destroyed British convoy near Berbera... The Italian Red Sea Flotilla was a naval force based in Massawa, Eritria, during the early stages of World War II. The Red Sea Flotilla was active from 10 June 1940 to the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941. ... The British Eastern Fleet (also known as the East Indies Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy during World War II. It operated in the Indian Ocean and was based in Trincomalee in Ceylon. ...


On 13 August, the Italian submarine Gauleo Ferraras tried to intercept the British battleship Royal Sovereign in the Red Sea. Royal Sovereign, coming from Suez, escaped the Italian ambush and made it safely to Aden. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Royal Sovereign, launched in May 1915, was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ...


On 6th September, the Italian submarine Guglielmo waited for prey south of the Farasan Islands. The Guglielmo succeeded in torpedoing and sinking only one ship, the oil tanker Atlas. September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Farasan Islands (Arabic: جزر فرسان; transliterated: Juzur Farasan) is a large coral island group in the Red Sea, belonging to Saudi Arabia. ...


Between 20 October and 21 October, the Italian submarines Guglielmo and Gauleo Ferraras tried to intercept a large British Red Sea convoy coming from the Indian Ocean and sailing to Port Sudan and Suez. The BN7 convoy included 31 cargo vessels escorted by the New Zealand cruiser Leander the British destroyer Kimberley and five sloops. The convoy also had an air escort provided by 50 fighters and bombers based in Aden. The Guglielmo and Gauleo Ferraras did not succeed in intercepting the convoy. Later, the same convoy was intercepted and attacked by three Italian destroyers. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Port Sudan Port Sudan (Arabic: ‎) is the capital of the state of Red Sea in Sudan and has nearly 475,000 residents. ... HMNZS Leander was the lead ship of her class of light cruisers. ...


On 21 November, the British Red Sea convoy BN7 was attacked by the Italian destroyers Pantera, Leone and Francesco Nullo' The convoy escorts drove the Italian destroyers off. Two of the convoy escorts, the New Zealand cruiser Leander and the British destroyer Kimberley drove the Italian destroyer Francesco Nullo ashore with their combined gunfire. The Francesco Nullo was destroyed the next day by Royal Air Force (RAF) Blenheim light bombers. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Bristol Blenheim is also the name of the main model produced by Bristol Cars since 1994. ...


The armed merchant cruiser Ramb I broke out of Massawa with the colonial ship Eritrea and the armed merchant cruiser Ramb II The Ramb I and Ramb II were known as auxiliary cruisers or merchant raiders, armed ships which disguised themselves as noncombatant merchant vessels. Ramb I and Ramb II were relatively modern and fast. They had been transformed into auxiliary cruisers with the installation of four 120 mm guns and some 13.2 mm anti-aircraft machine guns. The Eritrea was similar in concept, but, while older and slower, was able to carry more cargo. The Eritrea was armed with four 120mm guns, two 40mm guns, and two 13.2 mm machine guns. On 27 February 1941, the Ramb I was located off of the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean by the New Zealand cruiser Leander and was sunk. Both the Eritrea and the Ramb II evaded detection and reached Kobe, Japan.[28] Armed Merchantmen were merchant ships taken over by their nations navies, equipped with guns, and then used for military purposes. ... Built at Ansaldo in 1937 as the first of four sisters of the Regia Azienda Monopolio Banane, for transporting refrigerated bananas from Somaliland and Eritrea, Ramb I was designed to become an auxillary cruiser for commerce raiding in the event of war. ... The Italian auxiliary cruiser Ramb II was built at Monfalcone by the Re-United Yards of the Adriatic (Cantieri Riuniti dell Adriatico, CRDA} in 1937. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Merchant raiders are ships which disguise themselves as noncombatant merchant vessels, whilst actually being armed and intending to atttack enemy vessels. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Built at Ansaldo in 1937 as the first of four sisters of the Regia Azienda Monopolio Banane, for transporting refrigerated bananas from Somaliland and Eritrea, Ramb I was designed to become an auxillary cruiser for commerce raiding in the event of war. ... The Republic of Maldives is a country consisting territorially of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ...


Britain applies initial pressure

The Indian 5th Infantry Division started to arrive in the Sudan in early September 1940. Soon after, a surprise attack was staged to take back Gallabat. The attacking force comprised William "Bill" Slim's Indian 10th Infantry Brigade of the Indian 5th Infantry Division. Slim was accompanied by a squadron of 12 medium and light tanks, a field regiment of artillery, and supported by the RAF.[29] The attack began with the successful capture of Gallabat on 6 November. This was followed by an assault on Metemma, on the other side of the ravine forming the border. However, Lieutenant-General Luigi Frusci, acting Governor of Eritrea and commander of the Italian forces there, was not prepared to relinquish the Italian-held positions in the Sudan. The Italian defenders occupied strong prepared positions and, once Slim's attack began, were supported by a fierce onslaught from the counter-attacking Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica). Italian aircraft appeared from Gondar in great strength. The Italian airmen shot down seven RAF Gloster Gladiators whilst losing five Fiat CR-42s and, for forty-eight hours, proceeded to methodically bomb the 1st Battalion Essex Regiment and the 3rd Battalion 18th Royal Garwhal Rifles. The Italians did this until the British and Commonwealth troops were compelled to withdraw from the positions they had just won. The 10th Indian Brigade re-occupied the ridge west of Gallabat three days later but the operation against Metemma was not continued.[30] Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gallabat is a village in the Sudanese state of Al Qadarif. ... Field Marshal Sir William Slim (pictured here as a Major General) Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (6 August 1897 - 14 December 1970), British military commander and 13th Governor-General of Australia, was born near Bristol, Gloucestershire. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... Gallabat is a village in the Sudanese state of Al Qadarif. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metemma is a village in western Ethiopia, on the border with Sudan. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Luigi Frusci (born 1879; died 1949) was an officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II. In April 1936, Frusci commanded the center column of three columns during General Rudolfo Grazianis advance on the southern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... Gloster Gladiator photographed in England in 2002 The Gloster Gladiator was a biplane fighter, used by the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy, as well as a number of other air forces, during World War II. The aircraft had a top speed of around 414 km/h. ... The Fiat CR.42 Falco (Falcon) was a biplane which, at the outbreak of World War II, was used as the primary fighter of Italys Regia Aeronautica. ... The Essex Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...


For the next two months, the 10th Indian Brigade and, after them, the 9th Indian Brigade (who relieved the 10th Brigade in December) simulated the activities of a full division. The brigades blazed lines of communication east from Gedaref and created dummy airfields and stores depots to convince Italian Intelligence that Platt's main thrust would be towards Gondar rather than Kassala.[31] Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Al Qadarif (also called Gedarif) (Arabic: القضارف) is the capital of the state of Al Qadarif in Sudan. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ...


On 16 October, Gazelle Force was created in the Sudan as a mobile reconnaissance and fighting force. It comprised three motor machine-gun companies from the Sudan Defence Force, the 1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse (the reconnaissance regiment from the Indian 5th Infantry Division), and some mobile artillery. Gazelle Force was commanded by Colonel Frank Messervy.[32] is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sudan Defence Force (SDF) was a Sudanese military unit formed in 1925 during the time of the Anglo-Egyptian co-dominium. ... Originally raised 1803 as Skinner’s Horse by James Skinner (Sikander Sahib) as an irregular cavalry regiment in the service of the Honourable East Indian Company (HEICS), the regiment became (and remains) the senior cavalry regiment of the Indian Army. ... General Sir Frank Messervy General Sir Frank Walter Messervy, KCSI, KBE, CB, DSO, (1893 - 1974) was a British officer in both the First and Second World Wars and was the first Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Royal Army (15 August 1947 – 10 February 1948 or Aug 1948?). He became...


Throughout November, December, and early January, Lieutenant-General William Platt continued to apply constant pressure on the Italians all along the border with the Sudan. He applied this pressure by continuous patrolling and raiding with both his ground troops and his air force. During this time, better British aircraft started to replace some of the older models. The British and Commonwealth air forces were now starting to get Hawker Hurricanes and more Gloster Gladiators. The Hurricanes were superior to the Italian Fiat CR-42 fighters and the Gladiators were at least their equal. Both the Hurricanes and the Gladiators were capable of playing havoc with Italian Savoia-Marchetti bombers. For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... Gloster Gladiator photographed in England in 2002 The Gloster Gladiator was a biplane fighter, used by the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy, as well as a number of other air forces, during World War II. The aircraft had a top speed of around 414 km/h. ... The Fiat CR.42 Falco (Falcon) was a biplane which, at the outbreak of World War II, was used as the primary fighter of Italys Regia Aeronautica. ... Savoia-Marchetti was an Italian aircraft company founded in 1915 by Umberto Savoia. ...


On 6 December, a large concentration of Italian motor transport was bombed and strafed by Commonwealth aircraft a few miles north of Kassala. The same aircraft then proceeded to machine-gun from low level the nearby positions of the Italian Blackshirts and colonial infantry. A few days later, the same aircraft bombed the Italian base at Keru, fifty miles east of Kassala. The Commonealth pilots had the satisfaction of seeing supply dumps, stores, and transport enveloped in flame and smoke as they flew away. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Keru is a city in Eritrea. ...


One morning in mid-December, a force of Italian fighters paid a visit to a Rhodesian landing-strip near Kassala. The Italians strafed some Hawker Hardys caught on the ground. As a result of the Italian attack, several aircraft were destroyed. However, while successful, the attack resulted in no casualties. Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... The Hawker Hart was a two-seater biplane light-bomber of the Royal Air Force (RAF), which had a prominent role during the RAFs inter-war period. ...


Italians adopt a defensive posture

After the conquest of British Somaliland, the Italians adopted a more defensive posture. Throughout late 1940, the setbacks suffered by Italian forces elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea, in the Western Desert, in the skies over Britain, and on the Albanian border with Greece prompted the new Italian Chief-of-the-General-Staff in Rome, General Ugo Cavallero, to adopt a new course of action in East Africa. In December 1940, he argued to the Italian High Command that the Italian forces in East Africa should abandon offensive actions against the Sudan and against the Suez Canal. Instead, Cavallero argued that Italy should focus on defending the Italian East African Empire.[33] Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... Combatants Western Desert Force United Kingdom Indian Empire Australia Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli Strength 31,000 soldiers(december 1940 250,000)[1] 120 artillery pieces 275 tanks 60 Armoured cars 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 500 dead... The Corpo Aereo Italiano (C.A.I.) was an Italian expeditionary force participating in the Battle of Britain during the final months of 1940. ... Combatants Italy Albania Greece United Kingdom Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 50,874 wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Ugo Cavallero Conte Ugo Cavallero (September 20, 1880 – September 13, 1943) was a prominent Italian military commander before and during World War II. Born in Piemonte, Italy, Cavallero had a privileged childhood as a member of the Italian nobility. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, also requested permission to withdraw from the Sudanese frontier. In response to Cavallero and the Duke of Aosta, the Italian Supreme Command (Commando Supremo) in Rome issued orders for the Italian forces in East Africa to withdraw to better defensive positions. Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


Orders were sent to Lieutenant-General Luigi Frusci for him to withdraw his forces from Kassala and Metemma in the lowlands along the Sudanese border with Eritrea. Instead, Frusci was ordered to hold the more easily defended mountain passes on the roads running eastward from Kassala to Agordat and from Metemma to Gondar. However, Frusci chose not withdraw from the lowland. He argued that withdrawal would involve too great a loss of prestige. Furthermore, Kassala was an important railway junction. By holding it, the Italians prevented the British from using the railway to carry supplies from Port Sudan on the Red Sea coast to the base at Gedaref.[33] Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Luigi Frusci (born 1879; died 1949) was an officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II. In April 1936, Frusci commanded the center column of three columns during General Rudolfo Grazianis advance on the southern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... Metemma is a village in western Ethiopia, on the border with Sudan. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... Agordat (also Akordat or Akordat, Geez ኣቆርዳት) was the former capital of the now defunct Barka Province of Eritrea (present day Gash-Barka). ... Metemma is a village in western Ethiopia, on the border with Sudan. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Location of Port Sudan Port Sudan (Arabic: ‎) is the capital of the state of Red Sea in Sudan and has nearly 475,000 residents. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Al Qadarif (also called Gedarif) (Arabic: القضارف) is the capital of the state of Al Qadarif in Sudan. ...


Information of the Italian withdrawal was quickly decrypted by the British and, knowing the Italian plans, Lieutenant-General William Platt was able to start his offensive into Eritrea on 18 January 1941, three weeks ahead of schedule.[34] Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Allied counter-offensive

Further information: Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II)

After the fall of British Somaliland, General Archibald Wavell's plan for the counter-offensive by British and Commonwealth forces included a "northern front" led by Lieutenant-General William Platt and a "southern front" led by Lieutenant-General Alan Cunningham. A third front would be created by the forces which re-took British Somaliland by sea. The Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II) shows the ground forces available on both sides in East Africa when the Italians declared war. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Alan Cunningham, British Army Officer Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1st May 1887 _ 30th January 1983) was a British Army officer noted for victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II. He was the younger brother of the renowned Admiral Andrew Cunningham. ...


Simply put, Wavell planned for Platt to advance southward from the Sudan, through Eritrea, and into Ethiopia and for Cunningham to advance northwards from Kenya, through Italian Somaliland, and into Ethiopia. While Platt advanced from the north and Cunningham from the south, Wavell planned for a third force to be landed in British Somaliland in an amphibious assault and to then re-take that colony prior to advancing into Ethiopia. According to the plan, all three forces were to ultimately join forces at the capital of Italian East Africa, Addis Ababa. Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


The capture of Italian East Africa would remove land-based threats to supplies and reinforcements coming from Australia, India, South Africa, and British East Africa and passing through the Suez Canal for the campaign in North Africa and open the overland route from Cape Town to Cairo. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


Emperor Salassie returns to Ethiopia

On 18 January 1941, Emperor Selassie crossed the border near the village of Um Iddla. Two days later he joined Gideon Force which was already in Ethiopia. The standard of the Lion of Judah was raised again.[35] is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Gideon Force was a British-led African guerrilla force fighting the Italian occupation forces in Abyssiania (modern-day Ethiopia) during the World War II. Leader and creator of the force was British major Charles Orde Wingate. ... Lion of Judah has its origins in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) where the Israelite tribe of Judah had the lion as its symbol. ...


The crossing was made some 450 miles northwest of Addis Ababa, the capital Emperor Salassie was forced to flee when the Italian General Pietro Badoglio captured the city from the Ethiopians on 5 May 1936 during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ...


Emperor Selassie and Gideon Force under Major Orde Wingate conducted a campaign for the next three months in the Ethiopian province of Gojjam where they initially faced opposing forces of about 25,000 men.[36] Emperor Selassie and Gideon Force rallied Ethiopian patriots wherever they went using powerful loudspeakers which had been supplied to the patriot forces to announce the presence of the emperor and inducing local tribal leaders and Italian askaris to desert the Italian cause.[36] Using surprise and bluff, this relatively small force disrupted Italian supply lines and provided important intelligence to the more conventional British and Commonwealth forces. Major General Orde Charles Wingate, DSO (February 26, 1903 – March 24, 1944), was a British major general and creator of two special military units during World War II. // Orde Wingate was born 26 February 1903 in Naini Tal, India to a military family. ... Gojjam, or Gojam, was a province in the north-western part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Debra Markos. ... A drawing of an East African Askari in German service by Wilhelm Kuhnert Askari is an Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Swahili word meaning soldier (Arabic: ‘askarī). It was normally used to describe indigenous troops in East Africa and the Middle East serving in the armies of European colonial powers. ...


In March, there was a furious clash between Colonel Daniel Sandford and Wingate. Sandford maintained in a signal to headquarters in Khartoum that the resources being absorbed by Wingate for the "comparatively slow advance of [his] conventional forces" was "paralysing Patriot activities by diverting rifles, ammunition and pack saddles exclusively to Wingate's force, instead of giving equal priority to the Patriots" which would have a greater impact through swift and dispersed action not just in Gojjam but with the assistance of Mission 101, in other provinces as well. This was followed by a signal of rebuttal from Wingate to Platt who had to rebuke them both.[37] The dispute overflowed into Wingate's formations leading to the mutiny of the 2nd Ethiopian Battalion at the start of April. Wingate had to leave his sick-bed (he was suffering from an attack of malaria) to dismiss the battalion's commander, after which it rallied to its new leader and performed well for the rest of the campaign.[38] Daniel Sandford (born 1882; died 1972) was an officer in the British Army. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ...


On 6 March 1941, Ethiopia's "Patriots" won their first victory when they took Bure. There was no resistance. Bombed by the Royal Air Force and besieged by Sudanese and Ethiopian irregular forces, the 6,000-man Italian garrison had slipped out in the night. The Italians in Burye had resisted for a week. But an attack on their communications by the guerrilla leader Haile Yusuf forced them to withdraw. However, the Italians did destroy one Ethiopian battalion blocking their retreat.[citation needed] is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Bure is a town in western Ethiopia. ... RAF redirects here. ...


The American United Press Agency reported:[citation needed] "The East African war has turned into a race to Addis Ababa between the army of Abyssinian volunteers and the mechanised South African troops who stand in such remarkable contrast to each other. The South African troops are advancing from Mogadishu toward Harar, which lies about 30 miles from the Djibouti-Addis Ababa railway line."


In less than three months, Gideon force and an ever growing army of Ethiopian patriots were advancing on the Italian fortifications at Debra Marqos, the capital of Gojjam. Because of the critical situation to the south the Duke of Aosta ordered the withdrawal from Debra Marqos and on 4 April 12,000 people (including 4,000 women) under their commander, Colonel Maraventano, began the 200 mile treck to Safartak and then beyond to Dessie. On 6 April Hailie Selassie entered Debra Marqos and was formally greeted by Wingate, Gideon Force and Ras Hailu the powerful local patriot leader.[39] is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While Debra Markos and Addis Derra were being captured, other Ethiopian patriots under Ras Abeba Aregai consolidated themselves around Addis Ababa in preparation for Emperor Sellassie's return. In response to the rapidly advancing British and Commonwealth forces and to the general uprising of Ethiopian patriots, the Italians in Ethiopia retreated to the mountain fortresses of Gondar, Amba Alagi, Dessie, and Gimma.[40] Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Ambi-Alagi is a remote area in Ethiopia between Asmara and Addis Ababa. ... Dessie or Dese is a city in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, with a population as of 1994 of 97,314 people. ... Jimma is the largest city in western Ethiopia; as of 1994 it had a population of 88,867 people. ...


From Debra Marqos, Wingate followed the retreating Italians and undertook a series of harrying actions. In early May most of Gideon Force had to break off in order to provide a suitable escort for Hailie Salassie's formal entry into Addis Ababa. Following the ceremonials Wingate returned to Safforce, the main Mission 101 force which was harassing Maraventano's column. By 18 May the column was dug in at Agibor. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Both sides by this time were short of food, ammunition, water and medical supplies. Wingate, sent a message of complete bluff to Maraventano telling of very substantial forces about to join him and playing on the likely imminent withdrawal of British troops leaving the Italian column at the mercy of the Patriots. By 21 May, having referred the matter to higher authority in Gondar which had left the decision to him, Maraventano indicated an intention to surrender with the formal honours taking place on 23 May. Wingate accepted the surrender of 1,100 Italian and 5,000 colonial troops, 2,000 women and children and 1,000 mule men and camp followers. By this time his force contained only 36 regular soldiers to make the formal guard of honour at the surrender, the rest of his force being patriots.[41] is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 18 May, a small part of Gideon Force led by the explorer Wilfred Thesiger blocked a force of 2,500 retreating Italians. On 24 May, thinking he faced superior numbers, the Italian commander agreed to surrender to Thesiger. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Wilfred Patrick Thesiger KBE, DSO (3 June 1910 – August 24, 2003) was a British explorer and travel writer born in Addis Ababa in Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Campaign in Eritrea

On 12 January, Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, sent his elite Savoy Grenadiers Division to defend Keren. The Italian force at Keren soon included 3 colonial brigades and the Savoy Grenadiers. The Italians at Keren also included battalions of elite mountain troops (Alpini) and highly-mobile infantry (Bersaglieri). is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ... Keren is the third largest city in Eritrea, lying north west of Asmara, with a population of around 75,000 people. ... The Alpini are a highly decorated elite infantry corps of the Italian Army. ... The Bersaglieri are a corps of the Italian army created by General Alessandro Lamarmora in 1836. ...

Northern front: Allied advances in 1941
Northern front: Allied advances in 1941

Lieutenant-General Platt's attack from the Sudan to take Eritrea could only begin once re-inforcements arrived from Egypt, in the meantime he continued to conduct harrying raids on Italian positions. The arrival of an Australian division in Egypt allowed General Wavell to release the Indian 4th Infantry Division from Operation Compass in the Western Desert. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... Combatants Western Desert Force United Kingdom Indian Empire Australia Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli Strength 31,000 soldiers(december 1940 250,000)[1] 120 artillery pieces 275 tanks 60 Armoured cars 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 500 dead... Combatants  Australia Free France  New Zealand  Poland South Africa  United Kingdom India Italy Germany Commanders to June 22 1941: Archibald Wavell to August 8 1942: Claude Auchinleck to February 1943: Harold Alexander Ugo Cavallero Rodolfo Graziani Erwin Rommel The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War was the...


The arrival of the Indian 4th Infantry Division, together with intelligence concerning the Italian plans, greatly aided Platt's plans. The main British attack on Eritrea, originally scheduled to start on February 8 with an attack against the railway junction at Kassala, was brought forward to January 18.[42] However, the aggressive skirmishing in the previous month had prompted the Italians to withdraw from Kassala and Tessenei on 17 January to concentrate in the Keru - Biscia - Aicota triangle where the mountains began.[43] Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Platt's forces advance into Eritrea

On January 19, 1941, Lieutenant-General Platt's two divisions, the Indian 4th Infantry Division, commanded by Major-General Noel Beresford-Peirse and the Indian 5th Infantry Division, commanded by Major-General Lewis Heath, entered Kassala making for the heavily fortified town of Agordat to the east. On that first day, as the British and Commonwealth troops passed through Kassala, the Italians were already dug in among the jagged foothills of the Eritrean Plateau on the approaches to Agordat.[43] is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Sir William Platt (born 1885; died 1975) was an officer in the British Army during World War I and World War II. Platt was educated at Marlborough College and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. ... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Noel Monson de la Poer Beresford-Pierce, KBE CB DSO (Born 22nd December 1887 - Died 14th January 1953 ) was a British Army officer. ... Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... Lieutenant-General Sir Lewis Macclesfield Heath, KBE, CB, CIE, DSO, MC (1885-1954) was a British Army officer and general during World War II. Having achieved some success as GOC 5th Indian Division during the East African Campaign, Heath was appointed to command III Indian Corps during the Battle of... Agordat (also Akordat or Akordat, Geez ኣቆርዳት) was the former capital of the now defunct Barka Province of Eritrea (present day Gash-Barka). ...


The troops of Major-General Beresford-Peirse cut off the Italian 41st Colonial Brigade while the Italians were still on the lowlands. 700 men and the brigade's commander were captured before they made it to the defensive positions in the jagged foothills.[44]


As the Indian divisions crossed the Eritrean border in the west, Briggs Force, operating independently from the main force and under Platt's direct command, advanced eastwards from the Sudan and entered Eritrea from the north through the border town of Karora. Briggs Force was four battalions under Brigadier Harold Rawdon Briggs — two battalions from Briggs's own Indian 7th Infantry Brigade (from the Indian 4th Infantry Division), together with two battalions from the French "Brigade of the East" (Brigade d'Orient) — one Senegalese colonial battalion and one Free French battalion. In Australian aboriginal mythology (specifically Gurra and Bandicoot), Karora is a creator god. ... Sir Harold Rawdon Briggs DSO, OBE (born 1894; died 1962) was an officer in the Indian Army during World War II. During the East African Campaign, Briggs commanded Briggsforce in the Sudan - two battalions from the 7th Indian Infantry Brigade (4th Indian Division), one Senegalese battalion, and one Free French... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet...


After capturing Italian positions near Karora, Briggs Force fought its way to the northern defences of Keren and linked up with the main force in March. Keren is the third largest city in Eritrea, lying north west of Asmara, with a population of around 75,000 people. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ...


Agordat

Advancing east from Kassala towards Agordat, the Indian 4th Infantry Division took the northern road via Keru and the Indian 5th Infantry Division took the southern road via Barentu. Within nine days, the forces of Beresford-Peirse and Heath had advanced 100 miles (160 kilometres) and broken through the Italian positions in the foothills to capture Agordat on February 1. On 21 January, during the advance of the 5th Indian Division, Brigadier William "Bill" Slim was wounded by aerial strafing. Slim's command of Indian 10th Infantry Brigade was assumed on a temporary basis by Lieutenant-Colonel Bernard Fletcher, commander of the brigade's 2nd Highland Light Infantry battalion, until March when Brigadier Thomas "Pete" Rees took over.[45] Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... Agordat (also Akordat or Akordat, Geez ኣቆርዳት) was the former capital of the now defunct Barka Province of Eritrea (present day Gash-Barka). ... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... Keru is a city in Eritrea. ... Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... Barentu is a town in south western Eritrea, lying south of Agordat. ... Agordat (also Akordat or Akordat, Geez ኣቆርዳት) was the former capital of the now defunct Barka Province of Eritrea (present day Gash-Barka). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Sir William Slim (pictured here as a Major General) Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (6 August 1897 - 14 December 1970), British military commander and 13th Governor-General of Australia, was born near Bristol, Gloucestershire. ... Bernard Campbell Fletcher (born 1898) was an officer in the British Indian Army during World War II. During the East African Campaign, Brigadier Fletcher commanded both the Indian 10th Infantry Brigade and the Indiab 9th Infantry Brigade, both of the Indian 5th Infantry Division. ... The Highland Light Infantry later the Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow Regiment) was a regiment of the British Army. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Thomas Wynford Rees CB, CIE, DSO, MC, DL (born 1899; died 1959) was an officer in the British army and the Indian Army during World War I, the inter-war years, World War II, and post-war. ...


On 31 January, the Italian garrison at Metemma in northern Ethiopia, having been under increasing pressure for three weeks and realising that Platt's main thrust would not be coming from the Gallabat direction withdrew towards Gondar. This withdrawal allowed the Indian 9th Infantry Brigade of the Indian 5th Infantry Division to occupy Metemma. Brigadier Mosley Mayne, 9th Brigade's commander, sent units along the road towards Wahni to harry the retreating Italian forces fighting lively engagements 20 miles and 45 miles east of Metemma. Progress on the road was difficult because of the thickly laid minefields and it was during this period that 2nd Lieutenant Premindra Singh Bhagat of the Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners won the first Victoria Cross for the British Indian Army in World War II for a "...continuous feat of sheer cold courage" clearing 15 minefields and 55 miles of roads in 48 hours of unbroken effort.[46] is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metemma is a village in western Ethiopia, on the border with Sudan. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... General Sir Ashton Gerard Oswald Mosley Mayne (born 1889; died 1955), GCB, CBE, DSO was a British officer in both World War I and World War II. // He was commissioned into the British Indian Army in 1908 serving with the 6th Duke of Connaughts Own Lancers and the 9th... Photo submitted by Gerald Napier - (from the Royal Engineers Library with permission) Premindra Singh Bhagat VC (14 October 1918-23 May 1975) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...


By 31 January, Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, reported that the Italian military forces in East Africa were down to 67 operational aircraft with limited fuel. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


Keren

Main article: Battle of Keren
Battle of Keren battlefield
Battle of Keren battlefield

The key action on the northern front then took place at Keren in Eritrea.[47] While General Frusci was in overall command of the Italian forces in Eritrea, the Italians at Keren were commanded by General Nicolangelo Carminareo. Keren is 60 miles further east of Agordat towards the Red Sea coast.[48] On 5 February, the Battle of Keren began. The battle started with assaults by elements of Indian 4th Infantry Division (Gazelle Force and Indian 11th Brigade) on the Italian positions in the mountains leading to Keren. Initially the resolute Italian defenders prevailed with heavy casualties on both sides. Further heavy attacks took place over the next ten days. But the Italians held and there was no break through. Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Lt. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 682 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hi ########, Im a big fan of wikipedia altough I never wrote articles for it, I just didnt know about the credit. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 682 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hi ########, Im a big fan of wikipedia altough I never wrote articles for it, I just didnt know about the credit. ... Keren is the third largest city in Eritrea, lying north west of Asmara, with a population of around 75,000 people. ... Luigi Frusci (born 1879; died 1949) was an officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II. In April 1936, Frusci commanded the center column of three columns during General Rudolfo Grazianis advance on the southern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Lt. ... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ...


Platt decided to regroup and concentrate his forces before attacking again. Planning for a set-piece battle he disbanded Gazelle Force (with Messervy taking over Indian 9th Brigade) and brought Indian 5th Infantry Division (which had been mopping up at Agordat) to the front. On 1 March, his command was expanded by the arrival Briggs Force from the north. Although it lacked the artillery for a major offensive, Briggs Force drew off a significant part of the Keren garrison. This aided Platt's main offensive which was being launched from the south west. Briggs Force also posed a threat to Massawa to the east. This threat obliged the Italians to maintain a reserve on the coast.[49] Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ...


On 14 March, by the time the next assault on Keren commenced, Platt's force of about 13,000 men faced a re-inforced Italian defense of about 23,000 men. Once again, both sides fought with determination and both sides suffered heavy losses. It took until 27 March for Keren to fall. [50]In the account of the battle written in Eastern Epic, an official history of the British Indian Army in World War II, Compton Mackenzie wrote: is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ...

Keren was as hard a soldiers' battle as was ever fought, and let it be said that nowhere in the war did the Germans fight more stubbornly than those [Italian] Savoia battalions, Alpini, Bersaglieri and Grenadiers. In the [first] five days' fight the Italians suffered nearly 5,000 casualties - 1,135 of them killed. Lorenzini, the gallant young Italian general, had his head blown off by one of the British guns. He had been a great leader of Eritrean troops[51]

The unfortunate licence of wartime propaganda allowed the British Press to represent the Italians almost as comic warriors; but except for the German parachute division in Italy and the Japanese in Burma no enemy with whom the British and Indian troops were matched put up a finer fight than those Savoia battalions at Keren. Moreover, the Colonial troops, until they cracked at the very end, fought with valour and resolution, and their staunchness was a testimony to the excellence of the Italian administration and military training in Eritrea.[52]

Ethiopians transporting supplies by camel through vegetation, January 22, 1941 (Photographer: FE Palmer, No 1 Army Film & Photographic Unit, (UK).)
Ethiopians transporting supplies by camel through vegetation, January 22, 1941 (Photographer: FE Palmer, No 1 Army Film & Photographic Unit, (UK).)

Casualties at Keren were relatively high for both sides. The British and Commonwealth forces had more than 4,000 men killed, wounded or missing.[53] The Italians suffered about 3,000 men killed[53] and several thousand men wounded, injured, or sick. Much of the Italian garrison was captured. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Keren was decisive in terms of the strategic objectives of the Allied forces (to the extent that when Wavell was created an earl he chose as his second title the viscounty of Keren and of Winchester).[52] While hard fighting lay ahead before the campaign would come to an end, the fall of Keren broke the resistance of the Italian forces and led to the almost immediate capture of Massawa on the coast. This made it possible to safely use the Red Sea for ships bringing munitions and supplies to the North African theater. For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ...


Asmara

After Keren fell, Indian 5th Infantry Division set off eastwards in pursuit of the retreating Italians and towards the Eritrean capital of Asmara, some 50 miles away. They left the Indian 4th Infantry Division behind to mop up in Keren. After mopping up, the Indian 4th Infantry Division returned to Egypt (leaving behind for a little longer the formations it had detached to Briggs Force). Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... Asmara (English) (Geez: አሥመራ Asmera, formerly known as Asmera, or in Arabic: Asmaraa) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. ... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ...


The retreating Italians fought minor skirmishes but mounted no major stand. On 1 April, Asmara was declared an open town. Three days later, after resupply along the lengthening road to the Kassala railway junction on the Sudanese border, 10th Infantry Brigade of Indian 5th Infantry Division set off east again towards Massawa. Massawa was some 50 miles away, 7000 feet lower, and on the coast. On 10th Brigade's left flank was Briggs Force which had advanced cross-country from Keren and were approaching Massawa from the north along the coast. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ...


Massawa

Rear Admiral Mario Bonetti, commander of the Italian Red Sea Flotilla and the commander of the garrison at Massawa, had been ordered by Mussolini to defend the town to the last man.[54] The Italians had 10,000 troops and 100 assorted tanks and armoured cars to defend Massawa.[54] About 1,000 of the defenders at Massawa were veterans from Keren and another bloody battle seemed likely. The Italian Red Sea Flotilla was a naval force based in Massawa, Eritria, during the early stages of World War II. The Red Sea Flotilla was active from 10 June 1940 to the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


From 1 March to 4 March, the remaining Italian submarines at Massawa escaped destruction by sailing south. The Guglielmo, the Gauleo Ferraras, the Perla and the Archimede planned to break out, sail south, navigate past the Cape of Good Hope, turn north, and sail north to Bordeaux, France, via the west coast of Africa.[54] On 29 March, the Perla was refueled by the German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis in the Indian Ocean. The other submarines were refueled by the German fleet tanker Nordmark in the South Atlantic between 16 April and 17 April. All four Italian submarines arrived at Bordeaux between 7 May and 20 May.[55] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Atlantis, known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 16 and to the Royal Navy as Raider-C, was a converted German Hilfskreuzer (auxiliary cruiser, or merchant or commerce raider) of the Kriegsmarine, which, during World War II, travelled more than 161,000 km in 602 days, and sank 22 ships totaling... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After some initial strong opposition, the Italian ground forces defending Massawa, lacking fuel, ammunition, and food, crumpled and resistance collapsed. Massawa was captured on 8 April. April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The harbour facilities themselves were a prize the British were hoping to use in order to ease the maintenance backlog of naval ships needing repair in Alexandria. In the week preceding capture, Massawa harbour was thoroughly wrecked by Italian sabotage of machinery in shore facilities, the sinking of two large floating dry docks, and the calculated scuttling of sixteen large ships in the mouths of the north Naval Harbour, the central Commercial Harbour and the main South Harbour, blocking access in and out. Scuttled, too, was a large floating crane. The harbour was rendered useless until repairs and salvage efforts could clear it sixteen months later.[56] The Port of Alexandria is on the West Verge of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut Lake. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Marine salvage is the process of rescuing a ship, its cargo and sometimes the crew from peril. ...


On 11 April, Major-General Heath was promoted to command the Indian III Corps in the Far East. Command of the Indian 5th Infantry Division was assumed by Mosley Mayne who had previously commanded the division's 9th Brigade. Bernard Fletcher, who had for two months until March had temporary command of 10th Brigade, was promoted and given command of the 9th Brigade.[57] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant-General Sir Lewis Macclesfield Heath, KBE, CB, CIE, DSO, MC (1885-1954) was a British Army officer and general during World War II. Having achieved some success as GOC 5th Indian Division during the East African Campaign, Heath was appointed to command III Indian Corps during the Battle of... The British Indian III Corps was the primary ground formation that took part in the campaign in Malaya in 1942. ... Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... General Sir Ashton Gerard Oswald Mosley Mayne (born 1889; died 1955), GCB, CBE, DSO was a British officer in both World War I and World War II. // He was commissioned into the British Indian Army in 1908 serving with the 6th Duke of Connaughts Own Lancers and the 9th... Bernard Campbell Fletcher (born 1898) was an officer in the British Indian Army during World War II. During the East African Campaign, Brigadier Fletcher commanded both the Indian 10th Infantry Brigade and the Indiab 9th Infantry Brigade, both of the Indian 5th Infantry Division. ...


Before Massawa fell, Bonnetti had ordered the remaining six Italian destroyers and the remaining motor torpedo boat (the other four boats were no longer operational) to put to sea from Massawa on a "do or die" mission. Four destroyers had been ordered to attack the fuel tanks at Port Sudan. Two of these destroyers, Daniele Manin and Nazario Sauro, were sunk by shore-based Swordfish airplanes (of the Fleet Air Arm) from the carrier Eagle. The other two destroyers that were headed to Port Sudan ran aground near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The remaining two destroyers had been ordered to attack Suez, but were sunk prior to reaching their objective. Before being scuttled by its crew, the Italian motor torpedo boat (MTB) MAS-213 torpedoed and damaged the cruiser Capetown. The cruiser was escorting a convoy off Massawa. Location of Port Sudan Port Sudan (Arabic: ‎) is the capital of the state of Red Sea in Sudan and has nearly 475,000 residents. ... Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... HMS Eagle was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy sunk during World War II. The Eagle was laid down at the Armstrong yards at Newcastle-on-Tyne on February 20, 1913. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... A MAS-15 of World War I. Motoscafo Armato Silurante (Italian: Torpedo Armed Motorboat, commonly abbreviated as MAS) was a class of fast armed vessel used by the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. Originally, the acronym MAS referred to Motorbarca Armata SVAN (Armed Motorboat SVAN... The C-class were light cruisers of the Royal Navy, and were built in a number of sub-classes known as the Caroline (six ships), Cambrian (six ships), Centaur (two ships), Caledon (four ships), Ceres (five ships) and Carlisle (five ships) classes. ...


The remaining Italian port facilities at Assab, within easy striking distance of British aircraft based in Aden, held out for several weeks after the fall of Massawa. Assab (or Aseb) is a port in Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ...


Seaborne assault on British Somaliland

On 16 March 1941, Operation Appearance was launched. Staged from Aden, two battalions from the Indian Army and one Somali commando dettachment were landed on both sides of Berbera by British naval "Force D" (the cruiser Glasgow, the cruiser Caledon, the destroyer Kandahar, the destroyer Kipling, the auxiliary cruiser Chakdina, the auxiliary cruiser Chantala, the Indian trawler Netavati, the Indian trawler Parvati, two transports and ML 109).[58] The two Sikh battalions (which had been part of the defending force evacuated in August 1940), made the first successful Allied landing on an enemy-held beach during World War II. The 2nd battalion 3rd Punjab Regiment and the 3rd battalion 15th Punjab Regiment re-captured British Somaliland from its Italian occupiers. is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Berbera (Somali Berbera) (coordinates:) is a city in the newly established Saaxil region of Somalia, and is currently part of the internationally unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... The seventh HMS Glasgow (21) was built on the Clyde, and was a Southampton-class light cruiser, a sub-class of the Town-class, commissioned in September 1937. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Caledon. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


When the Sikhs landed, an Italian colonel (suffering from malaria together with half of his troops)[59] waited with the 60 men who constituted the Berbera garrison. The garrison had been low on food and water for weeks. The Italians stood in formation on the beach and waited to surrender to the arriving British force. The British promptly "secured" Berbera. A British officer present at the Italian surrender later wrote: "War can be very embarrassing".[60]


On 20 March, Hargeisa was captured. The British and Commonwealth forces in British Somaliland spent the next months clearing the colony of the last remnants of its former invaders. The Somaliland Camel Corps was re-founded in mid-April and, in addition to looking for Italians, re-acquired its job of rounding up local bandits. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa, Arabic: هرجيسا) is a city in Northwestern Somalia and the second largest city in Somalia. ... The Somaliland Camel Corps was a unit of the British Army based in British Somaliland. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


From British Somaliland, British and Commonwealth forces advanced westward into eastern Ethiopia. In late March, they linked up with advancing forces from the Southern Front around Harar and Diredawa in Ethiopia. The link-up meant that Cunningham's forces could be re-supplied more efficiently through the port of Berbera as they advanced into Ethiopia. For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Harar (sometimes spelled Harrar, Hārer, or Harer) is an eastern city in Ethiopia, and the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. ...


Some Italians, under the orders of Colonel Di Marco, started a guerrilla war in the Ogaden area that is reported to have lasted until the summer 1942. Italian Propaganda Poster (1942): We will return! (to the italian African colonies) When the italian army surrendered in Gondar in november 1941, many Italians decided to start a guerrilla warfare in the mountains and deserts of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. ... This article is about the geographical area. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Campaign in Italian Somaliland and southern Ethiopia

Cunningham's forces on the southern front included the South African 1st Division, the 11th African Division, and the 12th African Division (the latter divisions were composed of East African, South African, Nigerian, and Ghanaian troops under British or South African officers). The South African division was led by Major-General George Brink. The 11th African Division was commanded by Major-General H. E. de R. Wetherall. The 12th African Division was commanded by Major-General Reade Godwin-Austen. The South African 1st Infantry Division was an infantry division of the South African Army during World War II. // The division was formed on 13 August 1940 in South Africa with its HQ at the South African Military College. ... The 1st (African) Division was formed on 24 July 1940 in East Africa. ... The 2nd (African) Division was a British colonial unit that fought in the East African Campaign during World War II. On 24 July 1940 , the 2nd (African) Division was formed in Kenya. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Lieutenant-General George Brink CB CBE DSO (1889-1971) was a South African military commander. ... Sir Harry Edward de Robillard Wetherall (born 1889; died 1979) was an officer in the British Army during World War II. Lieutenant-General Wetherall commanded the 11th African Division during the East African Campaign. ... Sir Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen (born 1889; died 1963) was a British officer during World War II. During the East African Campaign, Godwin-Austen commanded the British forces in British Somaliland when the Italians invaded the colony in 1940. ...


In January 1941, Cunningham decided to launch his first attacks across the Kenyan border directly into southern Ethiopia. He hoped that this action would cause Ethiopians in southern Ethiopia to rise up in rebellion against the Italians. Cunningham sent the South African 1st Division (composed of two South African and one East African brigades) and an independent East African brigade into the Galla-Sidamo Province. From 16 January to 18 January 1941, they captured El Yibo and on 19 January, an advance force of the South African dividion captured Jumbo.[61] From 24 January to 25 January, Cunningham's troops fought on the Turbi Road. His hopes that the Ethiopians would rise up, however, were not realized.[62] For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cunningham kept his force in southern Ethiopia until the attack ground to a halt in mid-February. From 1 February, they captured Gorai and El Gumu. On 2 February, they took Hobok. From 8 February to 9 February, Banno was captured. On 15 February, the fighting was on the Yavello Road. From 15 February to 18 February, they captured Mega. Moyale, in Kenya, was re-captured on 18 February. is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Moyale is a town on the border of Ethiopia and Kenya, with parts of it existing in both countries. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 24 January, Cunningham's main force, including the 11th African Division and the 12th African Division, invaded Italian Somaliland from Kenya. Earlier in January, the Italians had already decided that the plains of Italian Somalia could not be defended. Most of the Italian forces were already being withdrawn to the better defensive terrain of the mountains of Ethiopia. Cunningham encountered few Italians east of the Juba River. is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... The Jubba River is a river in Somalia. ...


On 14 February, the first objective Kismayu, was captured. Kismayu is located where the Juba River empties into the Indian Ocean. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kismayu or Kismayo (Somali: Kismaayo) is a city in the Jubbada Hoose region of Somalia. ...


Mogadishu

On 25 February 1941, the motorized Nigerian Brigade of the 11th African Division advanced up the coast and occupied Mogadishu, the capital of Italian Somaliland. Meanwhile, the 12th African Division pushed up the Juba River in Italian Somaliland towards the Ethiopian border town of Dolo.[63] is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... The Jubba River is a river in Somalia. ... Dolo is a town in southeastern Ethiopia, within 30 kilometers of the Ethiopia-Somalia border. ...


On 1 March, the 11th African Division began a fighting pursuit of the retreating Italian forces north from Mogadishu. The division pursued the Italians towards the Ogaden Plateau. By 17 March, the 11th African Division completed a seventeen day dash along the Italian built "Imperial Road" (Strada Imperiale) from Mogadishu to Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia, is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the geographical area. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jijiga is a city in eastern Ethiopia, located approximately 80 km east of Harar and 60 km west of the border with Somaliland. ...


By early March Cunningham's forces had captured most of Italian Somaliland and were advancing through Ethiopia towards the ultimate objective, Addis Ababa. On 26 March, Harar was captured.[64] On 29 March, Dire Dawa fell. During this time there was a link-up with the forces advancing from British Somaliland and Cunningham's supply route became much improved. For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harar (sometimes spelled Harrar, Hārer, or Harer) is an eastern city in Ethiopia, and the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


The liberation of Addis Ababa

On 6 April 1941, Addis Ababa was liberated by Cunningham's force. In 53 days, Cunningham had advanced 1,725 miles from Kenya to reach the Ethiopian capital. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


Emperor Haile Selassie made a formal entry to the city on 5 May, five years after being forced to flee when the Italians captured his capital on 5 May 1936 during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Since then, 5 May has been observed in Ethiopia as Liberation Day, a national holiday. Haile Selassie Emperor Haile Selassie I (Power of Trinity) (born Lij Tafari Makonnen, July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975), styled His Imperial Majesty (or HIM), was the Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is the religious symbol for God incarnate among the Rastafari movement. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberation Day is a day, often a public holiday, that marks the liberation of a place, similar to an independence day. ...


On 13 April, Cunningham sent a force under Brigadier Dan Pienaar comprising 1st South African Brigade and Campbell's Scouts (Ethiopian irregulars led by a British officer) to continue the northward advance and link up with Platt's forces advancing south.[65] is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Major-General Daniel Pienaar CB DSO (1893-1942) was a South African World War II military commander. ...


On April 20, after a rough battle, Pienaar's force captured Dessie on the main road north from Addis Ababa to Asmara. Pienaar was some 200 miles south of Platt's forces gathering at Amba Alagi.[66] is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dessie or Dese is a city in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, with a population as of 1994 of 97,314 people. ...


Amba Alagi

Wavell's strategic priority was for Platt to push southwards from the Sudan to Addis Ababa and for him to meet up with Cunningham pushing northwards from Kenya. A major obstacle for Platt was located at Amba Alagi, located between Asmara and Addis Ababa. Amba Alagi is a 12,000 foot high mountain. Ambi-Alagi is a remote area in Ethiopia between Asmara and Addis Ababa. ...


The Italians decided to defend the area around Amba Alagi in force. They drove galleries into the solid rock to protect their troops and to hold ample ammunition and stores. In this mountain fortress, the defenders, under command of Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, thought themselves to be impregnable.[67] Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ...


Platt gave newly-promoted Major-General Mosley Mayne and the Indian 5th Infantry Division the task of taking Amba Alagi. Mayne was only able to deploy a single expanded brigade, the Indian 29th Infantry Brigade, for this action. His attacking force was therefore inferior in numbers to the Italian defending force. Mayne's limited deployment was due to the demands on the British for internal security and for protecting their lines of communication. The supply route to Amba Alagi extended nearly 250 miles south of Asmara and some 400 miles from the main rail head at Kassala.[66] General Sir Ashton Gerard Oswald Mosley Mayne (born 1889; died 1955), GCB, CBE, DSO was a British officer in both World War I and World War II. // He was commissioned into the British Indian Army in 1908 serving with the 6th Duke of Connaughts Own Lancers and the 9th... Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting...


On 3 May 1941, Mayne sent in a feint attack from the east while, in the early hours of 4 May, the main attack was made from the northwest over the hills. The hills were fiercely defended by the Italians. On 11 May, Pienaar's brigade group arrived from the south and was put under Mayne's command. By 14 May Amba Alagi was surrounded.[68] With the arrival of Pienaar, the 7000 Italian troops of Amedeo, Duke of Aosta were directly attacked by 9000 British troops and more than 20000 Ethiopian irregulars. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ...


A final assault was planned for 15 May, but a fortuitous artillery shell hit an Italian fuel dump and ruptured a vessel containing oil. This caused oil to flow into the remaining drinking water of the Italian defenders. The lack of drinkable water then forced the Italians to surrender. [69] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 18 May, Amedeo, Duke of Aosta surrendered his embattled forces at Amba Alagi and received full military honors. While the Duke of Aosta faced defeat in East Africa, his brother, the Duke of Spoleto was being made the King of Croatia after the successful invasion of Yugoslavia.[70] is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Aimone, King of Croatia, 4th Duke of Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe di Torino) (9 March 1900 - 29 January 1948), later King Tomislav II of Croatia and the 4th Duke of Aosta was a member of House of Savoy. ... “April War” redirects here. ...


The Duke of Aosta had endured the last months of fighting while suffering a severe attack of malaria (and died of TBC and malaria a few months later)[71].


The campaign in Italian East Africa was all but over. Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


Italian last stands

General Nasi and his last Italian troops receive military honors at Gondar. (November 1941)
General Nasi and his last Italian troops receive military honors at Gondar. (November 1941)

In spite of the Duke of Aosta's surrender at Amba Alagi on 18 May 1941, some Italian forces continued to hold out. The port city of Assab and the strongholds of Gondar and Jimma remained under Italian control. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Assab (or Aseb) is a port in Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... Jimma is the largest city in western Ethiopia; as of 1994 it had a population of 88,867 people. ...


Operation Chronometer

On 10 June, Operation Chronometer was launched and a battalion from the Indian Army was landed at Assab, the last Italian-held harbour on the Red Sea.[72] By 11 June, Assab had fallen. On 13 June, two days after the fall, the Indian trawler "Parvati" became the last naval casualty of the campaign when it struck a magnetic mine near Assab. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nasi and Gazzera

A force under General Guglielmo Nasi, the acting Governor of Amhara, continued to resist at Gondar in northwest Ethiopia. Gondar was the capital of Begemder Province, about 120 miles west of Amba Alagi. Guglielmo Ciro Nasi (born 21 February 1879; died 21 September 1971) was an Italian General who fought in the Italian East Africa during World War II. // Nasi was born in Civitavecchia, Italy. ... Begemder was a province in the north-eastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Gondar. ...


Another Italian force under General Pietro Gazzera, the Governor of Galla-Sidama and the new acting Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa, continued to resist at Jimma in southwest Ethiopia. Gazzera replaced the Duke of Aosta as Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa. Pietro Gazzera (born 1879; died 1953) was an officer in the Italian Army during World War II. General Gazzera commanded forces in Gimma during the East African Campaign 1926 Commanding Officer, Brigade Basilicata 1926 Commandant of War School General Officer Commanding, Division Genova 1928 - 1929 Under-Secretary Ministry of War... Sidamo was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Irgalem, and later at Awasa. ...


After capturing Amba Alagi, the commanders of the two major fronts were called on once again by Wavell. The commander of the northern front, William Platt, was tasked with neutralizing the forces under General Nasi in Gondar. The commander of the southern front, Alan Cunningham, was to do the same to General Gazzera's force in Jimma.


General Gazzera surrendered his force first. Even before Cunningham moved against him, Gazzera was faced with a growing irregular force of Ethiopian patriots (or Arbegnoch). Gazzera abandoned Jimma on 21 June 1941. Starting with about 40,000 men, Gazzera attempted a mobile defense. Attempting to move such a large force in hostile territory caused him to quickly lose large numbers of his men all along his route. His colonial troops were especially prone to defection. In July, General Gazzera and his last 7,000 men surrendered when they were cut off by Belgian Major-General Auguste-Éduard Gilliaert, the commander of the Free Belgian Forces in East Africa. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Auguste-Éduard Gilliaert (born 1894) was an officer in the Belgian Army during World War II. Lieutenant-General Gilliaert was the commander of the Belgian Expeditionary Forces in East Africa during the East African Campaign. ... The Free Belgian Forces were members of the Belgian armed forces in World War II who continued fighting against the Axis after the surrender of Belgium and its subsequent occupation by the Germans. ...


Battle of Gondar

Main article: Battle of Gondar

After the fall of Amba Alagi, General Nasi held out in Gondar for almost seven months. After General Gazzera surrendered, he became the new acting Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa. But, like Gazzera, Nasi faced not just the conventional forces of Platt. He faced an ever increasing force of Ethiopian patriots. Combatants Italy Commonwealth troops Force of Ethiopians Kenya Armoured Car Regiment Commanders General Nasi Winston Churchill, and others Strength 40,000 Unknown The Battle of Gondar was the defeat of the Italian forces in Ethiopia during the Second World War. ...


While the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) in East Africa had been worn down quickly by a lop-sided war of attrition, the Italian pilots held on to the bitter end. On 24 October 1941, the last Italian aircraft of the campaign was shot down.[6] Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


On 27 November 1941 General Nasi surrendered Gondar, receiving full military honors, to a combined force of British and Commonwealth troops and a force of Ethiopians. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Aftermath

In January 1942, with the final official surrender of the Italians, the British, under pressure from the American administration, signed an agreement with Emperor Haile Selassie I acknowledging Ethiopian sovereignty. He reigned over Ethiopia until 1974. For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


With the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coastlines cleared of Axis forces, American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was able to declare that these areas were no longer combat zones. As a result, United States ships were able to proceed to Suez. This helped to relieve the enormous strain on the shipping resources of the United Kingdom.[73] Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


The Italian colony of Eritrea was placed under British military administration for the remainder of World War II. In 1950, Eritrea was made part of Ethiopia. The unification of Eritrea and Ethiopia was not acceptable to the Eritreans and led to the Eritrean War of Independence. The unification ended in the early 1990s when Eritrea first became independent de facto in 1991 and then was recognized as being independent de jure in 1993. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants ELF EPLF Ethiopia Cuba Soviet Union Commanders Isaias Afewerki Haile Selassie Mengistu Haile Mariam Casualties 65,000 (offical state figure) Up to 500,000 The Eritrean War of Independence started on 1 September 1961 when Hamid Idris Awate and his companions fired the first shots against the occupying Ethiopian... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Italian Somaliland was also placed under British military administration for the remainder of the war. In 1948, it was decided that the Ogaden border region would be awarded to Ethiopia. In 1949, the United Nations brought the Italians back to administer Somalia for ten years. In 1959, Somalia became independent. Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the geographical area. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Italian guerrilla actions

Further information: Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia

Between November 1941 and September 1943, scattered Italian units (totalling an estimated 7,000 men)[74] fought a guerrilla war from the deserts of Eritrea and Somalia to the forests and mountains of Ethiopia. They supposedly did so in the hope of holding out until the Germans and Italians in Egypt (or even possibly the Japanese in India) intervened. Italian Propaganda Poster (1942): We will return! (to the italian African colonies) When the italian army surrendered in Gondar in november 1941, many Italians decided to start a guerrilla warfare in the mountains and deserts of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. ...


Amedeo Guillet was one of the Italian officers who fought with the Italian guerrillas in Ethiopia.[75] Other Italian officers were Captain Francesco De Martini in Eritrea, Colonel Calderari in western Ethiopia/Somalia, Colonel Di Marco in Ogaden/British Somaliland, "blackshirt centurion" De Varda in Somalia/Ethiopia and Major Lucchetti in Ethiopia. This article needs to be wikified. ... Italian Propaganda Poster (1942): We will return! (to the italian African colonies) When the italian army surrendered in Gondar in november 1941, many Italians decided to start a guerrilla warfare in the mountains and deserts of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. ... Italian Propaganda Poster (1942): We will return! (to the italian African colonies) Francesco De Martini was an italian captain of the Servizio Informazioni Military (military intelligence) in Eritrea, when the Allies invaded the Italian East Africa during WWII. In the first months of 1941 he fought the invasion of the...


The Italian guerrilla was even waged by civilians, like Dr. Rosa Dainelli, a woman who in August 1942 successfully sabotaged the main British ammunition dump in Addis Ababa. Italian Propaganda Poster (1942): We will return! (to the italian African colonies) Rosa Dainelli was an italian doctor who worked in Ethiopia during WWII, when the British conquered (in 1941) the Italian Empire in the Horn of Africa. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


Hostilities in East Africa officially ceased in September 9, 1943 when the Italian government signed an Armistice with the Allies, but even then some Italian soldiers continued their guerrilla war until October 1943, being unaware of the Italian armistice. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armistice with Italy is an armistice that occurred on September 8, 1943, during World War II. It was signed by Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were occupying the southern half of the country at the time. ...


Victoria Cross recipients

The following is a list of recipients of the Victoria Cross (VC) during this campaign: For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...

Eric Charles Twelves Wilson (born 1913) is an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Photo submitted by Gerald Napier - (from the Royal Engineers Library with permission) Premindra Singh Bhagat VC (14 October 1918-23 May 1975) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British... Richhpal Ram was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Nigel Gray Leakey was a Kenyan recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

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  • Wavell, Archibald, Official despatch: Operations in East Africa November 1940 - July 1941, London Gazette: no. 37645, pages 3527-3599, 10 July 1946, Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
  • Italian invasion of British Somaliland, The National Archives Ref WO 106/2336.
  • War Diary HQ Somaliforce Jul–Aug 1940, The National Archives Ref WO 169/2870. This file contains many reports, photographs of defensive positions and maps.
  • Revised Notes on the Italian Army (with amendments 1–3 incorporated), The War Office.

Sir (Edward Montague) Compton Mackenzie, (1883–1972), was an Scottish novelist. ... Ian Stanley Ord Playfair, CB, DSO, MC and bar, (10 April 1894 – 21 March 1972), was a soldier who rose to the rank of Major General in the British Army. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Archives building at Kew. ...

References

  1. ^ Antonicelli, Franco. Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 - 1945 (in Italian) Mondadori Ed. Torino 1961
  2. ^ Barker, A. J., "The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 155
  3. ^ Keegan, John, The Oxford Companion to World War II, p. 245
  4. ^ Keegan, John, The Oxford Companion to World War II, p. 247
  5. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 21 & 30
  6. ^ a b c d Andrew Mollo, "The Armed Forces of World War II, p. 133
  7. ^ Andrew Mollo, "The Armed Forces of World War II, pp. 138-139
  8. ^ a b David Rooney, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 52
  9. ^ a b Rooney, David, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 53
  10. ^ Rooney, David, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 49
  11. ^ Rooney, David, Wingate and the Chindits, pp. 53, 54
  12. ^ Rooney, David, Wingate and the Chindits, pp. 55-56
  13. ^ a b Del Boca, Italiani in Africa Orientale: La caduta dell'Impero
  14. ^ Barker, A. J., "The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 135
  15. ^ Barker, A. J., "The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 135
  16. ^ (4 December 1944) "Roll Out the Barrel". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  17. ^ http://www.regiamarina.it/redsea.htm
  18. ^ Cernuschi, Enrico. La resistenza sconosciuta in Africa Orientale
  19. ^ Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, p. 241.
  20. ^ (6 October 1941) "Story of a Siege". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  21. ^ (14 August 1940) "War Without Water". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  22. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 23
  23. ^ Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, pp. 243-45.
  24. ^ a b Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 22
  25. ^ Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, pp. 245-49.
  26. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 23
  27. ^ Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, p. 251.
  28. ^ http://www.regiamarina.net/others/redsea/redsea_us.htm
  29. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 33
  30. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 33-34
  31. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 43
  32. ^ Compton, Mackenzie,Eastern Epic, p. 32
  33. ^ a b Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 42
  34. ^ Keegan, John, The Oxford Companion to World War II, p. 247
  35. ^ Barker, A. J., "The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 156
  36. ^ a b David Rooney, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 58
  37. ^ David Rooney, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 62
  38. ^ David Rooney, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 63
  39. ^ David Rooney, Wingate and the Chindits, p. 64
  40. ^ Barker, A. J., "The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 156
  41. ^ David Rooney, Wingate and the Chindits, pp. 70-71
  42. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 43
  43. ^ a b Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 44
  44. ^ Keegan, John, The Oxford Companion to World War II, p. 247
  45. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 44-49
  46. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 50-51
  47. ^ (7 April 1941) "Last Act in East Africa". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  48. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 52-64
  49. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 56
  50. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 64-70
  51. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p.60
  52. ^ a b Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 64
  53. ^ a b Brett-James, Anthony, Ball of fire - The Fifth Indian Division in the Second World War, Chp. 4
  54. ^ a b c Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 66
  55. ^ Rohwer, Jurgen, :Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War II," p. 61
  56. ^ Ellsberg, Edward (1946). Under the Red Sea Sun. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co.. 
  57. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 47, 65-66
  58. ^ Rohwer, Jurgen, :Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War II," p. 54
  59. ^ Antonicelli,Franco Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 - 1945
  60. ^ Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, pp. 365-66.
  61. ^ (3 March 1941) "Jumbo on the Juba". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  62. ^ Keegan, John, The Oxford Companion to World War II, p. 247
  63. ^ (10 March 1941) "Exchange of Somalilands". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  64. ^ (31 March 1941) "Key Towns". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  65. ^ London Gazette: no. 37645, page 3530, 10 July 1946, Retrieved on 2007-11-23. Wavell's official despatch: Operations in East Africa November 1940 - July 1941
  66. ^ a b Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 68
  67. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p.67
  68. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 69-70
  69. ^ Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, p. 70
  70. ^ (26 May 1941) "Long Enough for Aosta". Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  71. ^ Antonicelli, Franco.Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 - 1945 (in Italian). Mondadori ed. Torino,1961
  72. ^ Rohwer, Jurgen, :Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War II," p. 78
  73. ^ Keegan, John, The Oxford Companion to World War II, p. 247
  74. ^ Enrico Cernuschi. La resistenza sconosciuta in Africa Orientale Rivista Storica, dicembre 1994
  75. ^ http://www.comandosupremo.com/Guillett.html

is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Ellsberg (November 21, 1891 - January 24 1983) was an officer in the U.S. Navy and a popular author. ... Under the Red Sea Sun (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1946) is a book by Edward Ellsberg describing salvage operations of ships scuttled by the Italians at the port of Massawa on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during World War II. Massawa has an exellent harbor, has a muslem... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

During World War II women worked in factories throughout much of the Western and Eastern United States. ... During the era of World War II (1939 - 1945), Italy had a very varied and tumultuous military history. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Combatants  Australia Free France  New Zealand  Poland South Africa  United Kingdom India Italy Germany Commanders to June 22 1941: Archibald Wavell to August 8 1942: Claude Auchinleck to February 1943: Harold Alexander Ugo Cavallero Rodolfo Graziani Erwin Rommel The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War was the... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Rhodesia British East African colonies South Africa  Australia (naval only) Vichy France Japan (naval only) Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including... Statue of Count László Almásy at the Hungarian Geographical Museum in Érd. ... The German Motorized Company (Italian: Compagnia Autocarrata Tedesca, German: Deutsche Motorisierte Kompanie) was formed from about 150 Germans who had fled from British-held Kenya and Tanganyika. ... The South African Irish Regiment is an infantry regiment of the South African Army. ... The 81st (West Africa) Division was formed under British control during World War II. It took part in the Burma Campaign. ... The 82nd (West Africa) Division was formed under British control during World War II. It took part in the later stages of the Burma Campaign. ... List of Colonial Heads of Italian East Africa See also Ethiopia Italian East Africa Lists of incumbents ... This is a list of Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles used in Ethiopia until the end of the Monarchy in 1974. ... Dubats was the designation given to armed irregular bands employed by the Italian Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali or colonial army, in Italian Somalia from 1924 to 1941. ... Zaptié was the designation given to locally raised gendarmerie units in the Italian colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Eritrea and Somalia between 1889 and 1942. ...

External links

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