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Encyclopedia > East Africa
     Eastern Africa (UN subregion)      East African Community      Central African Federation (defunct)      Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community
     Eastern Africa (UN subregion)      East African Community      Central African Federation (defunct)      Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. In the UN scheme of geographic regions, 19 territories constitute Eastern Africa: Image File history File links LocationEasternAfrica. ... Image File history File links LocationEasternAfrica. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... Anthem To Be Determined Arusha, Tanzania Membership 5 East African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Juma Mwapachu Area  -  Total 1,817,945 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 124,858,568   -  Density 55 /km²   /sq mi GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate  -  Total US$ 104. ... Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ...

Geographically, Egypt and Sudan[1] are sometimes included in this region. Anthem To Be Determined Arusha, Tanzania Membership 5 East African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Juma Mwapachu Area  -  Total 1,817,945 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 124,858,568   -  Density 55 /km²   /sq mi GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate  -  Total US$ 104. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (often abbreviated DOM-TOM for départements doutre-mer, territoires doutre-mer) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ...


East Africa is often used to specifically refer to the area now comprising the countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda,[2] and also Rwanda, Burundi, and Somalia.[3]

Contents

Geography

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Albert, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red)
Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Albert, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red)

Some parts of East Africa have been renowned for their concentrations of wild animals, such as the "big five" of elephant, water buffalo, lion, leopard and rhinoceros, though populations have been declining under increased stress in recent times, particularly the rhino and elephant. For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake Albert (disambiguation). ... Lake Kivu is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... In linguistics, paucal is a number that specifies a few things. ... Look up renown in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lion (Panthera leo) African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) Leopard (Panthera pardus) Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) The phrase Big Five game was coined by big-game hunters and refers to the five large mammals that were sought in Africa. ... Distribution of Loxodonta africana (2007) Species Loxodonta adaurora (extinct) Loxodonta africana Loxodonta cyclotis African elephants are the two species of elephants in the genus Loxodonta, one of the two existing genera in Elephantidae. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the big cat. ... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ...


The geography of East Africa is often stunning and scenic. Shaped by global plate tectonic forces that have created the Great Rift Valley, East Africa is the site of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya, the two tallest peaks in Africa. It also includes the world's second largest freshwater lake Lake Victoria, and the world's second deepest lake Lake Tanganyika. Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Kilimanjaro is a mountain in northeastern Tanzania. ... Mount Kenya has a low profile typical of a shield volcano. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ...


The unique geography and apparent suitability for farming made East Africa a target for European exploration, exploitation and colonialization in the nineteenth century. Today, tourism is an important part of the economies of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Explorer redirects here. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


East Africa Also features africa's largest country - Sudan.


History

Arab and Portuguese eras

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique, Vasco da Gama having visited Mombasa in 1498. Gama's voyage was successful in reaching India and this permitted the Portuguese to trade with the Far East directly by sea, thus challenging older trading networks of mixed land and sea routes, such as the Spice trade routes that utilized the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and caravans to reach the eastern Mediterranean. The Republic of Venice had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe and Asia. After traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks, Portugal hoped to use the sea route pioneered by Gama to break the once Venetian trading monopoly. Portuguese rule in East Africa focused mainly on a coastal strip centred in Mombasa. The Portuguese presence in East Africa officially began after 1505, when flagships under the command of Don Francisco de Almeida conquered Kilwa, an island located in what is now southern Tanzania. In March 1505, having received from Manuel I the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India, he set sail from Lisbon in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa, but the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River), Barawa, Angoche, Pate and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore, the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Portugal's main goal in the east coast of Africa was take control of the spice trade from the Arabs. At this stage, the Portuguese presence in East Africa served the purpose of control trade within the Indian Ocean and secure the sea routes linking Europe to Asia. Portuguese naval vessels were very disruptive to the commerce of Portugal's enemies within the western Indian Ocean and were able to demand high tariffs on items transported through the sea due to their strategic control of ports and shipping lanes. The construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa in 1593 was meant to solidify Portuguese hegemony in the region, but their influence was clipped by the British, Dutch and Omani Arab incursions into the region during the 17th century. The Omani Arabs posed the most direct challenge to Portuguese influence in East Africa and besieged Portuguese fortresses, openly attacked naval vessels and expelled the Portuguese from the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts by 1730. By this time the Portuguese Empire had already lost its interest on the spice trade sea route due to the decreasing profitability of that business. For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkic people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... A portrait of Francisco de Almeida in the National Museum of Ancient Art. ... Kilwa Kisiwani is an Islamic community on an island off the coast of East Africa, in present day Tanzania. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Portuguese India evolution Capital Cochin (1510-1530); Nova Goa Language(s) Portuguese Political structure Ultramarine Province King President  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1958-1961 Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás Viceroy  - 1505-1509 Francisco de Almeida (first)  - 1827-1835 Manuel de Portugal e Castro (last) Governor-general  - 1509-1515... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Kilwa Kisiwani is an Islamic community on an island off the coast of East Africa, in present day Tanzania. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Tana River is the longest river in Kenya. ... Pate Island is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Kannur district in Kerala Kannur or Cannanore is a district (and also the name of the town which is its headquarters) in northern Kerala, a state in India. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ...


Omani Arab colonization of the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts brought the once independent city-states under closer foreign scrutiny and domination than was experienced during the Portuguese period. Like their predecessors, the Omani Arabs were primarily able only to control the coastal areas, not the interior. However, the creation of clove plantations, intensification of the slave trade and relocation of the Omani capital to Zanzibar in 1839 by Seyyid Said had the effect of consolidating the Omani power in the region. Arab governance of all the major ports along the East African coast continued until British interests aimed particularly at ending the slave trade and creation of a wage-labour system began to put pressure on Omani rule. By the late nineteenth century, the slave trade on the open seas had been completely outlawed by the British and the Omani Arabs had little ability to resist the British navy's ability to enforce the directive. The Omani presence continued in Zanzibar and Pemba until the 1964 revolution, but the official Omani Arab presence in Kenya was checked by German and British seizure of key ports and creation of crucial trade alliances with influential local leaders in the 1880s. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Said bin Sultan (Arabic: , transliteration: ) (1790 - October 19, 1856) was Sultan of Muscat and Oman from November 20, 1804 to June 4, 1856. ... Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Pemba Island Pemba is an island about 50 kilometres to the north of the island of Zanzibar. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Period of European Imperialism

East Africa during the 19th and early 20th century became a theatre of competition between the major imperialistic European nations of the time. During the period of the Scramble for Africa, almost every country comprising present day East Africa to varying degrees became part of a European colonial empire. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ...


Portugal had first established a strong presence in southern Mozambique and the Indian Ocean since the 15th century, while during this period their possessions increasingly grew including parts from the present northern Mozambique country, up to Mombasa in present day Kenya. At Lake Malawi, they finally met the recently created British Protectorate of Nyasaland (nowadays Malawi), which surrounded the homonymous lake on three sides, leaving the Portuguese the control of lake's eastern coast. The British Empire set foot in the region's most exploitable and promising lands acquiring what is today Uganda, and Kenya. The Protectorate of Uganda and the Colony of Kenya were located in a rich farmland area mostly appropriate for the cultivation of cash crops like coffee and tea, as well as for animal husbandry with products produced from cattle and goats, such as goat meat, beef and milk. Moreover this area had the potential for a significant residential expansion, being suitable for the relocation of a large number of British nationals to the region. Prevailing climatic conditions and the regions' geomorphology allowed the establishment of flourishing European style settlements like Nairobi and Entebbe. Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Lago Niassa in Mozambique), is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is sold for money. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Nairobi (pronounced IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... Location of Entebbe within Uganda. ...


The French settled the largest island of the Indian Ocean (and the fourth-largest globally), Madagascar along with a group of smaller islands nearby, namely Réunion and the Comoros. Madagascar – until then under British control – became part of the French colonial empire being ceded in exchange for the island of Zanzibar an important hub of spices trade, off the coast of Tanganyika. The British as well held a number of island colonies in the region. The Seychelles an extended archipelago and the rich farmland island of Mauritius, previously under the French sovereignty, were as such. For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


The German Empire gained control of a large area named German East Africa, comprising present-day Rwanda, Burundi and the mainland part of Tanzania named Tanganyika. In 1922, the British gained a League of Nations mandate over Tanganyika which it administered until Independence was granted to Tanganyika in 1961. Following the Zanzibar Revolution of 1965, the independent state of Tanganyika formed the United Republic of Tanzania by creating a union between the mainland, and the island chain of Zanzibar. Zanzibar is now a semi-autonomous state in a union with the mainland which is collectively and commonly referred to as Tanzania. German East Africa, though very extensive, was not of such strategic importance as the British Crown's colonies to the north: the inhabitation of these lands was difficult and thus limited, mainly due to climatic conditions and the local geomorphology. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... The United Republic of (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania in Swahili) is a country on the east coast of central Africa. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see...

Map of British East Africa in 1911.
Map of British East Africa in 1911.

Italy gained control of various parts of Somalia in the 1880s. The southern three-fourths of Somalia became an Italian protectorate (Italian Somaliland). Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ...


Meanwhile, in 1884, a narrow coastal strip of northern Somalia came under British control (British Somaliland). This northern protectorate was just opposite the British colony of Aden on the Arabian Peninsula. With these territories secured, Britain was able to serve as gatekeeper of the sea lane leading to British India. Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Arabia redirects here. ... A sea lane is regularly used route for ocean-going vessels. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...


In 1890, beginning with the purchase of the small port town of (Asseb) from a local sultan in Eritrea, the Italians colonized all of Eritrea. Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Asseb (or Aseb) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. ...


In 1895, from bases in Somalia and Eritrea, the Italians launched the First Italo–Ethiopian War against the Orthodox Empire of Ethiopia. By 1896, the war had become a total disaster for the Italians and Ethiopia was able to retain its independence. Ethiopia remained independent until 1936 when, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, it became part of Italian East Africa. The Italian occupation of Ethiopia ended in 1941 during World War II as part of the East African Campaign. Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Oreste Baratieri Menelik II Strength 17,000 80,000-150,000 (estimated) Casualties 18,133 11,000 The First Italo–Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia in 1895-1896. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi...


The French also staked out an East African outpost on the route to French Indochina. Starting in the 1850s, the small protectorate of Djibouti became French Somaliland in 1897. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Conflicts

Until recently most governments were illiberal and corrupt, and several countries were riven with political coups, ethnic violence and oppressive dictators. Since the end of colonialism, the region has endured: This is an actual word. ...

Kenya and Tanzania have enjoyed relatively stable governments. However politics has been turbulent at times, including the attempted coup d’état in 1982 and the 2007 election riots in Kenya. Combatants Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Party (Ihapa), All-Ethiopia Socialist Movement (MEISON), Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front, Tigray Peoples Liberation Front Derg (later Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia) The Ethiopian Civil War was a 17 year long civil war in Ethiopia. ... Combatants ELF EPLF Ethiopia Cuba Soviet Union Commanders Isaias Afewerki Haile Selassie Mengistu Haile Mariam Casualties 65,000 (offical state figure) Up to 500,000 The Eritrean War of Independence started on 1 September 1961 when Hamid Idris Awate and his companions fired the first shots against the occupying Ethiopian... Combatants Eritrea Ethiopia Commanders Sebhat Ephrem Tsadkan Gebre-Tensae[3] Casualties Estimates vary: 19,000;[4][5] 20-50,000[6] 67,000[7] Estimates vary: 34,000[8] up to 60,000;[9] 60,000[10] 123,000[11][12] The Eritrean-Ethiopian War took place from May 1998... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... The Burundi Civil War is driven by ethnic rivalries between Burundis Hutu and Tutsi tribal factions. ... Combatants Uganda Peoples Defence Force Lords Resistance Army Commanders Yoweri Museveni Joseph Kony The Lords Resistance Army (LRA),[1] formed in 1987, is a rebel guerrilla army operating mainly in northern Uganda and parts of Sudan. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of the hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... The 1982 Kenyan coup was a failed attempt to overthrow President Daniel arap Mois government. ...


Djibouti and the Puntland and Somaliland regions of Somalia have also seen relative stability.


Tanzania has known stable government since independence although there are significant political and religious tensions resulting from the political union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964. Zanzibar is now a semi-autonomous state in the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania and Uganda fought the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1978–1979, which led to the removal of Uganda's despotic leader Idi Amin. The United Republic of (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania in Swahili) is a country on the east coast of central Africa. ... Combatants Uganda Libya Tanzania Peoples Defence Force & Uganda National Liberation Army Commanders Idi Amin Tanzanian army: Julius Nyerere UNLF: Tito Okello, Yoweri Museveni, David Oyite-Ojok Strength 3,000 Libyans, unknown number of Ugandan Army troops 100,000 Tanzanians, unknown number of Ugandan resistance troops, unknown number of Rwandan... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ...


References

  1. ^ FAO
  2. ^ The New Oxford Dictionary of English, Judy Pearsall, ed. 2001. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 582.
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. 2001. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; p. 339.

See also

| Tanzania | align="center" | 38 | align="center" | 95 | align="center" | 36.1 |-| Rwanda | align="center" | 8 | align="center" | 95 | align="center" | 36.1 |-| Burundi | align="center" | 3 | align="center" | 95 | align="center" | 36.1 |-| Uganda | align="center" | 30 | align="center" | 95 | align="center" | 36.1 |-| Kenya | align="center" | 35 | align="center" | 95 | align="center" | 36.1 |-| Zaire | align="center" | 60 | align="center" | 95 | align="center" | 36.1 |- Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

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The main article for this category is East Africa.
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Adventure Trips visiting East Africa | 4 Corners Club (954 words)
The Horn of Africa (or, Somali Peninsula) is a peninsula of East Africa that juts into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden.
Some parts of East Africa have been renowned for their concentrations of wild animals, such as the "big five" of elephant, lion, Buffalo, Leopard and rhinoceros, though populations have been declining under increased stress in recent times, particularly the rhino and elephant.
The geography of East Africa is often stunning and scenic.
East Africa Travel - When To Go On Safari (489 words)
East Africa is a great destination all year round.
The annual wildebeest migration is an incredible event, only witnessed in East Africa, so we've also included a special section to help you plan a safari with the best chance of witnessing it for yourself.
East Africa is the stage for the world's greatest wildlife drama.
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