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Encyclopedia > Earthquake

An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude of an earthquake is conventionally reported, or the related and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude, with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. Earthquake can refer to: Earthquake, a seismological event. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... Body waves and surface waves Earthquake wave paths p-wave and s-wave from seismograph A seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth, most often as the result of a tectonic earthquake, sometimes from an explosion. ... Seismometer is of Greek origin and comes from Seism - the shakes and Meteo - I measure are instruments that measure and record motions of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, nuclear explosions, and other seismic sources. ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Thomas C. Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. ...


At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by a shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity. For other uses, see Epicenter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans—that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, huge amounts of gas migration, mainly methane deep within the earth, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Body waves and surface waves Earthquake wave paths p-wave and s-wave from seismograph A seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth, most often as the result of a tectonic earthquake, sometimes from an explosion. ...


An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The term epicenter means the point at ground level directly above this. The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), may refer to the site of an earthquake or to that of a nuclear explosion. ... The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), may refer to the site of an earthquake or to that of a nuclear explosion. ... For other uses, see Epicenter (disambiguation). ...

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998
Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998
Global plate tectonic movement
Global plate tectonic movement

Contents

From http://denali. ... From http://denali. ... For other uses, see Epicenter (disambiguation). ...

Naturally occurring earthquakes

Fault types
Fault types

Tectonic earthquakes will occur anywhere within the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. In the case of transform or convergent type plate boundaries, which form the largest fault surfaces on earth, they will move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the boundary that increase the frictional resistance. Most boundaries do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour. Once the boundary has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the Elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... In plate tectonics, a transform boundary (also known as transform fault boundary, transform plate boundary, transform plate margin, strike-slip boundary, sliding boundary, transverse boundary, or conservative plate boundary) is said to occur when tectonic plates slide and grind against each other along a transform fault. ... In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary – also known as a convergent plate boundary or a destructive plate boundary – is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of lithosphere move toward one another. ... In geology, aseismic creep is measurable surface displacement along a fault in the absence of notable earthquakes. ... This article is about the deformation of materials. ... A seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth, often as the result of an earthquake or explosion. ... Elastic rebound In geology, the elastic rebound theory was the first theory to explain the immediate cause of earthquakes. ... Cracks in rock resulting from stress A fracture is any local separation or discontinuity plane in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces. ...


Where plate boundaries occur within continental lithosphere, deformation is spread out a over a much larger area than the plate boundary itself. In the case of the San Andreas fault continental transform, many earthquakes occur away from the plate boundary and are related to strains developed within the broader zone of deformation caused by major irregularities in the fault trace (e.g. the “Big bend” region). The Northridge earthquake was associated with movement on a blind thrust within such a zone. Another example is the strongly oblique convergent plate boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian plates where it runs through the northwestern part of the Zagros mountains. The deformation associated with this plate boundary is partitioned into nearly pure thrust sense movements perpendicular to the boundary over a wide zone to the southwest and nearly pure strike-slip motion along the Main Recent Fault close to the actual plate boundary itself. This is demonstrated by earthquake focal mechanisms [2]. View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... The Northridge earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994 at 4:31 AM Pacific Standard Time in Reseda, a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... The Arabian plate is shown in bright yellow on this map The Arabian Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the Arabian peninsula and extending northward to Turkey. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ...


All tectonic plates have internal stress fields caused by their interactions with neighbouring plates and sedimentary loading or unloading (e.g. deglaciation). These stresses may be sufficient to cause failure along existing fault planes, giving rise to intra-plate earthquakes.


The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, Deep focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (up to seven hundred kilometers). These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff zones. These are earthquakes that occur at a depth at which the subducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure. A possible mechanism for the generation of deep focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure.[3] Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... Age of oceanic crust Oceanic crust is the part of Earths lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. ... A deep focus earthquake is an earthquake that occurs at depths of 600 to 700 km beneath the Earths surface. ... Subduction zones mark sites of convective downwelling of the Earths lithosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ...


Earthquakes also often occur in volcanic regions and are caused there, both by tectonic faults and by the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can serve as an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


Sometimes a series of earthquakes occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where the earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes. Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault, these storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern was observed in the sequence of about a dozen earthquakes that struck the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey in the 20th century, the half dozen large earthquakes in New Madrid in 1811-1812, and has been inferred for older anomalous clusters of large earthquakes in the Middle East and in the Mojave Desert. An earthquake storm is a recently proposed theory about earthquakes where an earthquake can trigger a series of other large earthquakes within the same tectonic plate as the stress transfers along the fault. ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with a pattern that follows Omoris law. ... The North Anatolian Fault (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Fayı) is one of the most energetic earthquake zones in the world. ... New Madrid is a city located in New Madrid County, Missouri, 42 miles (68 km) south by west of Cairo, Illinois, on the Mississippi River. ...


Size and frequency of occurrence

Minor earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, India the Azores in Portugal, Turkey, New Zealand, Greece, Italy, and Japan,[4] Larger earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are: Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... In seismology, the Gutenberg-Richter law states that the number of earthquakes per year of Richter magnitude M statistically has the form Number of earthquakes of size M per year ~ exp(a - bM) where exp is the exponential function. ...

  • an earthquake of 3.7 - 4.6 every year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 - 5.5 every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

even though the Richter scale goes up to 12 the biggest earthquake was 9.8


The number of seismic stations has increased from about 350 in 1931 to many thousands today. As a result, many more earthquakes are reported than in the past because of the vast improvement in instrumentation (not because the number of earthquakes has increased). The USGS estimates that, since 1900, there have been an average of 18 major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) and one great earthquake (magnitude 8.0 or greater) per year, and that this average has been relatively stable.[5] In fact, in recent years, the number of major earthquakes per year has actually decreased, although this is likely a statistical fluctuation. More detailed statistics on the size and frequency of earthquakes is available from the USGS.[6] The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ...


Most of the world's earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate.[7][8] Massive earthquakes tend to occur along other plate boundaries, too, such as along the Himalayan Mountains. “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


With the rapid growth of mega-cities such as Mexico City, Tokyo or Tehran, in areas of high seismic risk, some seismologists are warning that a single quake may claim the lives of up to 3 million people.[9][10][11] This article is about megacities in general. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


Effects/impacts of earthquakes

1755 copper engraving depicting Lisbon in ruins and in flames after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. A tsunami overwhelms the ships in the harbor.
1755 copper engraving depicting Lisbon in ruins and in flames after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. A tsunami overwhelms the ships in the harbor.
Smoldering after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
Smoldering after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
Earthquake damage in Anchorage, Alaska (1964).
Earthquake damage in Anchorage, Alaska (1964).
Earthquake damage in Mexico City (1985).
Earthquake damage in Armenia (1988).
Earthquake damage in Armenia (1988).
A section of the Cypress viaduct collapsed during the Loma Prieta Earthquake (1989).
A section of the Cypress viaduct collapsed during the Loma Prieta Earthquake (1989).
Kaiser Permanente Building destroyed in the Northridge Earthquake (1994).
Damage in Great Hanshin earthquake (1995) in Kobe, Japan.
Chūetsu earthquake (2004).
Chūetsu earthquake (2004).

There are many effects of earthquakes including, but not limited to the following: Image File history File links 1755_Lisbon_earthquake. ... Image File history File links 1755_Lisbon_earthquake. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1408x1090, 273 KB) San Francisco, California, United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1408x1090, 273 KB) San Francisco, California, United States. ... Sarah San Francisco Earthquake redirects here. ... Download high resolution version (1000x770, 166 KB)Damage to Fourth Avenue, Anchorage, Alaska, caused by the Good Friday Earthquake. ... Download high resolution version (1000x770, 166 KB)Damage to Fourth Avenue, Anchorage, Alaska, caused by the Good Friday Earthquake. ... Note: an anchorage is a place where a ship lays anchor. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links Spitakear. ... Image File history File links Spitakear. ... USGS photo from 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. ... USGS photo from 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. ... The Loma Prieta earthquake was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 801 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 801 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Northridge earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994 at 4:31 AM Pacific Standard Time in Reseda, a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... Damage at Minatogawa, Kobe Damage at Sannomiya, Kobe The Great Hanshin Earthquake, or Kobe earthquake as it is more commonly known overseas, was an earthquake in Japan which occurred on Tuesday January 17, 1995 at 5:46 a. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1857x1393, 517 KB) 新潟県中越地震後の小千谷市若葉町付近の様子。歩道が沈みマンホールが浮き上がり、電柱が傾く。2004年10月25日 本人撮影。(ja:画像:小千谷市の液状化現象.jpgと同じ画像を元に編集。こちらの方が高画質です。) 抜け上がり被害の例。 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Earthquake ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1857x1393, 517 KB) 新潟県中越地震後の小千谷市若葉町付近の様子。歩道が沈みマンホールが浮き上がり、電柱が傾く。2004年10月25日 本人撮影。(ja:画像:小千谷市の液状化現象.jpgと同じ画像を元に編集。こちらの方が高画質です。) 抜け上がり被害の例。 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Earthquake ... The Chūetsu Earthquakes ) began at 5:56 p. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Shaking and ground rupture

Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings or other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from epicenter, and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration. The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... For other uses, see Epicenter (disambiguation). ... Wave propagation refers to the ways waves travel through a medium (waveguide). ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ...


Specific local geological, geomorphological, and geostructural features can induce high levels of shaking on the ground surface even from low-intensity earthquakes. This effect is called site or local amplification. It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits. Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ...


Ground rupture is a visible breaking and displacement of the earth's surface along the trace of the fault, which may be of the order of few metres in the case of major earthquakes. Ground rupture is a major risk for large engineering structures such as dams, bridges and nuclear power stations and requires careful mapping of existing faults to identify any likely to break the ground surface within the life of the structure. DAMS is a racing team from France, involved in many areas of motorsports. ... This article is about the edifice. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Landslides and avalanches

Earthquakes can cause landslides and avalanches, which may cause damage in hilly and mountainous areas. This article is about geological phenomenon. ... A Himalayan avalanche near Mount Everest. ...


Fires

Following an earthquake, fires can be generated by break of the electrical power or gas lines. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started. For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...


Soil liquefaction

Soil liquefaction occurs when, because of the shaking, water-saturated granular material temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to a liquid. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures, as buildings or bridges, to tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits. Earthquake liquefaction, often referred to simply as liquefaction, is the process by which saturated, unconsolidated soil or sand is converted into a suspension during an earthquake. ... When something is granular, it is made up of minute semi-fine particals like sand or granulated sugar. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ...


Tsunami

Undersea earthquakes and earthquake-triggered landslides into the sea, can cause Tsunami. See, for example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea (subduction) earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


Human impacts

Earthquakes may result in disease, lack of basic necessities, loss of life, higher insurance premiums, general property damage, road and bridge damage, and collapse of buildings or destabilization of the base of buildings which may lead to collapse in future earthquakes. This article is about the medical term. ...


Preparation for earthquakes

The most significant human impact is loss of life Earthquake preparedness refers to a variety of measures designed to help individuals, businesses, and local and state governments in earthquake prone areas to prepare for significant earthquakes. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The HurriQuake environment nail is a newly invented nail designed by Ed Sutt for Stanley-Bostitch, a division of Stanley Works. ... Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. ... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... The destabilizing action of an earthquake on constructions may be direct (seismic motion of the ground) or indirect (earthquake-induced landslides and liquefaction of the foundation soils). ... Seismic hazard map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the probability of a major earthquake occurring by 2032 An earthquake prediction is a prediction that an earthquake in a specific magnitude range will occur in a specific region and time window. ...


Specific fault articles

The Alpine Fault is clearly visible from space, running along the western edge of the Southern Alps from the southwestern coast towards the northeastern corner of the South Island. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone Area of the Cascadia subduction zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from northern Vancouver Island to northern California. ... The exposed geology of the Death Valley area presents a diverse and complex story that includes at least 23 formations of sedimentary units, two major gaps in the geologic record called unconformities, and at least one distinct set of related formations geologists call groups. ... The Great Glen Geological Fault The Great Glen Fault is a long strike-slip fault or ancient transform fault that runs through its namesake the Great Glen (Glen Albyn) in Scotland. ... The Indonesian island of Sumatra is located in a highly seismic area of the world. ... For recent activity in the region shown on this map see the USGS map for this location. ... The Highland Boundary Fault traverses Scotland from Arran to Stonehaven. ... The Hope Fault is a right-lateral oblique slip fault in the South Island of New Zealand. ... The Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault marked with red. ... The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is a 1600 km long geologic fault between the northern edge of the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern Turkey. ... Seismic map New Madrid Seismic Zone - USGS The New Madrid Seismic Zone, also known as the Reelfoot Rift or the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic zone, located in the mideastern United States. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ...

Major earthquakes

Main article: List of earthquakes

The following is a list of major earthquakes. ...

Pre-20th century

For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was an earthquake that was located near the town of Aleppo in northern Syria on in 11 October 1138. ... Tremblement de terre de Bâle de 1356 1356 Basel earthquake ---- (more info) Stage 3 : Proofreaders Needed (How-to) French article is short but well-referenced. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Area: 293. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Carinthia within Austria-Hungary (number 3) Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state arms The Duchy of Carinthia (German: ; Slovenian: ) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. ... Villach [ˈfɪlax] (Slovenian Beljak) is the second largest city in Carinthia in the south of Austria, on the river Drau (Slovenian Drava) and represents an important traffic junction for Austria and the whole Alpe-Adria region. ... Lindwurm fountain in the center of Klagenfurt Klagenfurt (Slovene: Celovec), officially known as Klagenfurt am Wörthersee,[1] is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia in Austria. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Map of China showing Shaanxi province (red) and the other provinces affected by the earthquake (orange) The Shaanxi earthquake or Hua County Earthquake is the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. ... Though severe earthquakes in the north of France and southern England are rare,[1] the Dover Straits earthquake of 6 April 1580 appears to have been the largest in the recorded history of England, Flanders or northern France. ... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. ... The 1700 Cascadia Earthquake was a magnitude 8. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Kamchatka earthquakes were a pair of megathrust earthquakes occurring off the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, in Russia on October 16, 1737, and on November 4, 1952, in the magnitude of ~9. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... The New Madrid Earthquake, the largest earthquake ever recorded in the contiguous United States, occurred on February 7, 1812. ... North American redirects here. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Fort Tejon earthquake occurred on January 9, 1857, with an estimated magnitude of 8. ... Lone Pine fault scarp The Great Lone Pine earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes to hit California in recorded history. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Damage from Charleston earthquake of August 31, 1886 The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... The Assam earthquake of 1897, measuring more than 8 on the Richter scale, destroyed all masonary structures. ...

20th century

Sarah San Francisco Earthquake redirects here. ... The Messina Earthquake occurred on December 28th, 1908. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The 1923 Great Kanto earthquake ) struck the Kanto plain on the Japanese main island of Honshu at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Hawkes Bay earthquake, also known as the Napier earthquake, occurred in New Zealand at 10:47 am on Tuesday February 3, 1931, killing 256[1] and devastating the Hawkes Bay region. ... Hawkes Bay is a region of New Zealand. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The Long Beach earthquake of 1933 took place March 10, 1933 at 5:55 pm Pacific Time, registering 6. ... 1935 Balochistan Earthquake (Urdu: بلوچستان زلزلہ) The devastating earthquake occurred on May 30, 1930 at Quetta, Balochistan, it measures 7. ... On December 27, 1939, an earthquake of seven violent shocks measuring 7. ... Erzincan is the capital of Erzincan Province in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... The Assam earthquake of 1950 measured 8. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... The Kamchatka earthquakes were a pair of megathrust earthquakes occurring off the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, in Russia on October 16, 1737, and on November 4, 1952, in the magnitude of ~9. ... Bakersfield redirects here. ... Kern County is a county located in the southern Central Valley of the U.S. state of California. ... Quake Lake (also known as Earthquake Lake) was created after a massive earthquake struck southwestern Montana, United States on August 17, 1959. ... Map showing the areas affected by the tsunami The Great Chilean Earthquake or Valdivian Earthquake (Terremoto de Valdivia in Spanish) of 22 May 1960 is the most intense earthquake ever recorded, rating a 9. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... The 1960 Agadir earthquake took place on February 29, 1960, at 23:40 in the evening. ... The 1963 Skopje earthquake (Macedonian: , Latinic: 1963 Skopski zemjotres) was an earthquake which measured 6. ... Earthquake Damage, Anchorage The Good Friday Earthquake (also called the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964 (Good Friday, a Christian holy day associated with a historical earthquake[1]), 5:36 P.M. AST (03:36 3/27 UTC) had a magnitude of 9. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Yungay landslide The 1970 Ancash earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 20:23:31 UTC (15:23:31 local time) on Sunday, May 31, 1970, affecting the Peruvian regions of Ancash and La Libertad, and that combined with a subsequent landslide, was the most catastrophic natural disaster ever... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... Yungay is a town in the Ancash Region in north central Peru, South America. ... The Sylmar earthquake struck at 6:00:55 a. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Slovenian Littoral in Slovenia The Slovenian Littoral (Slovenian: ; Italian: ; German: ) is a traditional region of Slovenia that itself consists of the regions of GoriÅ¡ka and Slovenian Istria (Slovenska Istra). ... Many buildings were flattened into rubble when the earthquake hit. ... The Guatemala 1976 earthquake struck on February 4, 1976. ... Coalinga is a city located in Fresno County, California. ... A car destroyed by the 1985 Mexico Earthquake in Mexico City. ... On October 10th, 1986 at 11:50 HRS local time, a major earthquake struck El Salvador, causing considerable damage to the capital San Salvador and surrounding areas, including neighbouring Hunduras and Guatemala. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Whittier Narrows earthquake struck the San Gabriel Valley and surrounding communities of Southern California at 7:42 a. ... The 1989 Newcastle earthquake was a magnitude 5. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri The Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ... The Loma Prieta earthquake was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p. ... For other uses, see Santa Cruz. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... Oakland redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... Dates: October 14, 1989–October 28, 1989 MVP: Dave Stewart (Oakland) Television: ABC CBS Radio Network (Jack Buck, Johnny Bench and John Rooney Announcers: Al Michaels, Tim McCarver and Jim Palmer Umpires: Rich Garcia (AL), Paul Runge (NL), Al Clark (AL), Dutch Rennert (NL), Vic Voltaggio (AL), Eric Gregg (NL... Monster Park (colloquially, The Stick or Candlestick, after its original name of Candlestick Park) is an outdoor sports and entertainment stadium located in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Iran Earthquake of June 1990, also known as the Manjil-Rudbar Earthquake, caused widespread damage in areas within a one hundred kilometer radius of the epicenter near the City of Rasht and about two hundred kilometers northwest of Tehran. ... Gilan (Persian: گیلان, locally known as Guilan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Map of Nueva Ecija showing the location of Cabanatuan City. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... The Landers Earthquake is a magnitude 7. ... Yucca Valleys West End Yucca Valley is an incorporated town located in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Latur earthquake struck in India on September 30, 1993. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... The 1994 Northridge earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994 at 4:30:55 am Pacific Standard Time in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... Neftegorsk (Нефтего́рск) was an oil-producing town in eastern Russia devastated on May 28, 1995, by an earthquake measuring 7. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Damage at Minatogawa, Kobe Damage at Sannomiya, Kobe The Great Hanshin Earthquake, or Kobe earthquake as it is more commonly known overseas, was an earthquake in Japan which occurred on Tuesday January 17, 1995 at 5:46 a. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Earthquake damage in Taichung county Ji-Ji earthquake (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the 921 earthquake (traditional Chinese: ) occurred on September 21, 1999 in central Taiwan at 1:47 am local time (September 20 17:47 GMT) and measured 7. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Categories: South America geography stubs | Towns in Colombia ... The 1999 Ä°zmit earthquake was approximately a 7. ... Hector Mine is located several miles northeast of Los Angeles, California. ... Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... An earthquake, with a magnitude of 7. ... Düzce is the capital city of Düzce Province in Turkey. ... The granite statue of twins atop 26 Mammadaliyev Street shook lose and fell to the street below. ...

21st century

The Nisqually earthquake occurred on February 28, 2001, and was one of the largest recorded earthquakes in Washington state history. ... The 2001 El Salvador earthquakes were two earthquakes which hit El Salvador on January 13 and February 13, 2001, within exactly one month of each other. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2001 Gujarat earthquake was reportedly the most devastating earthquake in India in recent history. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes were two earthquakes which hit the Hindu Kush mountain range area in Afghanistan on March 3 and March 25, 2002. ... The 2002 Molise earthquake was a magnitude 5. ... Bam in 2002. ... Activity snapshot 35 hours after Sept 28, 2004 large earthquake. ... The Chūetsu Earthquakes ) began at 5:56 p. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea (subduction) earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Epicentre map from NOAA USGS image depicting earthquake zones for the Sunda Trench - Damage zones for 1833 and 1861, then 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, and 28 March 2005 Sumatran earthquake. ... Strength of the initial quake, measured using the Japanese intensity scale, as recorded throughout south-western Japan. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kashmir earthquake (also known as the South Asian earthquake or the Great Pakistan earthquake) of 2005, was a major earthquake, of which the epicentre was the Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... Location of earthquake Workers in Nairobi were quick to rush to safety when the quake hit. ... The May 2006 Java earthquake occurred at 05:54 local time on 27 May 2006 (22:54 GMT 26 May), in the Indian Ocean around 25 km (15 miles) south-southwest of the Indonesian city of Yogyakarta, near Galur, on the southern side of the island of Java (), 17. ... Map showing location of epicentre The July 2006 Java earthquake was a magnitude 7. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The main earthquake and its aftershocks The 2006 Hawaii earthquake was an offshore earthquake occurring 10 km (6 miles) southwest from Puakō, Hawaii, United States, on Sunday October 15, 2006 at 7:07:49 AM local time (17:07:49 (UTC)). It measured 6. ... The Kuril Islands earthquake happened at late evening in local time (8:29pm in JST) on November 15, 2006 with epicentre at 46 degrees 42. ... The 2006 Hengchun earthquake occurred on December 26, 2006 at 12:25 UTC (20:25 local time), with an epicenter off the southwest coast of Taiwan, approximately 22. ... The March 2007 Sumatra earthquakes were two earthquakes which hit near the northern end of Lake Singkarak in Sumatra, Indonesia, on March 6, 2007 within two hours of each other. ... At 9:42 a. ... The 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake took place on April 2, 2007, near the island of Gizo, in the Solomon Islands. ... On June 13, 2007, the United States Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center reported that a strong earthquake, ranking 6. ... The Chūetsu Offshore Earthquake (Japanese: [1]) was a powerful magnitude 6. ... The 2007 Peru earthquake was an earthquake measuring 8. ... The September 2007 Sumatra earthquakes were a series of earthquakes that struck the Java Trench off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, three greater than magnitude 7. ... The 2007 Antofagasta earthquake was an earthquake registered on November 14, 2007 at 15:40:53 UTC (12:40:53 local time). ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Padang is the main capital of West Sumatra in Indonesia. ... Tsunameter and buoys used by DART system The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), operated by NOAA in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, USA, is one of two tsunami warning centers in the United States. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains Karakash River in the Western Kunlun Shan, seen from the Tibet-Xinjiang highway Peak in Kunlun range View of Western Kunlun Shan from the Tibet-Xinjiang highway The Kunlun mountain range (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea (subduction) earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Tsunameter and buoys used by DART system The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), operated by NOAA in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, USA, is one of two tsunami warning centers in the United States. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Chengde. ... This article is about the Chinese province. ...

Earthquakes in mythology and religion

In Norse mythology, earthquakes were explained as the violent struggling of the god Loki. When Loki, god of mischief and strife, murdered Baldr, god of beauty and light, he was punished by being bound in a cave with a poisonous serpent placed above his head dripping venom. Loki's wife Sigyn stood by him with a bowl to catch the poison, but whenever she had to empty the bowl the poison would drip on Loki's face, forcing him to jerk his head away and thrash against his bonds, causing the earth to tremble.[29] Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... The Aesir (Old Norse Æsir, singular Áss, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur) are the principal pantheon of gods in Norse mythology. ... Balder redirects here. ... Sigyn was, in Norse mythology, the wife of Loki, who bore him two sons, Narvi and Váli. ...


In Greek mythology, Poseidon was the god of earthquakes.[30] The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...


See also

Look up earthquake in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Catastrophe modeling (also known as cat modeling) is the process of using computer-assisted calculations to estimate the losses that could be sustained by a portfolio of properties due to a catastrophic event such as a hurricane or earthquake. ... A cryoseism, also known as a frost quake[1][2] or ice quake, is a non-tectonic seismic event caused by a sudden freezing action in soil or rock materials saturated with water or ice. ... Earthquake insurance is a form of property insurance that pays the policyholder in the event of an earthquake that causes damage to the property. ... An earthquake light is an unusual luminous aerial phenomenon, similar in appearance to the aurora borealis, that appears in the sky at or near areas of tectonic stress, seismic activity or volcanic eruptions. ... Earthquake weather is a type of weather popularly believed to precede earthquakes. ... Earthquake is a 1974 action adventure/disaster/thriller film that achieved huge box-office success, inspiring the Disaster film genre of the 1970s where recognizable all-star casts attempt to survive life or death situations. ... Elastic rebound In geology, the elastic rebound theory was the first theory to explain the immediate cause of earthquakes. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Although the theory of plate tectonics well describes the mechanisms for interplate earthquakes (earthquakes at plate boundaries), there is the fact that very large intraplate earthquakes (earthquake within plates) can inflict heavy damage on towns and cities. ... The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale (震度 shindo) is a measure used in Japan to indicate the strength of earthquakes. ... The following is a list of major earthquakes. ... The following list compiles known earthquakes that have caused one or more fatalities since 1900. ... For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... Global earthquake epicentres, 1963–1998 The 14 major plates plus the Scotia Plate Plate tectonics map from NASA This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth. ... A megathrust earthquake is an interplate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath (subducts) another. ... The meizoseismal area in an earthquake is the area of maximum damage. ... The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. ... A moonquake is the lunar equivalent of an earthquake, i. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... A seismic scale is used to measure and compare the relative severity of earthquakes. ... Body waves and surface waves Earthquake wave paths p-wave and s-wave from seismograph A seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth, most often as the result of a tectonic earthquake, sometimes from an explosion. ... The Seismogenic Layer is the range of depths within the crust or lithosphere over which most earthquakes are initiated. ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos(σεισμός) = earthquake and λόγος,logos = knowledge ) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... In mechanics, a shock is a sudden acceleration or deceleration caused, for example, by impact or explosion. ... Tectonic plate boundaries, showing the plate movement direction and magnitude of motion. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The VAN method is an experimental earthquake prediction method. ...

References

  1. ^ Spence, William; S. A. Sipkin, G. L. Choy (1989). Measuring the Size of an Earthquake. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  2. ^ Talebian, M. Jackson, J. 2004. A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Geophysical Journal International, 156, pages 506-526
  3. ^ Greene, H. W.; Burnley, P. C. (26 October 1989). "A new self-organizing mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes". Nature 341: 733-737. doi:10.1038/341733a0. Retrieved on 2006-11-03. 
  4. ^ but earthquakes can occur almost anywhere, including New York City, London, and Australia. Earthquake Hazards Program. USGS. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  5. ^ Common Myths about Earthquakes. USGS. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  6. ^ Earthquake Facts and Statistics: Are earthquakes increasing?. USGS. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  7. ^ Historic Earthquakes and Earthquake Statistics: Where do earthquakes occur?. USGS. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  8. ^ Visual Glossary - Ring of Fire. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  9. ^ Catastrophic earthquake
  10. ^ Global urban seismic risk
  11. ^ Earthquake safety in Iran and other developing countries
  12. ^ Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
  13. ^ Earthquake Timeline - 1920
  14. ^ World's worst natural disasters since 1900
  15. ^ Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900
  16. ^ Koffee News. (Avon, NJ: Koffee News, 2008)Vol 1, No. 41. p. 1.
  17. ^ Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900
  18. ^ Iran earthquake kills thousands
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ The Tale of the Tragedy of Neftegorsk
  21. ^ 1998: 4,000 feared dead in Afghan earthquake
  22. ^ Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900
  23. ^ El Comercio Peru.
  24. ^ Channelnewsasia.com
  25. ^ www.4chan.org
  26. ^ cnn.com
  27. ^ cnn.com
  28. ^ Quake in Indonesia raises tsunami fears
  29. ^ Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson
  30. ^ POSEIDON : Greek god of the sea & earthquakes ; mythology ; pictures : NEPTUNE

InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Earthquake

Educational

  • 12 of the Most Destructive Earthquakes at HowStuffWorks
  • How to survive an earthquake - Guide for children and youth
  • Guide to earthquakes and plate tectonics
  • Earthquakes — an educational booklet by Kaye M. Shedlock & Louis C. Pakiser
  • The Severity of an Earthquake
  • USGS Earthquake FAQs
  • IRIS Seismic Monitor - maps all earthquakes in the past five years.
  • Latest Earthquakes in the World - maps all earthquakes in the past week.
  • Earthquake Information from the Deep Ocean Exploration Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Geo.Mtu.Edu — How to locate an earthquake's epicenter
  • Photos/images of historic earthquakes
  • earthquakecountry.info Answers to FAQs about Earthquakes and Earthquake Preparedness
  • Interactive guide: Earthquakes - an educational presentation by Guardian Unlimited
  • Geowall — an educational 3D presentation system for looking at and understanding earthquake data
  • Virtual Earthquake - educational site explaining how epicenters are located and magnitude is determined
  • HowStuffWorks — How Earthquakes Work
  • CBC Digital Archives — Canada's Earthquakes and Tsunamis
  • Earthquakes Educational Resources - dmoz

HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

Seismological data centers

Europe

  • International Seismological Centre (ISC)
  • European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC)
  • Global Seismic Monitor at GFZ Potsdam
  • Global Earthquake Report – chart
  • Earthquakes in Iceland during the last 48 hours
  • Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Italy
  • Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS), Central Mediterranean
  • Portuguese Meteorological Institute (Seismic activity during the last month)

Japan

  • Earthquake Information of Japan, Japan Meteorological Agency
  • Weathernews Inc.(Seismic activity during the last 7 days), in Japanese language.
    • Weathernews Inc Global web site

United States

  • EQNET: Earthquake Information Network
  • The U.S. National Earthquake Information Center
  • Southern California Earthquake Data Center
  • The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)
  • Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country An Earthquake Science and Preparedness Handbook produced by SCEC
  • Recent earthquakes in California and Nevada
  • Seismograms for recent earthquakes via REV, the Rapid Earthquake Viewer
  • Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), earthquake database and software
  • IRIS Seismic Monitor - world map of recent earthquakes
  • SeismoArchives - seismogram archives of significant earthquakes of the world

Seismic scales

  • The European Macroseismic Scale

Scientific information

  • Earthquake Magnitudes and the Gutenberg-Richter Law. SimScience. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  • Hiroo Kanamori, Emily E. Brodsky (June 2001). "The Physics of Earthquakes". Physics Today 54 (6): 34. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Miscellaneous

  • Reports on China Sichuan earthquake 12/05/2008
  • Kashmir Relief & Development Foundation (KRDF)
  • PBS NewsHour - Predicting Earthquakes
  • USGS – Largest earthquakes in the world since 1900
  • The Destruction of Earthquakes - a list of the worst earthquakes ever recorded
  • Los Angeles Earthquakes plotted on a Google map
  • the EM-DAT International Disaster Database
  • Earthquake Newspaper Articles Archive
  • Earth-quake.org
  • PetQuake.org- official PETSAAF system which relies on strange or atypical animal behavior to predict earthquakes.
  • A series of earthquakes in southern Italy - November 23 1980, Gesualdo
  • Recent Quakes WorldWide
  • Real-time earthquakes on Google Map, Australia and rest of the world
  • Earthquake Information - detailed statistics and integrated with Google Maps and Google Earth
  • Kharita - INGV portal for Digital Cartography - Last earthquakes recorded by INGV Italian Network (with Google Maps)
  • Kharita - INGV portal for Digital Cartography - Italian Seismicity by region 1981-2006 (with Google Maps)
Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Void ratio, in materials science, is defined as the volume of voids in a mixture divided by the volume of solids. ... Bulk density a property of particulate materials. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ... Reynolds dilatancy is the observed tendency of a compacted granular material to dilate (expand in volume) as it is sheared. ... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ... Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Specific storage (Ss), storativity (S), specific yield (Sy) and specific capacity are aquifer properties; they are measures of the ability of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage, due to a unit decline in hydraulic head. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Effective stress (σ) is a value reflecting the strength of a soil. ... Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... An example of lateral earth pressure overturning a retaining wall. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... The (Dutch) Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a test to measure the strength or bearing capacity of (soft) soils. ... The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical properties of soils. ... Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses deep and primarily near surface methods to probe or image the earth. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A direct shear test is a laboratory test used by Professional Engineer Mohamed Fazlin to find the shear strength parameters of soil. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... The Proctor compaction test, and the related Modified Proctor compaction test, are tests to determine the maximum practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates, and are frequently used in geotechnical engineering. ... The R-Value test, California Test 301, measures the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions. ... A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. ... A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil, sand, clay, and other granular materials or powders. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Crosshole sonic logging is a method to verify the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. ... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... Dynamic load testing is a fast and effective method of assessing foundation bearing capacity that requires instrumenting a deep foundation with accelerometers and strain transducers and analyzing data collected by these sensors. ... Wave equation analysis is a numerical method of analysis for the behavior of driven foundation piles. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... A diagram of a mechanically stabilized earth wall as it would be modeled in a finite element analysis. ... Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. ... A tieback is a horizontal wire used to reinforce retaining walls for stability. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... A series of mixed vertical oscillators A plot of the peak acceleration for the mixed vertical oscillators A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... // The interaction between ground and structure consists of an exchange of mutual stress between the structure itself and the foundations ground. ... Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally synthetic products used to solve geotechnical problems. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ... Geomembranes are a kind of geosynthetic material. ... A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a woven fabric like material primarily used for the lining of landfills. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program-Northern California (277 words)
For California earthquakes of Magnitude 3.5 and larger.
Earthquake basics and educational material; geological and historical information; links to professional and amateur organizations; online access to earthquake data.
Earthquakes in the news, special events and research developments of particular or topical interest.
Earthquake Facts & Follies (1898 words)
An earthquake is the sudden, sometimes violent movement of the earth's surface from the release of energy in the earth's crust.
Earthquake detectors are mentioned later in oriental manuscripts, but in the west earthquake detection instruments did not emerge until centuries later.
Earthquakes may occur in an area before, during, and after a volcanic eruption, but they are the result of the active forces connected with the eruption, and not the cause of volcanic activity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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