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Encyclopedia > Earthly Branches

The Earthly Branches (Chinese: 地支; pinyin: dìzhī; or Chinese: 十二支; pinyin: shíèrzhī; literally "twelve branches") provide one Chinese system for reckoning time. Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)). This article describes the most common variant called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)). This article describes the most common variant called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... A pocket watch, a common timekeeping device. ...


This system was built from observations of the orbit of Jupiter. Chinese astronomers divided the celestial circle into 12 sections to follow the orbit of Suixing (Jupiter, the Year Star). Astronomers rounded the orbit of Suixing to 12 years (from 11.86). Suixing was associated with Sheti (ɳ Böotes) and sometimes called Sheti. Adjective Jovian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ...


In correlative thinking, the twelve years of the Jupiter cycle also identify the twelve months of the year, twelve animals (mnemonics for the system), directions, seasons, months, and Chinese hour in the form of double-hours. When a Branch is used for the exact time of a day, the listed hours are used. When used for a period, it means a period from one hour before to one hour after. For instance, 午 (the Horse) means noon or a period from 11am to 1pm. (The jie qi system provided single hours and 15-degree arcs in time and space.) A mnemonic (pronounced in American English, in British English) is a memory aid. ... In measurement, Chinese units (市制 Pinyin: Shìzhì, city standard) are the units used in Imperial China, and are still used. ...


Chinese seasons are based on observations of the sun and stars, not the weather. Many Chinese calendrical systems have started the new year on the first new moon after the winter solstice. This article is about divisions of a year. ... Weather is an all-encompassing term used to describe all of the many and varied phenomena that can occur in the atmosphere of a planet. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is...


The Earthly Branches are today used with the Heavenly Stems in the current version of the "traditional calendar" and in Taoism. The Ganzhi (Stem-Branch) combination is a fairly new way to mark time; in the Shang era it was the ten Heavenly Stems that provided the names of the days of the week. The Branches are as old as the Stems (and according to recent archaeology may actually be older), but the Stems were tied to the ritual calendars of Chinese kings. They were not part of the calendrical systems of the majority of Chinese. The ten heavenly stems (Chinese: 天干; pinyin: ) or ten stems (Chinese: 十干; pinyin: ) are an ancient Chinese cyclic numeral system. ... The Chinese calendar (Traditional Chinese: 農曆; Simplified Chinese: 农历; pinyin: nónglì) is a lunisolar calendar incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Dao De Jing (ascribed to Laozi) and the Zhuangzi. ... The ten heavenly stems (Chinese: 天干; pinyin: ) or ten stems (Chinese: 十干; pinyin: ) are an ancient Chinese cyclic numeral system. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...

  Earthly
Branch
Chinese
name
Japanese
name (On and Kun)
Korean
name
Vietnamese
name
Chinese
zodiac
Direction Season Lunar Month Hour
1 shi
ne
tý (Tí) Rat
(north)
winter Month 11
(winter solstice)
11pm to 1am
(midnight)
2 chǒu chu
ushi
sửu Ox 30° Month 12 1am to 3am
3 yín in
tora
dần Tiger 60° spring Month 1 3am to 5am
4 mǎo bou
u
mão (mẹo) Rabbit 90°
(east)
Month 2
(vernal equinox)
5am to 7am
5 chén shin
tatsu
thìn Dragon 120° Month 3 7am to 9 am
6 mi tỵ Snake 150° summer Month 4 9am to 11am
7 uma ngọ Horse 180°
(south)
Month 5
(summer solstice)
11am to 1pm
(noon)
8 wèi mi
hitsuji
mùi Sheep 210° Month 6 1pm to 3pm
9 shēn saru thân Monkey 240° autumn Month 7 3pm to 5pm
10 yǒu tori dậu Rooster 270°
(west)
Month 8
(autumnal equinox)
5pm to 7pm
11 jutsu
inu
tuất Dog 300° Month 9 7pm to 9pm
12 hài gai
i
hợi Pig 330° winter Month 10 9pm to 11pm

Some cultures assign different animals: the second animal is the water buffalo in Vietnam, the fourth is the cat in Vietnam and Thailand, and the twelfth is the wild boar in Japan. The Rat/Mouse is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... The Ox ( 牛 ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Tiger ( 虎 ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Rabbit is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... A Chinese dragon The Dragon is one of the 12-year cycles of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Snake is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Horse is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by the sun on the northern hemisphere summer solstice The summer solstice is an astronomical term regarding the position of the sun in relation to the celestial equator. ... The Sheep ( 羊 ) (also known as Goat) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Monkey is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Rooster is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The autumnal equinox (or fall equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical autumn. ... The Dog is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... The Pig ( 豬 ) or boar is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Binomial name Bubalus arnee (Kerr, 1792) The Water Buffalo is a very large ungulate and a member of the wild oxen family. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) The cat, also called the domestic cat or house cat, is a small carnivorous mammal of the subspecies Felis silvestris catus. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ...


Directions

The 24 cardinal directions.
The 24 cardinal directions.

Even though Chinese has words for the four cardinal directions - 北 (běi, north), 東 (dōng, east), 南 (nán, south), and 西 (xī, west) - Chinese mariners and astronomers preferred using the twelve directions of the Earthly Branches, which is somewhat similar to the modern-day practice of English-speaking pilots using o'clock for directions. Since twelve points were not enough for sailing, twelve midpoints were added. Instead of combining two adjacent direction names, they assigned new names as follows: Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Earthly Branches ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Earthly Branches ... A compass rose showing the cardinal directions In geography, the four cardinal directions are north, east, south and west. ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ...

  • For the four diagonal directions, appropriate trigram names of I Ching were used.
  • For the rest, the Heavenly Stems were used. According to the Five Elements theory, east is assigned to wood, and the Stems of wood are 甲 (jiǎ) and 乙 (yǐ). Thus they were assigned clockwise to the two adjacent points of the east.

Following is a table of the 24 directions: Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) | Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism The Panchamahabhuta (five great elements) Prithvi/Bhumi (Earth) Ap/Jala (Water) Agni/Tejas (Fire) Vayu/Pavan (Air/Wind) Akasha (Aether) The five elements usually refer to wood, fire, earth, metal, and water in East Asian philosophy. ...

  Character Chinese
name
Japanese
name
Direction
1 ne
(north)
2 guǐ mizunoto 15°
3 chǒu ushi 30°
4 gèn ushitora 45°
(northeast)
5 yín tora 60°
6 jiǎ kinoe 75°
7 mǎo u 90°
(east)
8 kinoto 105°
9 chén tatsu 120°
10 xùn tatsumi 135°
(southeast)
11 mi 150°
12 bǐng hinoe 165°
13 uma 180°
(south)
14 dīng hinoto 195°
15 wèi hitsuji 210°
16 kūn hitsujisaru 225°
(southwest)
17 shēn saru 240°
18 gēng kanoe 255°
19 yǒu tori 270°
(west)
20 xīn kanoto 285°
21 inu 300°
22 qián inui 315°
(northwest)
23 hài i 330°
24 rén mizunoe 345°

Advanced mariners such as Zhèng Hé used 48-point compasses. An additional midpoint was called by a combination of its two closest basic directions, such as 丙午 (bǐngwǔ) for the direction of 172.5°, the midpoint between 丙 (bǐng), 165°, and 午 (wǔ), 180°. Zheng He wearing formal official dress Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: é„­å’Œ; Simplified Chinese: 郑和; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; pinyin: MÇŽ SānbÇŽo; Arabic name: Hajji Mahmud) (1371–1433), is the most well-known Chinese mariner and explorer and fleet Admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to...


See also

The sexagesimal cycle in China is composed of two series that paired with one another. ... The Chinese calendar (Traditional Chinese: 農曆; Simplified Chinese: 农历; pinyin: nónglì) is a lunisolar calendar incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ...

External links

  • Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches - Hong Kong Observatory

  Results from FactBites:
 
CalendarHome.com - Chinese calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia (4832 words)
This system is based on two forms of counting: a cycle of 10 Heavenly Stems and a cycle of 12 Earthly Branches.
The Earthly Branches are associated with the twelve signs of the Zodiac.
Each Earthly Branch is also associated with an animal, collectively known as the Twelve Animals.
Shang Dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1026 words)
Information about the Shang Dynasty comes from inscriptions on bronze artifacts and oracle bones--turtle shells, cattle scapula or other bones on which were written the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters.
The oracle bone inscriptions, which date to the latter half of the dynasty, typically recorded the date in the Sexagenary cycle of the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches, followed by the name of the diviner and the topic being divined about.
An interpretation of the answer (prognostication) and whether the divination later proved correct (verification) were sometimes also added.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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