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Encyclopedia > Earth science
Earth sciences Portal

Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth science. The major historic disciplines use physics, geology, geography, meteorology, mathematics, chemistry and biology to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system. Image File history File links Terra. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Reductionism in philosophy describes a number of related, contentious theories that hold, very roughly, that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ... Whole redirects here. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... The Earths Spheres relates to the division of the Earth into broadly four interacting spheres: Hydrosphere Biosphere Lithosphere Atmosphere Other interpretations of this model of the Earth include the following additional spheres: Pedosphere (Soil) Geosphere Anthrosphere Cryosphere (Sometimes included in the hydrosphere) Category: ...

Contents

Earth's spheres

Earth science generally recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. These correspond to rocks, water, air, and life. Some practitioners include the cryosphere (ice) as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere and the pedosphere (soil) as an active, intermixed sphere as part of Earth's spheres.

Lava flows from the Kīlauea volcano into the ocean on the Island of Hawaii
Lava flows from the Kīlauea volcano into the ocean on the Island of Hawaii
  • A very important linking sphere is the biosphere, the study of which is biology. The biosphere consists of all forms of life, from single-celled organisms to pine trees to people. The interactions of Earth's other spheres - lithosphere/geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and/or cryosphere and pedosphere - create the conditions that can support life.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 128 KB) Lava flows from the Kīlauea volcano into the ocean on the Island of Hawaii. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 128 KB) Lava flows from the Kīlauea volcano into the ocean on the Island of Hawaii. ... Kīlauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaiʻi. ... The Island of Hawaiʻi (called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi proper) is one of eight main islands that make up the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Rock (disambiguation). ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the Lithosphere on Earth. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Engineering Geology is the application of the science of geology to the understanding of geologic phenomena and the engineering solution of geologic hazards and other geologic problems for society. ... Sedimentology is the branch of geology primarily concerned with understanding the characteristics of sediments, sedimentary processes and sedimentary rocks originally deposited in sedimentary basins. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... The expression figure of the Earth has various meanings in geodesy according to the way it is used and the precision with which the Earths size and shape is to be defined. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... The gravity field is the field of force, caused by the gravitation of the Earth, and influenced by the Earth rotation, the atmosphere and by geological bodies. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... The pedosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. ... The word edaphology is derived from the Greek words edaphos meaning ground or floor, and logy meaning word, or wisdom. ... Pedology (pědǒlōgy), (from Russian: pedologiya, from the Greek pedon = soil, earth), is the study of soils and soil formation. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of inland waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust, (commonly in aquifers). ... World Oceans Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters. ... Chemical oceanography is the study of the behaviour of the chemical elements within the Earths oceans. ... Various species of reef fish in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... The cryosphere is frozen water in the form of snow, permanently frozen ground (permafrost), floating ice, and glaciers. ... Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Air” redirects here. ... [fAgot png|thumb|200px|right|Atmosphere diagram showing the exosphere and other layers. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...

Earth's energy

In geology, plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are phenomena that can be explained in terms of energy transformations in the Earth's crust[1]. Recent studies suggest that the Earth transforms about 6.18 x 10-12 J/s (joules per second) per kilogram. Given the Earth's mass, the rate of energy transformations inside the Earth is about 37 x 1012 J/s (37 terawatts). The heat escaping from inside the Earth is only about 0.02% of the amount of energy Earth receives from Sun in the form of sunlight, and radiates back into space in the form of infrared blackbody radiation (~1.74 x 1017 J/s = 174 petawatts). This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... In physics and engineering,energy transformation often termed as energy conversion, is any process of transforming one form of energy to another. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ...


From the study of neutrinos radiated from the Earth (see KamLAND), scientists have recently estimated that about 24 terawatts (65%) of this rate of energy transformation is due to radioactive decay (principally of potassium 40, thorium 232 and uranium 238), and the remaining 13 terawatts is from the continuous gravitational sorting of the core and mantle of the earth, energies left over from the formation of the Earth, about 4.57 billion years ago (this sorting represents continuing gravitational collapse of the Earth into the maximally compact object which is consistent with its composition-- a process which releases gravitational potential energy), and finally - from tidal flexing of Earth's interior and crust. The magnitude of all of these energy sources decline over time, and based on half-life alone, it has been estimated that the current radioactive energy of the planet represents less than 1% of that which was available at the time the planet was formed. Neutrinos are elementary particles denoted by the symbol ν. Travelling close to the speed of light, lacking electric charge and able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed, they are extremely difficult to detect. ... Image:Kamland detector. ... In physics and engineering,energy transformation often termed as energy conversion, is any process of transforming one form of energy to another. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The Earth, photographed from Apollo 17 in 1972. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As a result, geological forces of continental accretion, subduction and sea floor spreading, account for 90% of the Earth's energy. The remaining 10% of geological tectonic energy comes through hotspots produced by mantle plumes, resulting in shield volcanoes like Hawaii, geyser activity like Yellowstone or flood basalts like Iceland. Oceanic-continental convergence: The required conditions for plate accretion Accretion, in geology, is a process by which sediment is added to a tectonic plate. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... Seafloor spreading is a part of the theory of plate tectonics. ... A hotspot is a center of high activity within a larger area of low activity. ... Mantle plumes are a geological phenomenon originally proposed by W. Jason Morgan in 1971. ... Mauna Kea, a shield volcano, on the Island of Hawai‘i with a light dusting of snow. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ... Moses Coulee showing multiple flood basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. ...


Tectonic process are driven by heat from the Earth's interior. The process is a simple heat engine which works via the upward buoyancy-induced motion of hot, low density magma after expansion by heat. The processes metamorphically alter crustal rocks, and (more importantly from the energy view) during orogenies, lift them up into mountain ranges. The potential energy represented by the mountain range's weight and height thus represents heat from the core of the Earth which has been partly transformed into gravitational potential energy. This potential energy may be suddenly released in landslides or tsunamis. Similarly, the energy release which drives an earthquake represents stresses in rocks that are mechanical potential energy which has been similarly stored from tectonic processes. An earthquake thus ultimately represents kinetic energy which is being released from elastic potential energy in rocks, which in turn has been stored from heat energy released by radioactive decay and gravitational collapse in the Earth's interior. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


The energy which is responsible for the geological processes of erosion and deposition is a result of the interaction of solar energy and gravity. An estimated 23% of the total insolation is used to drive the water cycle. When water vapour condenses to fall as rain, it dissolves small amounts of carbon dioxide, making a weak acid. This acid acting upon the metallic silicate minerals that form most rocks produces chemical weathering, removing the metals, and leading to the production of rocks and sand, carried by wind and water downslope through gravity to be deposited at the edge of continents in the sea. Physical weathering of rocks is produced by the expansion of ice crystals, left by water in the joint planes of rocks. A geologic cycle is continued when these eroded sediments are buried and later uplifted into mountains. The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... Boundaries: Phase, Pressure, Temperature Evaporation/Sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface, it is said to have evaporated. ... Rain is a type of precipitation, a product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... This is a drainage basin developed in response to a steady rate of lowering of the local base level, which is the lower boundary. ... Weathering is the decomposing of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the air. ... The rock cycle is a fundamental concept in geology that describes the dynamic transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Similarly meteorological phenomena like wind, rain, hail, snow, lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes, are all a result of energy transformations brought about by solar energy on the planet Earth. It has been estimated that the average total solar incoming radiation (or insolation) is about 1350 watts per square meter incident to the summit of the atmosphere, at the equator at midday, a figure known as the solar constant. Although this amount varies a little each year, as a result of solar flares, prominences and the sunspot cycle. Some 34% of this is immediately reflected by the planetary albedo, as a result of clouds, snowfields, and even reflected light from water, rock or vegetation. As more energy is received in the tropics than is re-radiated, while more energy is radiated at the poles than is received, climatic homeostasis is only maintained by a transfer of energy from the tropics to the poles. Bold text For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Rain is a type of precipitation, a product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... TOA and surface insolation, annual mean Insolation is the incoming solar radiation that reaches a planet and its atmosphere or, by extension, any object exposed to solar rays, such as watts per square meter of Sun-facing cross section, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; most of that power is in... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... A solar flare is a violent explosion in the Suns atmosphere with an energy equivalent to tens of millions of hydrogen bombs. ... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmosphere with its magnetic field. ... 400 year sunspot history A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ...

A volcano is the release of stored energy from below the surface of Earth originating in radioactive decay and gravitational sorting in the Earth's core and mantle of energies left over from its formation
A volcano is the release of stored energy from below the surface of Earth originating in radioactive decay and gravitational sorting in the Earth's core and mantle of energies left over from its formation

This transfer of energy is what drives the winds and the ocean currents. Like biological processes, all meteorological processes involve transformation of energy from a concentrated form such as sunlight into a less concentrated form, such as far infrared radiation (i.e., heat radiation) at the much smaller characteristic temperatures that occur on Earth, and thus is diffused into many photons. However, energy may be temporarily locally stored during this process, and the sudden release of such stored sources is responsible for the dramatic processes mentioned above. For example, the kinetic energy of a snow-avalanche or hurricane is due to the sudden release of energy previously captured from solar radiations. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ...


Methodology

Like all other scientists, Earth scientists apply the scientific method: formulate hypotheses after observation of and gathering data about natural phenomena and then test those hypotheses. In Earth science, data usually plays a major role in testing and formulating hypotheses. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


Partial list of the major Earth Science topics

Atmosphere

Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ...

Biosphere

Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... Micropaleontology, the study of microfossils, is a branch of paleontology. ... Geomicrobiology is a science that combines geology and microbiology, and studies the interaction of microscopic organisms with their inorganic environment, such as in sedimentary rocks. ...

Hydrosphere

Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of inland waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. ... Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust, (commonly in aquifers). ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Chemical oceanography is the study of the behaviour of the chemical elements within the Earths oceans. ... Various species of reef fish in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... Marine geology involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins. ... Paleoceanography is the study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation. ... World Oceans Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters. ...

Lithosphere or geosphere

This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be utilized for economic and/or industrial purposes. ... Engineering Geology is the application of the science of geology to the understanding of geologic phenomena and the engineering solution of geologic hazards and other geologic problems for society. ... Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is a multidisciplinary field of applied science and is closely related to engineering geology and somewhat related to environmental geography. ... Historical geology is the use of the principles of geology to reconstruct and understand the history of the Earth. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Quaternary geology is that part of geology that is concerned with the study of the Quaternary, the youngest geological period. ... Astrogeology is the scientific discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites. ... Sedimentology is the branch of geology primarily concerned with understanding the characteristics of sediments, sedimentary processes and sedimentary rocks originally deposited in sedimentary basins. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structural geology is the study of the three dimensional distribution of rock bodies and their planar or folded surfaces, and their internal fabrics. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments. ... An Australian based componey that produces Geothermal Power uning Hot Dry Rocks (HDR) It is supported by the Australian goverment Geodynamics Category: ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The cause of Earths magnetic field (the surface magnetic field) is not known for certain, but is possibly explained by dynamo theory. ... Gravimetry is the measurement of a gravitational field. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust, (commonly in aquifers). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ... Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form. ... Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. ...

Pedosphere

Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... The word edaphology is derived from the Greek words edaphos meaning ground or floor, and logy meaning word, or wisdom. ... Pedology (pědǒlōgy), (from Russian: pedologiya, from the Greek pedon = soil, earth), is the study of soils and soil formation. ...

Systems

Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Population density by country, 2006 Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... The Gaia hypothesis, a hypothesis put forward to explain a number of paradoxes about life and the earth was first formulated in the 1960s, by the independent research scientist James Lovelock. ...

Others

Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Geoinformatics is a science which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geosciences and related branches of engineering. ... A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for managing data that has a spatial specialized form of an information system. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Geodetic pillar (1855); Ostend, Belgium Archive with lithography plates for maps of Bavaria in the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation in Munich Geodesy (IPA North American English ; British, Australian English etc. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ http://okfirst.ocs.ou.edu/train/meteorology/EnergyBudget.html

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Earth science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (733 words)
Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.
Soil science covers the outermost layer of the Earth's crust that is subject to soil formation processes (or pedosphere).
Atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth (or atmosphere) between the surface and the exosphere (~1000 km).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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