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Encyclopedia > Early Modern period

The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents of todays states in what is called Modern times. This categorical era spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society, and in subsequent years the term "Early modern" has evolved to be less eurocentric and more generally a semi-calendar era useful for tracking related historical events across vast regions, as the cultural influences and dynamics from one region impacting on distant others has become more appreciated. Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. ... Era may refer to: Era, a long period of history ERA Real Estate, also known as Electronic Realty Associates Inc. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A Watt steam engine. ... A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. ...


The early modern period is characterized by the rise to importance of science, the shrinkage of relative distances through improvements in transportation and communications and increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics and the early authoritarian nation states. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Communication allows people to exchange thoughts by one of several methods. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ...


Further, capitalist economies and institutions began their rise and development, beginning in northern Italian republics such as Genoa, and the oligarchy in Venice. The early modern period also saw the rise and beginning of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ...


As such, the early modern period represents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of Christian theocracy, feudalism and serfdom. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ...


The period includes the Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years' War, the European colonization of the Americas and the peak of the European witch-hunt craze. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ...

Contents

The early modern period

In Europe

Main article: Early modern Europe

The beginning of the early modern period is not clear-cut, but is generally accepted to be in the late 15th century or early 16th century. Significant dates in this transitional phase from medieval to early modern Europe can be noted: The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

The end date of the early modern period is usually associated with the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in about 1750. Another significant date is 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution, which drastically transformed the state of European politics and ushered in the Napoleonic Era and modern Europe. Movable metal type, and composing stick, descended from Gutenbergs invention Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Combatants England France Brittany Commanders John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury† Jean Bureau Strength 4,000-6,000 8,000 - 13,000 Casualties 4,000 mainly wounded or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Castillon was the last battle fought between the French, the Bretons and the English... This article is in need of attention. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Nominally, Richmond in practice, the Earl of Oxford Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed; Henry... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: ) was a series of six monarchs of a Welsh origin who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Conquista redirects here. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before the Jews of Spain were expelled in 1492. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... A Watt steam engine. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The politics of Europe deals with the continually evolving politics within the continent. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ...


Difference between 'early modern' and the Renaissance

The expression "early modern" is sometimes, and incorrectly, used as a substitute for the term Renaissance. However, "Renaissance" is properly used in relation to a diverse series of cultural developments; which occurred over several hundred years in many different parts of Europe — especially central and northern Italy — and span the transition from late Medieval civilization and the opening of the early modern period. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


Artistically, the early modern is not a common designation as the Renaissance is clearly distinct from what came later. Only in the study of literature is the early modern period a standard period. Music is generally divided between Renaissance and Baroque. Similarly philosophy is divided between Renaissance philosophy and the Enlightenment. In other fields there is far more continuity through the period such as warfare and science. Renaissance music is European classical music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Renaissance philosophy is the period of the history of philosophy in Europe that falls roughly during the between the Middle Ages and the Enlightenment. ... ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ...


European Political Powers

During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Early Modern Britain is a term used to define the period in the history of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... This is the history of Italy during foreign domination and the unification. ... It has been suggested that Byzantium after Byzantium be merged into this article or section. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

In East Asia

The term early modern is most often applied to Europe, and its overseas empire. However, in Japan, the Edo period from 1590 to 1868 is also sometimes referred to as the early modern period. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Edo Period. ...


In South Asia

The rise of the Great Mughal Empire usually dated to have begun in 1526, coresponds nicely with the end of the Middle Ages. The culture which began then included a markedly orderly government, widespread economic prosperity and religious tolerance, and great achievements in the arts in architecture, minature painting, and literature. It might be fairly said the huge Mughal empire made the small squabbling states of Europe pale to comparative barbaric provinces, as the empire dominated south and south-western Asia, rivaling all other empires in history for both population and area held. It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ...


In Southwest Asia

This era was perhaps the golden age for the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid (Persian) Empire. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


See also

The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Shakespeares writings are universally associated with Early Modern English Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 1400s) to 1650. ... Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ...

External links

  • Discussion of the medieval/modern transition from the introduction to the pioneering Cambridge Modern History (1903)
  • Society for Renaissance Studies
  • Early Modern Culture


History of Europe
Prehistoric Europe | Classical antiquity | Late antiquity | Middle Ages | Renaissance | Early modern Europe | Modern Times | Contemporary history

  Results from FactBites:
 
Early modern Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (634 words)
The early modern period is characterized by the rise to importance of science and increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics and the nation state.
The beginning of the early modern period is not clear-cut, but is generally accepted to be in the late 15th century or early 16th century.
The expression "early modern" is sometimes, and incorrectly, used as a substitute for the term Renaissance.
Early Modern period (100 words)
The Early Modern Period is a term used by historians to refer to the transitional period in Western Europe between the Middle Ages and modern society.
The latter is assumed to be characterised by the importance of science, technological progress, secular civic politics and capitalist economics, all monitored by the nation state.
The term 'Early Modern', then, applies to the period from the fifteenth to the early eighteenth century when these developments were in the process of formation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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