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Encyclopedia > Early Modern English Bible translations

Early Modern English Bible translations are those translations of the Bible which were made between about 1500 and 1800, the period of Early Modern English. This was the first major period of Bible translation into the English language including the landmark King James Version and Douai Bibles. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation led to the need for Bibles in the vernacular with competing groups each producing their own versions. The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... A number of Old English Bible translations were prepared in mediaeval England, translations of parts of the Bible into the Old English language. ... The age of Middle English was not a fertile time for Bible translations but saw the first major translation that of John Wyclif. ... There are many attempts to translate the Bible into modern English which is defined as the form of English in use after 1800. ... Jewish English Bible translations are modern English Bible translations that include the books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) according to the masoretic text, and according to the traditional division and order of Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... There are other translation projects which are worthy of note which are not easily classified in the other groups: Anchor Bible Series - The Anchor Bible is a translation treating the Bible merely as a historical text; each book is translated by a different scholar, with extensive critical commentary. ... The Bible (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity (The Bible actually refers to... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Early Modern English is a name for the modern English language the way it was used between the end of Middle English (in the later half of the 1400s) and 1650. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The Douai Bible, also known as the Rheims-Douai Bible or Douay-Rheims Bible, is a Catholic translation of the Holy Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...

Contents


Tyndale's Bible

William Tyndale was the first figure in this period. His translation was begun in England but failed to find support from the church. He fled to Hamburg, Germany where he finished his translation of the New Testament. It was published in 1526 in Cologne. Many copies of Tyndale's Bible were seized and destroyed when they reached England. He worked on a translation of the Old Testament but was jailed for his work in Brussels in 1535. He completed further translation work while in jail but did not finish the Old Testament before he was executed in 1536. Sculpted Head Of William Tyndale from St Dunstan-in-the-West Church London William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale) (ca. ... Hamburgs central promenade Jungfernstieg on the Alster lake, between 1900 and 1914 Hamburg is Germanys second largest city (after Berlin) and, with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ... // What is the New Testament? The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Cologne (German: ▶ (help· info) [kœln]; Kölsch: Kölle) is Germanys fourth largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. ... Sculpted Head Of William Tyndale from St Dunstan-in-the-West Church London William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale) (ca. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (French: Bruxelles, Dutch: Brussel, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium, the French community of Belgium, the Flemish community and of the European Union. ...


William Tyndale (b. 1484) was a priest who graduated at Oxford, was a student in Cambridge when Martin Luther posted his theses at Wittenburg and was troubled by the problems within the Church. In 1523, taking advantage of the new invention of the printing machine Tyndale began to cast the Scriptures into the current English. However, Tyndale did not have copies of "original" Hebrew texts. In fact the quality of the Hebrew documents was poor, since no original Hebrew sources earlier than the 10th Century had survived. He set out to London fully expecting to find support and encouragement there, but he found neither. He found, as he once said, that there was no room in the palace of the Bishop of London to translate the New Testament; indeed, that there was no place to do it in all England. A wealthy London merchant subsidized him with the munificent gift of ten pounds, with which he went across the Channel to Hamburg; and there and elsewhere on the Continent, where he could be hid, he brought his translation to completion. Printing facilities were greater on the Continent than in England; but there was such opposition to his work that very few copies of the several editions of which we know can still be found. Tyndale was compelled to flee at one time with a few printed sheets and complete his work on another press. Several times copies of his books were solemnly burned, and his own life was frequently in danger. Sculpted Head Of William Tyndale from St Dunstan-in-the-West Church London William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale) (ca. ... Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Wittenburg is a city in the district Ludwigslust in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Hamburgs central promenade Jungfernstieg on the Alster lake, between 1900 and 1914 Hamburg is Germanys second largest city (after Berlin) and, with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ...


The Church had objected to Tyndale's translations because in their belief purposeful mistranslations had been introduced to the works in order to promote anticlericalism and heretical views (same argument they used against Wycliff's translation). Thomas More accused Tyndale of evil purpose in corrupting and changing the words and sense of Scripture. Specifically, he charged Tyndale with mischief in changing three key words throughout the whole of his Testament, such that "priest", "church", and "charity" of customary Roman Catholic usage became in Tyndale's translation "elder", "congregation" and "love". The Church also objected to Wycliffe and Tyndale's translations because they included notes and commentaries promoting antagonism to the Catholic Church and heretical doctrines, particularly, in Tyndale's case, Lutheranism. Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... Portrait of Sir Thomas More, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527). ... Luthers seal Lutheranism is a Christian tradition committed to the main theological insights of Martin Luther. ...


There is one story which tells how money came to free Tyndale from heavy debt and prepare the way for more Bibles. The Bishop of London, Tunstall, was set on destroying copies of the English New Testament. He therefore made a bargain with a merchant of Antwerp, to secure them for him. The merchant was a friend of Tyndale, and went to him to tell him he had a customer for his Bibles, The Bishop of London. Tyndale agreed to give the merchant the Bibles to pay-off his debt and finance new editions of the Bible. The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to a number of triptychs by Renaissance Belgian painter Rubens. ...


The final revision of the Tyndale translations was published in 1534, and that becomes the notable year of his life. In two years he was put to death by strangling in the Netherlands for the unrelated charges of teaching Lutheranism, and his body was burned. However, Tyndale may be considered the father of the King James Version (KJV) since much of his work was transferred to the KJV. The revisers of 1881 declared that while the KJV was the work of many hands, the foundation of it was laid by Tyndale, and that the versions that followed it were substantially reproductions of Tyndale's, or revisions of versions which were themselves almost entirely based on it. Events February 27 - Group of Anabaptists of Jan Matthys seize Münster and declare it The New Jerusalem - they begin to exile dissenters and forcible baptize all others May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The Great Bible - the first "authorised version"

There appeared what is known as the Great Bible in 1539. It was made by Myles Coverdale, and much influenced by Tyndale. He took Tyndale's New Testament and the portions of the Old Testament available before he was jailed and produced the Great Bible in 1535. He probably translated the remainder of the Old Testament himself based on Latin and German versions. The Great Bible was issued to meet a decree that each church should make available in some convenient place the largest possible copy of the whole Bible, where all the parishioners could have access to it and read it at their will. The version gets its name solely from the size of the volume. That decree dates 1538, twelve years after Tyndale's books were burned, and two years after he was burned. The installation of these great books caused tremendous excitement as crowds gathered everywhere. Bishop Bonner caused six copies of the great volume to be located wisely throughout St. Paul's. He found it difficult to make people leave them during the sermons. He was so often interrupted by voices reading to a group, and by the discussions that ensued, that he threatened to have them taken out during the service if people would not be quiet. The Great Bible appeared in seven editions in two years, and continued in recognized power for thirty years. Much of the present English prayer-book is taken from it. The Great Bible was the first authorised edition of the Holy Bible in English, authorised by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Myles Coverdale (also Miles Coverdale) (c1488 - January 20, 1568) was a 16th-century Bible translator who produced the first complete printed translation of the Bible into English. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ...


But this liberty was so sudden that the people naturally abused it. Henry became vexed because the sacred words "were disputed, rimed, sung, and jangled in every ale-house." There had grown up a series of wild ballads and ribald songs in contempt of "the old faith," while it was not really the old faith which was in dispute, but only foreign control of English faith. They had mistaken Henry's meaning. So Henry began to put restrictions on the use of the Bible. There were to be no notes or annotations in any versions, and those that existed were to be blacked out. Only the upper classes were to be allowed to possess a Bible. Finally, the year before his death, all versions were prohibited except the Great Bible, whose cost and size precluded secret use. The decree led to another great burning of Bibles in 1546 — Tyndale, Coverdale, Matthew—all but the Great Bible. The leading religious reformers took flight and fled to European Protestant towns like Frankfurt and Strassburg. // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ...


Under Edward VI, the regency cast off all restrictions on translation and publication of the Bible. The order for a Great Bible in every church was renewed, and there was to be added to it a copy of Erasmus's paraphrase of the four gospels. Nearly fifty editions of the Bible, in whole or in part, appeared in those six years. Edward Tudor redirects here; for another (though unlikely) Edward Tudor, see a putative younger son of Henry VII of England, who, if existed, would be the uncle of this Edward Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547...


Matthew's Bible

  • Matthew's Bible was produced by John Rogers, working under the pseudonym Thomas Matthew for safety, in 1537. It was based on Tyndale's previously published version with the addition of the text Tyndale produced in prison. The remainder used Coverdale's translation. This version received the approval of Henry VIII who had previously banned Tyndale's work. The Great Bible version which appeared first in 1539 became the authorized version in Britain.

Matthews Bible, also known as the Matthew Bible, is the first complete English translation of the Bible (not just the Old Testament or New Testament) published in 1537 under the pseudonym Thomas Matthew. The Matthew Bible was the combined work of three individuals, working from numerous sources in at... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Great Bible was the first authorised edition of the Holy Bible in English, authorised by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England. ...

Taverner's Bible

  • Taverner's Bible is a minor revision of Matthew's Bible edited by Richard Taverner and published in 1539.

Taverners Bible, more correctly called The Most Sacred Bible whiche is the holy scripture, conteyning the old and new testament, translated into English, and newly recognized with great diligence after most faythful exemplars by Rychard Taverner, is a minor revision of Matthews Bible edited by Richard Taverner and...

The Geneva Bible

Then came Queen Mary who again gave in the nominal allegiance of England to the Roman control. But she missed the spirit of the people, who she thought were weary with the excesses of rabid Protestantism; but they were by no means ready to admit the principle of foreign control in religious matters. So the secret use of protestant translations of the Bible continued, despite official efforts to restore England to Catholic unity. Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto) until her death. ...


English Protestant scholarship was driven into exile, and found its way to Frankfurt and Geneva again. There the spirit of scholarship was untrammeled; there they found material for scholarly study of the Bible, and there they made and published a new version of the Bible in English, by all means the best that had been made. In later years, under Elizabeth, it drove the Great Bible off the field by sheer power of excellence. During her reign sixty editions of it appeared. This was the version called the Geneva Bible. It made several changes: for one, in the Genevan edition of 1560 first appeared the familiar division into verses. The chapter division was made three centuries earlier, but the verses belong to the Genevan version, and are meant to make the book suitable for responsive use and for readier reference. They were taken in large part from the work of Robert Stephens, who had divided the Greek Testament into verses ten years earlier, during a journey which he was compelled to make between Paris and Lyons. The Genevan version also abandoned the old black letter, and used the Roman type with which we are familiar. It had full notes on hard passages, which notes helped to produce the King James version. The work itself was completed after the accession of Elizabeth, when most of the religious leaders had returned to England from their exile under Mary. ▶ (help· info) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Holy Bible into English. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Sir Robert Stephens (July 14, 1931 – November 12, 1995) was a leading actor in the early years of Britains Royal National Theatre. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ... Roman type has two separate meanings in typography, both of which refer to the fact that the capital letters of a Roman font have an appearance similar to those used for lettering stone in Ancient Rome. ...


The Geneva Bible was produced in 1560 by William Whittingham who had succeeded John Knox as pastor of the English congregation at Geneva, Switzerland. Whittingham was married to John Calvin's sister and the translation was viewed as too Calvinist by the British authorities. The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Holy Bible into English. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... William Whittingham (c. ... John Knox (1505, 1513 or 1514 – 1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who played the lead part in reforming the Church in Scotland in a Presbyterian manner. ... Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (French Lac Léman German Genfer See) flows into the Rhône River. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


Elizabeth I

At the time of Elizabeth I of England it was found that two versions of the Bible were in common use, the old Great Bible and the new Geneva Bible. Yet there could be no hope of gaining the approval of Elizabeth for the Geneva Bible. For one thing, John Knox had been a party to its preparation; so had Calvin. Elizabeth detested them both, especially Knox. For another thing, its notes were not favorable to royal sovereignty, but smacked so much of popular government as to be offensive. For another thing, it had been made in a foreign land, and was under suspicion on that account. Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


The Bishops' Bible

The result was that Elizabeth's archbishop, Parker, set out to have an authorized version made, selected a revision committee, with instructions to follow wherever possible the Great Bible, to avoid bitter notes, and to make such a version that it might be freely, easily, and naturally read. The result is known as the Bishops' Bible. It was issued in Elizabeth's tenth year (1568), but there is no record that she ever noticed it, though Parker sent her a copy from his sick-bed. The Bishops' Bible shows influence of the Geneva Bible in many ways, though it gives no credit for that. Only its official standing gave it life, and after forty years, in nineteen editions, it was no longer published. The Bishops Bible was an English translation of the Holy Bible produced under the authority of the established Church of England in 1568. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ...


The Bishops' Bible was an Anglican revision of the Great Bible produced by 9 bishops in a response to the rising popularity of the Geneva Bible. It was produced in 1568 and revised in 1572. The Bishops Bible was an English translation of the Holy Bible produced under the authority of the established Church of England in 1568. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ...


The Douai-Rheims Version

The Douai version was the work of English scholars connected with the University of Douai. The New Testament was issued at Rheims in 1582, and the whole Bible in 1609, just before the King James version. It is made, not from the Hebrew and the Greek, though it refers to both, but from the Vulgate. The result is that the Old Testament of the Douai version is a translation into English from the Latin, which in large part is a translation into Latin from the Greek Septuagint, which in turn is a translation into Greek from the Hebrew. Yet scholars are scholars, and it shows marked influence of the Genevan version, and, indeed, of other English versions. Its notes were strongly anti-Protestant, and in its preface it explains its existence by saying that Protestants have been guilty of "casting the holy to dogs and pearls to hogs." Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ...


The version is not in the direct line of the ascent of the familiar version—its English was not colloquial, but ecclesiastical. In Hebrews 13:17, the version reads, "Obey your prelates and be subject unto them." In Luke 2:3, John came "preaching the baptism of penance." In Psalm xxiii:5, where we read, "My cup runneth over," the Douai version reads, "My chalice which inebriateth me, how goodly it is." There is a retention of ecclesiastical terms, and an explanation of the passages on which Protestants had come to differ rather sharply from Catholics, as in the matter of the taking of the cup by the people, and elsewhere.


King James Bible

Main article: King James Version of the Bible

The King James Version (KJV) is an archaic English translation of the Holy Bible, commissioned for the benefit of the Church of England at the behest of King James I of England. First published in 1611, it has had a profound impact not only on most English translations that have followed it, but also on English literature as a whole. The King James Version (KJV) is an English translation of the Holy Bible, commissioned for the benefit of the Church of England at the behest of King James I of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...

  • The King James Version was published in 1611. Translated by the largest group of translators, around 50, and using the widest range of source texts, it became the "Authorized Version" in Britain and the most widely used of the Early Modern English Bible translations. It use has continued in some traditions up to the present. Even though modern scholarship has shown problems with some of the translation, it is widely admired for its style and use of language.
A sample of the King James show the similarity to modern English:
Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heauen. Giue us this day our daily bread. And forgiue us our debts as we forgiue our debters. And lead us not into temptation, but deliuer us from euill. Amen.

This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...

Great Bible

  • The Great Bible of 1539 was the first authorised edition of the Holy Bible in English, authorised by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England.

The Great Bible was the first authorised edition of the Holy Bible in English, authorised by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England. ...

Douai Bible

  • The Roman Catholic Church responded to the various Protestant versions by producing the Douai Bible also called the Rheims-Douai Bible. It was translated by English priests in exile in France with the New Testament published in Rheims in 1582 and the Old Testament in Douai in 1610.
  • The Douai translation was updated in 1750 by Bishop Challoner and while it continued to be known as the Douai version, many consider it to be equivalent to a separate translation. In various updates, this version remained the standard Catholic English language Bible until 1941.

The Roman Catholic Church, (also known as the Catholic Church), is the ancient Christian Church led by the Bishop of Rome (commonly called the Pope). ... The Douai Bible, also known as the Rheims-Douai Bible or Douay-Rheims Bible, is a Catholic translation of the Holy Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English. ...

The next age

With new standards of scholarship, increasing fragmentation of churches, and discovery of more ancient sources, Modern English Bible translations would proliferate in the Modern English age to a degree never before seen. There are many attempts to translate the Bible into modern English which is defined as the form of English in use after 1800. ... For the 80s pop band, see Modern English (band). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Early Modern English Bible translations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2389 words)
Early Modern English Bible translations are those translations of the Bible which were made between about 1500 and 1800, the period of Early Modern English.
The King James Version (KJV) is an English translation of the Holy Bible, commissioned for the benefit of the Church of England at the behest of James I of England.
Translated by the largest group of translators, around 50, and using the widest range of source texts, it became the "Authorized Version" in Britain and the most widely used of the Early Modern English Bible translations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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