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Encyclopedia > Early Middle Ages
Justinian's wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna.
Justinian's wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna.
Incipit of the Gelasian Sacramentary in an 8th century manuscript (Vatican Library, Reg. Lat. 316. foll. 131v/132r).
Incipit of the Gelasian Sacramentary in an 8th century manuscript (Vatican Library, Reg. Lat. 316. foll. 131v/132r).

The Early Middle Ages are of a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly the five centuries from AD 500 to 1000.[1] Aspects of continuity with the earlier classical period are discussed in greater detail under the heading "Late Antiquity". The Early Middle Ages were followed by the High Middle Ages. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Theodora, detail of a Byzantine mosaic in Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. ... The Basilica of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale is the most famous monument of Ravenna, Italy and is one of the most important examples of Byzantine Art and architecture in western Europe. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 1165 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sacramentarium Gelasianum. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 1165 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sacramentarium Gelasianum. ... In the Catholic tradition, the so-called Gelasian Sacramentary is a book of liturgy, containing the priests part in celebrating the Eucharist. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...

Contents

Collapse of Rome (372-410)

Main article: Decline of the Western Roman Empire
Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen, (The Huns in battle with the Alans), Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873. The Alans, an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea, were dislocated by the Huns during the early Migration Period and settled throughout the Roman Empire.
Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen, (The Huns in battle with the Alans), Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873. The Alans, an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea, were dislocated by the Huns during the early Migration Period and settled throughout the Roman Empire.

Starting in the second century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, and population. Only 40 percent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks have been found for the third century as for the first.[2] The population of the Roman Empire shrank from 65 million in 150 to 50 million in 400, a decline of more than 20 percent. Some have connected this to the Dark Age Cold Period (100-700), when there was a decline in temperature globally which reduced agricultural harvests.[3] Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Image File history File links Hunnen. ... Image File history File links Hunnen. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Migrating south from Scandinavia, the Germanic peoples reached the Black Sea early in the third century. They created confederations which proved more formidable opponents than the Sarmatians, whom the Romans had dealt with earlier. In Romania and the grassy steppes north of the Black Sea, the Goths, a Germanic people, created at least two kingdoms, one Therving, the other Greuthung.[4] The arrival of the Huns in 372-375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns were a confederation of central Asian tribes who founded an empire with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy. They had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Gothic people were forced to seek refuge in Roman territory (376). The Goths agreed to enter the Empire as unarmed settlers, but many bribed the Danube border guards into allowing them to bring their weapons with them. Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The Thervingi were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dnestr River in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE. They had close contacts with the Greuthungi, another Gothic people from east of the Dnestr River, as well as the Late Roman Empire (or early Byzantine Empire). ... The Greuthungi were a Gothic people of the Black Sea steppes (and forest steppes) in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE. They had close contacts with the Thervingi, another Gothic people from west of the Dnestr River. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ...


The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting machine. The Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain formation in combat, while cavalry tended to flee when faced with danger. But unlike a barbarian army, the legions required constant training and salaries that made them a huge expense for the empire. As agriculture and economic activity declined, taxes grew harder to collect, and the system came under strain.

The Germanic migrations of the fifth century were triggered by the destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the Huns in 372-375. The city of Rome was captured and looted by the Visigoths in 410 and by the Vandals in 455.
The Germanic migrations of the fifth century were triggered by the destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the Huns in 372-375. The city of Rome was captured and looted by the Visigoths in 410 and by the Vandals in 455.

In the Gothic War (376-382), the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople (378). Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, who was on the way with reinforcements. While the Romans were fully engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one third of the Roman army managed to escape. It was the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since Cannae, according to Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus. The core army of the eastern empire was destroyed, Valens killed, and the Goths laid waste to the Balkans, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibbon comments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of justice which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians."[5] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths, local rebels, Alanic raiders, Hunnish raiders Commanders Valens, Theodosius Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax, Farnobius See also Gothic War (535–552) for the war in Italy. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens â€  Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000–30,000 10,000–20,000 Casualties 10,000–20,000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... The Thervingi were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dnestr River in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE. They had close contacts with the Greuthungi, another Gothic people from east of the Dnestr River, as well as the Late Roman Empire (or early Byzantine Empire). ... Frithugairns (Gothic for desiring peace) or Fritigern (died ca. ... A coin of Gratian. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...


The empire lacked the resources, and perhaps the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army that had been destroyed at Adrianople, so it was forced to rely on barbarian armies to fight on its behalf. The Eastern Roman Empire was able to buy off the Goths with tribute. The Western Roman Empire was less fortunate. Stilicho, the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhine frontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy by the Visigoths in 402-03 and by other Goths in 406-07. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


Fleeing before the terrifying advance of the Huns, the Vandals, Suebi, and Alans launched an attack across the frozen Rhine near Mainz; on December 31, 406, the frontier gave way and these tribes surged into Gaul. They were soon followed by the Burgundians and by bands of the Alamanni. In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, Emperor Honorius had Stilicho summarily beheaded (408). Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of the last of the Roman generals," wrote Gibbon. Honorius was left with only worthless courtiers to advise him. In 410, the Visigoths led by Alaric I captured the city of Rome and for three days there was fire and slaughter as bodies filled the streets, palaces were stripped of their valuables, and those thought to have hidden wealth interrogated and tortured. As newly converted Christians, the Goths respected church property. But those who found sanctuary in the Vatican and in other churches were the fortunate few. For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... See: Flavius Augustus Honorius, western Roman emperor 395-423 Saint Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury 627-655 Pope Honorius I, pope 625-638 Pope Honorius II, pope 1124-1130 Pope Honorius III, pope 1216-1227 Pope Honorius IV, pope 1285-1287 Antipope Honorius II, 1061-1064 This is a disambiguation page... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ...


Migrations (Dark Age) 400-700

The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna is the only extant example of Ostrogothic architecture.
The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna is the only extant example of Ostrogothic architecture.

The Goths and Vandals were only the first of many waves of invaders that flooded Western Europe. Some lived only for war and pillage and disdained Roman ways. Others admired Rome and wished to become its heirs. "A poor Roman plays the Goth, a rich Goth the Roman" said King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths.[6] Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Germanic monarchy, also called barbarian monarchy, was a monarchical system of government which predominated among the Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RavennaMausoleum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RavennaMausoleum. ... Entrance to the Mausoleo di Teodorico. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ...


The Romans were trinitarian Christians, the disciplined subjects of a long-established bureaucratic empire. The Germanic peoples knew little of cities, money, or writing. They were recent converts to Arian Christianity and were thus heretics to the churchmen of the empire. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box...


The era of the migrations has historically been termed the "Dark Ages" by some Western European historians, and as Völkerwanderung, or "wandering of the peoples", by German historians. The term Dark Ages has fallen from favour since the Second World War, partly to avoid the entrenched stereotypes associated with the phrase, but also because more recent research and archaeological findings from the period challenge old notions of backwardness in the arts, technology, political and social organizations.[citation needed] Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (the migration of peoples), is used in historiography as an alternate label for the Migration Period, of Germanic, Slavic and other tribes on the European continent during the period AD 300–900. ...


The earlier settled population was left intact or only partially displaced. Whereas the peoples of France, Italy, and Spain continued to speak dialects of Latin, that today constitute the Romance languages, the language of the smaller Roman-era population of what is now England disappeared with barely a trace in the territories conquered by the Anglo-Saxons, although the Brittanic kingdoms of the west remained Brythonic speakers. The new peoples greatly altered established society, including law, culture, religion, and patterns of property ownership. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ...

Around 500, the Visigoths ruled large parts of what is now France and Spain.
Around 500, the Visigoths ruled large parts of what is now France and Spain.

The pax Romana had provided safe conditions for trade and manufacture, and a unified cultural and educational milieu of far-ranging connections. As this was lost, it was replaced by the rule of local potentates, sometimes members of the established Romanized ruling elite, sometimes new lords of alien culture. In Aquitania, Gallia Narbonensis, southern Italy and Sicily, Baetica or southern Spain, and the Iberian Mediterranean coast, Roman culture lasted until the sixth or seventh centuries. Download high resolution version (599x611, 80 KB)Map drawn by Lupo, published here under the terms of the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (599x611, 80 KB)Map drawn by Lupo, published here under the terms of the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace (sometimes Pax Augusta), was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire between 27 BC and 180 AD. Augustus Caesar led Rome into... History In Roman times, the province of Gallia Aquitania originally comprised the region of Gaul between the Pyrenees Mountains and the Garonne River, but Augustus Caesar added to it the land between the Garonne and the Loire River. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 AD In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ...


Everywhere, the gradual break-down of economic and social linkages and infrastructure resulted in increasingly localized outlooks. This breakdown was often fast and dramatic as it became unsafe to travel or carry goods over any distance; there was a consequent collapse in trade and manufacture for export. Major industries that depended on trade, such as large-scale pottery manufacture, vanished almost overnight in places like Britain. Tintagel in Cornwall, as well as several other centres, managed to obtain supplies of Mediterranean luxury goods well into the sixth century, but then lost their trading links. Administrative, educational and military infrastructure quickly vanished, and the loss of the established cursus honorum led to the collapse of the schools and to a rise of illiteracy even among the leadership. The careers of Cassiodorus (died c. 585) at the beginning of this period and of Alcuin of York (died 804) at its close were founded alike on their valued literacy. Remains of Tintagel Castle Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, in England, UK. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ...


For the formerly Roman area, there was another 20 percent decline in population between 400 and 600, or a one third decline for 150-600.[7] In the eighth century, the volume of trade reached its lowest level since the Bronze Age. The very small number of shipwrecks found that dated from the 8th century supports this (which represents less than 2% of the number of shipwrecks dated from the first century CE). There was also reforestation and a retreat of agriculture that centred around 500. This phenomenon coincided with a period of rapid cooling, according to tree ring data.[8] The Romans had practised two-field agriculture, with a crop grown in one field and the other left fallow and ploughed under to eliminate weeds. With the gradual breakup of the institutions of the empire, owners were unable to stop their slaves from running away and the plantation system broke down. Systematic agriculture largely disappeared and yields declined to subsistence level.


Byzantine Empire

Main article: Byzantine Empire

The death of Theodosius I in 395 was followed by the division of the empire between his two sons. The Western Roman Empire disintegrated into a mosaic of warring Germanic kingdoms in the fifth century, making the Eastern Roman Empire in Constantinople the legal successor to the classical Roman Empire. After Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Empire, historians refer to the empire as "Byzantine." Westerners would gradually begin to refer to it as "Greek" rather than "Roman." The inhabitants, however, always called themselves Romaioi, or Romans. Byzantine redirects here. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Under Emperor Justinian (r. 527-65), the Byzantines were able to reestablish Roman rule in Italy and North Africa
Under Emperor Justinian (r. 527-65), the Byzantines were able to reestablish Roman rule in Italy and North Africa

The Eastern Roman Empire aimed at retaining control of the trade routes between Europe and the Orient, which made the Empire the richest polity in Europe. Making use of their sophisticated warfare and superior diplomacy, the Byzantines managed to fend off assaults by the migrating barbarians. Their dreams of subduing the Western potentates briefly materialized during the reign of Justinian I in 527-565. Not only did Justinian restore some western territories to the Roman Empire, but he also codified Roman law (with his codification remaining in force in many areas of Europe until the 19th century) and built the largest and the most technically advanced edifice of the Early Middle Ages, the Hagia Sophia. Image File history File links Justinien_527-565. ... Image File history File links Justinien_527-565. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ...


Justinian's successors Maurice and Heraclius had to confront invasions of the Avar, Bulgar and Slavic tribes. In 626 Constantinople, by far the largest city of early medieval Europe, withstood a combined siege by Avars and Persians. Within several decades, Heraclius completed a holy war against the Persians by taking their capital and having a Sassanid monarch assassinated. Yet Heraclius lived to see his spectacular success undone by the Arab conquest of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and North Africa which was considerably facilitated by religious disunity and the proliferation of heretical movements (notably Monophysitism and Nestorianism) in the areas converted to Islam. A solidus of Maurikios reign. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... For the people of Central Asia see Bulgars Bulgar language is an extinct language commonly considered Turkic but more recently Indo-Iranian Bulgar, or bulgarish is Yiddish word for Romanian dance bugarească (means Bulgarian cf. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ...


Although Heraclius's successors managed to salvage Constantinople from two Arab sieges (in 674-77 and 717), the empire of the 8th and early 9th century was rocked by the great Iconoclastic Controversy, punctuated by dynastic struggles between various factions at court. The Bulgar and Slavic tribes profited from these disorders and invaded Illyria, Thrace and even Greece (which they called Morea). This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other sacred images or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... For the people of Central Asia see Bulgars Bulgar language is an extinct language commonly considered Turkic but more recently Indo-Iranian Bulgar, or bulgarish is Yiddish word for Romanian dance bugarească (means Bulgarian cf. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ...


To counter these threats, a new system of administration was introduced. The regional civil and military administration were combined in the hands of a general, or strategos. A theme, which formerly denoted a subdivision of the Byzantine army, came to refer to a region governed by a strategos. The reform led to the emergence of great landed families which controlled the regional military and often pressed their claims to the throne (see Bardas Phocas and Bardas Sklerus for characteristic examples). The themata in 950. ... Bardas Phocas - Vardas Phokas was an eminent Byzantine general of Armenian origine who took a conspicuous part in three revolts pro and contra the ruling Macedonian dynasty. ... Bardas Skleros or Sklerus - (Vardas Skleros) was a Byzantine general of Armenian origin who led a wide-scale Asian rebellion against Emperor of Armenian origin Basil II in 976-979. ...


By the early eighth century, notwithstanding the shrinking territory of the empire, Constantinople remained the largest and the wealthiest city of the entire world, comparable only to Sassanid Ctesiphon, and later Abassid Baghdad. The population of the imperial capital fluctuated between 300,000 and 400,000 as the emperors undertook measures to restrain its growth. The only other large Christian cities were Rome (50,000) and Salonika (30,000).[9] Even before the eighth century was out, the Farmer's Law signalled the resurrection of agricultural technologies in the Greek Empire. As the 2006 Encyclopædia Britannica noted, "the technological base of Byzantine society was more advanced than that of contemporary western Europe: iron tools could be found in the villages; water mills dotted the landscape; and field-sown beans provided a diet rich in protein".[1] Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

An ivory plaque representing Christ crowning Constantine VII (ca. 945).
An ivory plaque representing Christ crowning Constantine VII (ca. 945).

The ascension of the Macedonian dynasty in 867 marked the end of the period of political and religious turmoil and introduced a new golden age of the empire. While the talented generals such as Nicephorus Phocas expanded the frontiers, the Macedonian emperors (such as Leo the Wise and Constantine VII) presided over the cultural flowering in Constantinople, known as the Macedonian Renaissance. The enlightened Macedonian rulers scorned the rulers of Western Europe as illiterate barbarians and maintained a nominal claim to rule over the West. Although this fiction had been exploded with the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome (800), the Byzantine rulers did not treat their Western counterparts as equals. Generally, they had little interest in the political and economical developments in the barbarian (from their point of view) West. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (605x1091, 144 KB)A piece of carved ivory from the Pushkin Museum representing Christ blessing Emperor Constantine VII. Dated back to 945, the piece passed from the treasury at Echmiadzin to the collection of Count Sergey Uvarov in the mid-19th... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (605x1091, 144 KB)A piece of carved ivory from the Pushkin Museum representing Christ blessing Emperor Constantine VII. Dated back to 945, the piece passed from the treasury at Echmiadzin to the collection of Count Sergey Uvarov in the mid-19th... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ... Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α) (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael IIIs widow; died in hunting accident Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III; Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew... Nicephorus II Phocas, Byzantine emperor 963-969, belonged to a Cappadocian family which had produced several distinguished generals. ... The Byzantines considered themselves the true Romans. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Against this economic background, the superior culture and the imperial traditions of the Eastern Roman Empire attracted its northern neighbours — Slavs, Bulgars, and Khazars — to Constantinople, in search of either pillage or enlightenment. The movement of the Germanic tribes to the south triggered the great migration of the Slavs, who occupied the vacated territories. In the seventh century, they moved westward to the Elbe, southward to the Danube and eastward to the Dnieper. By the 9th century, the Slavs had expanded into sparsely inhabited territories to the south and east from these natural frontiers, peacefully assimilating the indigenous Illyrian and Finno-Ugric populations. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... This article is about the river. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ...


Rise of Islam (632-750)

The Arab Empire expanded explosively between 632 and 750.      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
The Arab Empire expanded explosively between 632 and 750.      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

Following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Abū Bakr (r. 632-34) became the first khalīfah or caliph of a newly unified polity under the Islamic faith in the Arabian peninsula. The early Rashidun caliphs were both head of state and supreme religious authority while the later caliphs came to be seen as the political leader of Muslims. The early caliphs were chosen by a shūrā, or council, in the same way that the head of an Arabian tribe or clan would be chosen. Abū Bakr launched a campaign in the ridda wars which brought central Arabia under Muslim control. (633) Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other people named Abu Bakar, see Abu Bakr (name). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabia redirects here. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


'Umar I (r.634-44), the second caliph, proclaimed himself "commander of the faithful" (amīr al-mu 'minīn). In the 630s, he brought Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq under Muslim control. Egypt was taken from the Byzantines in 645 by 'Uthmān, the third caliph. Abū Bakr, 'Umar I, 'Uthmān, and his successor Alī are remembered as the "rightly guided caliphs" who presided over a golden age of pure Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


Alī's caliphate started amid political controversy over the murder of Uthman and sparked a power struggle and the First Islamic civil war led by Mu'āwiyah, governor of Syria. When Alī, son-in-law of Muhammad, was killed while praying in Kufah, Iraq, Mu'āwiyah established the Ummayyad dynasty of caliphs (661–750) with Damascus as its capital. Those who supported 'Alī, his son Husayn(who led a revolt against the Ummayyads), and their descendants would eventually became the Shī'ite sect. Under 'Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705), the Ummayyads reached their peak, conquering Central Asia, coastal North Africa, and Spain. Al-Malik also Arabized the state with Arabs replacing the Greek and Persian civil servants. The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: ‎ )‎ (602 - 680) was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, or Shiism (Arabic:شيعة, Persian:شیعه translit: ) is a denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

The 10th-century Grand Mosque of Cordoba.
The 10th-century Grand Mosque of Cordoba.

The conquest of Iberia commenced when the Moors (mostly Berbers with some Arabs) invaded the Christian Visigothic Iberia in the year 711, under their Berber leader Tariq ibn Ziyad. They landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and worked their way northward. Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa ibn Nusair. During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim rule — save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. This territory, under the Arab name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 1202 KB) Summary The Mezquita, Córdoba, Spain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 1202 KB) Summary The Mezquita, Córdoba, Spain. ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Córdoba, Spain. ... The Moorish invasion of Iberia (711–718) commenced when the Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the caliph at Damascus, and led by the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, they landed... For other uses, see moor. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Musa bin Nusair (640 - 716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople (717) weakened the Umayyads and reduced their prestige. After their success in overrunning Iberia, the conquerors moved northeast across the Pyrenees, but were defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732. The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the 'Abbāsids and most of the Umayyad clan massacred. The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


A surviving Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty in the Emirate of Cordoba, (756). Charles Martel's son, Pippin the Short retook Narbonne, and his grandson Charlemagne established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Girona in 785 and Barcelona in 801. Abd ar-Rahman I (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


The unified Muslim caliphate disintegrated over the course of the ninth century as the Idrisids and Aghlabids of North Africa and the Samanids of Persia gained independence. Eventually, the Shiite Fatimids set up a rival caliphate in Tunisia (920). The Umayyids in Spain soon proclaimed themselves caliphs as well (929). The Buwayhids (Persian Shiites) gained control of Baghdad in 934. In 972, the Fatimids conquered Egypt. The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


Resurgence of the Latin West (700-850)

Until his death in 814, Charlemagne ruled an empire which included modern Catalonia, France, western Germany, the Low Countries, and northern Italy.
Until his death in 814, Charlemagne ruled an empire which included modern Catalonia, France, western Germany, the Low Countries, and northern Italy.

Conditions in Western Europe began to improve after 700 as Europe experienced an agricultural boom that would continue until at least 1100.[10] A study of limestone deposited in the Mediterranean seabed concludes that there was a substantial increase in solar radiation received between 600 and 900.[11] The first signs of Europe's recovery on the battlefield are the defense of Constantinople in 717 and the victory of the Franks over the Arabs at the Battle of Tours in 732. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x1164, 301 KB) Summary Europe 814 From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck, published by Longmans, Green, and Co. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x1164, 301 KB) Summary Europe 814 From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck, published by Longmans, Green, and Co. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ...


Between the fifth and eighth centuries a political and social infrastructure developed across the lands of the former empire, based upon powerful regional noble families, and the newly established kingdoms of the Ostrogoths in Italy, Visigoths in Spain and Portugal, Franks and Burgundians in Gaul and western Germany. These lands remained Christian, and their Arian conquerors were converted (Visigoths and Lombards) or conquered (Ostrogoths and Vandals). The Franks converted directly from paganism to Catholic Christianity under Clovis I. The interaction between the culture of the newcomers, their warband loyalties, the remnants of classical culture, and Christian influences, produced a new model for society, based in part on feudal obligations. The centralized administrative systems of the Romans did not withstand the changes, and the institutional support for chattel slavery largely disappeared. The Anglo-Saxons in England also started to convert from heathenism with the arrival of Christian missionaries around the year 600. Unlike that of the France, two major forms of Christianity existed in England, Roman Catholicism in the south and Celtic Christianity in the north. This came to a head at the Synod of Whitby in 664 after which Roman practices proved to be dominant. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Anglo-Saxon polytheism refers to the Migration Period Germanic paganism practiced by the Anglo-Saxons in 5th to 7th century England. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ...


Italy

The Lombards, who first entered Italy in 568 under Alboin, carved out a state in the north, with its capital at Pavia. At first, they were unable to conquer the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Ducatus Romanus, and Calabria and Apulia. The next two hundred years were occupied in trying to conquer these territories from the Byzantine Empire. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... Alboin or Alboïn (d. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ...

The Lombard state was truly barbarian in custom compared with the earlier Germanic states of Western Europe. It was highly decentralized at first, with the territorial dukes having practical sovereignty in their duchies, especially in the southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. For a decade following the death of Cleph in 575, the Lombards did not elect a king and the period is called the Rule of the Dukes. The first written legal code was composed in poor Latin in 643: the Edictum Rothari. It was primarily the codification of the oral legal tradition of the people. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1925x1287, 1028 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Early Middle Ages Treasure of Gourdon ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1925x1287, 1028 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Early Middle Ages Treasure of Gourdon ... A paten is a small plate, usually made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic hosts. ... Gold chalice, with garnet and turquoise, from the Treasure of Gourdon Cabinet des Médailles, Paris The Treasure of Gourdon (Trésor de Gourdon), unearthed near Gourdon, Saône-et-Loire, in 1845, is a hoard of gold, the objects dating to the end of the fifth or beginning of... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... Cleph or Clef (in Italian, Clefi) was king of the Lombards from 572 or 573 to 574 or 575. ... Events June 2 - Benedict succeeds John III as Pope The Kingdom of East Anglia founded by the Angle groups North Folk and South Folk, naming the places of Norfolk and Suffolk, respectively. ... The Rule of the Dukes was the decade-long interregnum from 574 or 575 which affected the Lombard kingdom in Italy after the death of Cleph. ... Events Rothari, King of the Lombards, issues the Lombard law code. ... The Edictum Rothari (also Edictus Rothari or Edictum Rotharis) was the first written compilation of Lombard law, codified and promulgated 22 November 643 by King Rothari. ...


The Lombard state was well-organized and stabilized by the end of the long reign of Liutprand (717744), but its collapse was sudden. Unsupported by the dukes, King Desiderius was defeated and forced to surrender his kingdom to Charlemagne in 774. The Lombard kingdom came to an end and a period of Frankish rule was initiated. The Frankish king Pepin the Short had, by the Donation of Pepin, given the pope the "Papal States" and the territory north of that swath of papally-governed land was ruled primarily by Lombard and Frankish vassals of the Holy Roman Emperor until the rise of the city-states in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign which brought him into conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy at some time or other. ... March 21 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. ... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... Pépin le Bref [1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. ... The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended papal temporal rule beyond the traditional diocese and duchy of Rome. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...


In the south, a period of anarchy began. The duchy of Benevento maintained its sovereignty in the face of the pretensions of both the Western and Eastern Empires. In the ninth century, the Saracens conquered Sicily and began settling in the peninsula. The coastal cities on the Tyrrhenian Sea departed from Byzantine allegiance. Various states owing various nominal allegiances fought constantly over territory until events came to a head in the early eleventh century with the coming of the Normans, who conquered the whole of the south by the end of the century. For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Norman conquests in red. ...


England

An Anglo-Saxon parade helmet from Sutton Hoo (7th century AD).
An Anglo-Saxon parade helmet from Sutton Hoo (7th century AD).
Main article: History of Anglo-Saxon England

In the mid-5th century several tribes from modern Germany, Holland, and Denmark began sporadic and marginally successful invasions of Britain, at that point a neglected Roman province. Traditionally, two Jutish chieftains named Hengest and Horsa were promised land by the powerful British king Vortigern in exchange for routing the warlike Pict tribe. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, after they defeated the Picts, "They sent to Angeln and called on them to send more forces, and to tell people about the worthlessness of the Britons and the merits of their land." This marked the beginning of decades of invasion and conquest of southern and central Britain, by such Germanic peoples as the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons. At least 50 percent of England's original Celtic inhabitants were killed off in the process.[12] The Anglo-Saxons eventually established several kingdoms of differing longevity and significance. King Alfred the Great (871-899) of Wessex led Anglo-Saxon resistance to the invading Danish forces. The unification of England was completed in 926 when Northumbria was annexed by King Athelstan, a grandson of Alfred. Image File history File linksMetadata Sutton. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sutton. ... Sutton Hoo ceremonial helmet (British Museum, restored). ... The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Hengest or Hengist (d. ... Horsa, according to tradition, was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native Romano-British and Celtic inhabitants. ... Vortigern (also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen, and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn), was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among the Britons (Brythons). ... For the ancient tribe that inhabited what is now Scotland, see the Picts. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Athelstan redirects here. ...


Frankish Empire

Charlemagne crowned in Rome.
Charlemagne crowned in Rome.

The Merovingians established themselves in the power vacuum of the former Roman provinces in Gaul, and Chlodwig I following his victory over the Alemanni at the Battle of Tolbiac (496) converted to Christianity, laying the foundation of the Frankish Empire, the dominant state of medieval Western Christendom. The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Sacre_de_Charlemagne. ... Image File history File links Sacre_de_Charlemagne. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks under Clovis I and the Alamanni, traditionally in 496. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ...


Starting with the Frankish realms at the beginning of the ninth century, Charlemagne united much of modern day France, western Germany and northern Italy into the Carolingian Empire. Scholarship and Classical learning flourished under Charlemagne leading to what twentieth-century historians called the "Carolingian Renaissance". The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ...


The 840s saw renewed disorder, with the breakup of the Frankish Empire and the beginning of a new cycle of barbarian raids, at first by the Vikings and later by the Magyars. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Manoralism

Main article: Manoralism

Around 800, there was a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the open field, or strip, system. A manor would have several fields each subdivided into one-acre strips of land. This was considered to be the amount of land an ox could plough before taking a rest, according to one theory. Another possibility is that the holdings were originally rectangular and were split into strips because of the way land was inherited. In the idealized form of the system, each family got thirty such strips of land. The three-field system of crop rotation was first developed in the ninth century: wheat or rye was planted in one field, the second field had a nitrogen-fixing crop (barley, oats, peas, or beans), and third was fallow.[13] Compared to the earlier two-field system, a three-field system allows for significantly more land to be put under cultivation. Even more important, the system allows for two harvests a year, reducing the risk that a single crop failure will lead to famine. Three-field agriculture creates a surplus of oats that can be used to feed horses.[14] Because the system required a major rearrangement of real estate and the social order, it took until the 11th century before it came into general use. The heavy wheeled plough was introduced in the late 10th century. It required greater animal power and promoted the use of teams of oxen. Illuminated manuscripts depict two-wheeled ploughs with both a mouldboard, or curved metal ploughshare, and a coulter, a vertical blade in front of the ploughshare. The Romans had used light, wheelless ploughs with flat iron shares that often proved unequal to the heavy soils of northern Europe. For the area of Sheffield, in England, see Manor, Sheffield. ... For other uses, see Open-field (disambiguation) The open field system was the prevalent agricultural system in Europe from the Middle Ages to as recently as the 20th century in places. ... For the 17th century system in Canada, see Seigneurial system of New France. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ...


The return to systemic agriculture coincided with the introduction of a new social system called feudalism. This system featured a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations. Each man was bound to serve his superior in return for the latter's protection. This made for confusion of territorial sovereignty since allegiances were subject to change over time, and were sometimes mutually contradictory. Feudalism allowed the state to provide a degree of public safety despite the continued absence of bureaucracy and written records. Even land ownership disputes were decided based solely on oral testimony. Territoriality was reduced to a network of personal allegiances. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


Viking Age (793-1066)

Main article: Viking Age

The Viking Age spans the period between AD 793 and 1066 in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). During this period, the Vikings, Scandinavian warriors and traders, raided and explored most parts of Europe, south-western Asia, northern Africa and north-eastern North America. Apart from exploring Europe by way of its oceans and rivers with the aid of their advanced navigational skills and extending their trading routes across vast parts of the continent, they also engaged in warfare and looted and enslaved numerous Christian communities of Medieval Europe for centuries, contributing to the development of feudal systems in Europe. Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Germanic Iron Age is the name given to the period 400 CE–800 AD in Northern Europe, and it is part of the continental Age of Migrations. ... The Vendel Age (550-793) was the name of a Swedish part of the Germanic Iron Age (or, more generally, the Age of Migrations). ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Eastern Europe 600-1000

Main article: Kievan Rus'

Prior to the rise of the Kievan Rus, the eastern frontier of Europe had been dominated by the Khazars, a Turkic people who had gained independence from the Turkic Empire by the seventh century. Khazaria was a multiethnic commercial state which derived its well-being from control of river trade between Europe and the Orient. They also exacted tribute from the Alani, Magyars, various Slavic tribes, the Goths and Greeks of Crimea. Through a network of Jewish itinerant merchants, or Radhanites, they were in contact with the trade emporiums of India and Spain. Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The word Alani has several meanings: Alani is the Hawaiian name of a number of species of shrubs and trees in the genus Melicope, family Rutaceae. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic al-Radhaniyya) The Radhanites were a medieval group or guild of Jewish merchants. ...


Once they found themselves confronted by Arab expansionism, the Khazars pragmatically allied themselves with Constantinople and clashed with the Califate. Despite initial setbacks, they managed to recover Derbent and eventually penetrated as far south as Caucasian Iberia, Caucasian Albania and Armenia. In doing so, they effectively blocked the northward expansion of Islam into Eastern Europe several decades before Charles Martel achieved the same in Western Europe.[15] Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother...


In the seventh century, the northern littoral of the Black Sea was hit with a fresh wave of nomadic attacks, led by the Bulgars, who established a powerful khanate of Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat. The Khazars managed to oust the Bulgars from Southern Ukraine into the middle reaches of the Volga (Volga Bulgaria) and into the lower reaches of the Danube (Danube Bulgaria, or the First Bulgarian Empire). The Danube Bulgars were quickly Slavicized and, despite constant campaigning against Constantinople, accepted the Greek form of Christianity. Through the efforts of two local missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, the first Slavic alphabet came into being and a vernacular dialect, now known as Old Church Slavonic, was established as a language of books and liturgy. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...

Pursuit of Svyatoslav I's warriors by the Byzantine army, a miniature from John Skylitzes.
Pursuit of Svyatoslav I's warriors by the Byzantine army, a miniature from John Skylitzes.

To the north from the Byzantine periphery, the first attested Slavic polity was Great Moravia, which emerged under the aegis of the Frankish Empire in the early 9th century. Until its defragmentation in consequence of the conflicts with the East Franks a century later, Moravia was a stage for confrontation between the Christian missionaries from Constantinople and from Rome. Although the West Slavs eventually acknowledged the Roman ecclesiastical authority, the clergy of Constantinople succeeded in converting into the Greek faith the largest state of contemporary Europe, Kievan Rus, towards 990. Led by a Varangian dynasty, the Kievan Rus controlled the routes connecting Northern Europe to Byzantium and the Orient. Image File history File links Persecution_of_Russ_by_the_Byzantine_army_John_Skylitzes. ... Image File history File links Persecution_of_Russ_by_the_Byzantine_army_John_Skylitzes. ... ... John/Ioannes Skylitzes/Scylitzes (Ιωάννης Σκυλίτζης, 1081) was a Byzantine historian of the late 11th century. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... East Franks corresponds with what is now Germany. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Ships on the Dnieper, by Nicholas Roerich. ...


Both before and after the Christianization, the Rus staged predatory raids against Constantinople, some of which resulted in the mutually beneficial trade treaties. The importance of Russo-Byzantine relations is highlighted by the fact that Vladimir I of Kiev was the only foreigner who married a Byzantine princess of the Macedonian dynasty, a singular honour which many rulers of Western Europe sought in vain. The military campaigns of Vladimir's father, Svyatoslav I, had crushed the statehood of two strongest powers of Eastern Europe, namely the Bulgars and the Khazars. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... ...


Bulgarian Empire

Main article: Bulgarian Empire
Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav
Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav

In 681 the Bulgarians founded a powerful state which played a major role in Europe and specifically in South Eastern Europe until its fall under Turkish rule in 1396. In 718 the Bulgarians decisively defeated the Arabs near Constantinople, and their ruler Khan Tervel became known as "The Saviour of Europe". Bulgaria effectively stopped the barbarian tribes (Pechenegs, Khazars) from migrating further to the west and in 806 destroyed the Avar Khanate. Under the first Emperor Simeon I (893-927), the state was the largest in Europe, threatening the existence of Byzantium. First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... St. ... St. ... Theodore the Studite ( ca. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Khan Tervel or Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of the Bulgars from 700 or 701-718. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Events April 12 - Nicephorus elected patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Tarasius. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Tsar Simeon the Great (ruled 893-May 27, 927) was 27 when he took the throne of Bulgaria from his brother Vladimir, the son of Prince Boris, who was deposed and blinded by his own father after his attempt to return Bulgaria to paganism. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


After the adoption of Christianity in 864, Bulgaria became the cultural and spiritual centre of the Eastern Orthodox Slavic world. The Cyrillic alphabet was invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid in 885. Literature, art and architecture were thriving with the establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools,and the Preslav Ceramics School. In 927 the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was the first European national Church to gain independence with its own Patriarch. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Events Khan Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized an Orthodox Christian. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... This article is about the medieval Macedonian saint. ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ...


Transmission of learning

With the end of the Western Roman Empire and urban centres in decline, literacy and learning decreased in the West. Education became the preserve of monasteries and cathedrals. A "Renaissance" of classical education would appear in Carolingian Empire in the 8th century. In the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), learning was maintained at a higher level than in the West. Further to the east, Islam conquered many of the Eastern Patriarchates, and it outstripped Christian lands in science, philosophy, and other intellectual endeavors in a "golden age" of learning.


Classical education

The classical education system emphasized grammar, Latin, Greek, and rhetoric. Pupils read and reread classic works and wrote essays imitating their style. By the fourth century, this education system was Christianized. In De Doctrina Christiana (started 396, completed 426), Augustine explained how classical education fits into the Christian worldview. Christianity was a religion of the book, so Christians must be literate. Preaching required learning the classical principles of rhetoric. Tertullian was more sceptical of the value of classical learning, asking "What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?" But even he did not object to Christian enrollment in classical schools. Augustinus redirects here. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ...


Decline in the West

In the Early Middle Ages, cultural life was concentrated at monasteries.
In the Early Middle Ages, cultural life was concentrated at monasteries.

De-urbanization reduced the scope of education and by the sixth century teaching and learning moved to monastic and cathedral schools, with the center of education being the study of the Bible.[16] Education of the laity survived modestly in Italy, Spain, and the southern part of Gaul, where Roman influences were most long-lasting. However, in the seventh century, learning began to emerge in Ireland and the Celtic lands, where Latin was a foreign language and Latin texts were eagerly studied and taught.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Silos-Claustro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Silos-Claustro. ... Monastery of St. ...


Science

In the ancient world, Greek was the primary language of science. Advanced scientific research and teaching was mainly carried on in the Hellenistic side of the Roman empire, in Greek. Late Roman attempts to translate Greek writings into Latin had limited success.[18] As the knowledge of Greek declined, the Latin West found itself cut off from its Greek philosophical and scientific roots. Latin-speakers who wanted to learn about science had access to only a couple of books by Boethius (c. 470-524) (that summarized Greek handbooks by Nicomachus of Gerasa) and the works of other Latin encyclopedists. The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... There are several persons called Bo thius: Philosophers: Anicius Manlius Severinus thius - to many scholars this is the Bo thius, a late-Roman writer best known for his works in philosophy and theology. ... Nicomachus (c. ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ...


The leading scholars of the early centuries were clergyman for whom the study of nature was but a small part of their interest. The study of nature was pursued more for practical reasons than as an abstract inquiry: the need to care for the sick led to the study of medicine and of ancient texts on drugs,[19] the need for monks to determine the proper time to pray led them to study the motion of the stars,[20] the need to compute the date of Easter led them to study and teach rudimentary mathematics and the motions of the Sun and Moon.[21] Modern readers may find it disconcerting that sometimes the same works discuss both the technical details of natural phenomena and their symbolic significance.[22] Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... This article is about the physical universe. ...


Even though not much progress occurred in the Early Middle Ages, the period laid the foundations for important scientific developments in the High Middle Ages and beyond.[23]

Further information: Middle Ages in history

The modern stereotype of this Age as a time of backwardness is reflected in popular misconceptions related to the history of science. Notions such as: "the rise of Christianity killed off ancient science", "the medieval Christian Church suppressed the growth of the natural sciences", "the medieval Christians thought that the world was flat", and "the Church prohibited autopsies and dissections during the Middle Ages", are all reported by Ronald Numbers and others as examples of widely popular myths that still pass as historical truth, even though they are not supported by historical research.[24] Murder of Przemysław II in Rogoźno by Wojciech Gerson: a 19th century painting of a medieval subject The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ...


Carolingian Renaissance

Around 800, there was renewed interest in Classical Antiquity as part of the Carolingian Renaissance. Charles the Great carried out a reform in education. The English monk Alcuin of York elaborated a project of scholarly development aimed at resuscitating classical knowledge by establishing programmes of study based upon the seven liberal arts: the trivium, or literary education (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic) and the quadrivium, or scientific education (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music). From the year 787 on, decrees began to circulate recommending, in the whole empire, the restoration of old schools and the founding of new ones. Institutionally, these new schools were either under the responsibility of a monastery, a cathedral or a noble court. The real significance of these measures would only be felt centuries later. The teaching of dialectic (a discipline that corresponds to today's logic) was responsible for the rebirth of the interest in speculative inquiry; from this interest would follow the rise of the Scholastic tradition of Christian philosophy. In the 12th and 13th century, many of those schools founded under the auspices of Charles the Great, especially cathedral schools, would become universities. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the scholar Alcuin of York. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 787. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... Monastery of St. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ...


Byzantium and its golden age

Miniature from the Paris Psalter, a striking testimony to the tenth-century Byzantine cultural revival.
Miniature from the Paris Psalter, a striking testimony to the tenth-century Byzantine cultural revival.

Byzantium's great intellectual achievement was the Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law"), a massive compilation of Roman law made under Justinian (r. 528-65). The work includes a section called the Digesta which abstracts the principles of Roman law in such a way that they can be applied to any situation. The level of literacy was considerably higher in the Byzantine Empire than in the Latin West. Elementary education was much more widely available, sometimes even in the countryside. Secondary schools still taught the Iliad and other classics. As for higher education, a Neoplatonic school in Athens was closed in 526 for paganism. There was also a school in Alexandria which remained open until the Arab conquest (640). The University of Constantinople, originally founded by Emperor Theodosius II (425), may have dissolved around this time. It was refounded by Emperor Michael III in 849. Higher education in this period focused on rhetoric, although Aristotle's logic was covered in simple outline. Under the Macedonian dynasty (867–1025), Byzantium enjoyed a golden age and a revival of classical learning. There was little original research, but many lexicons, anthologies, encyclopaedias, and commentaries. Image File history File links Paris_psaulter_gr139_fol1v. ... Image File history File links Paris_psaulter_gr139_fol1v. ... Prophet Isaiah and Nyx, a female figure whose inverted torch and drapery blown over her head follow Hellenistic conventions. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Pandects (Lat. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Contributions of Islam

Under the Umayyads (661–750), Islamic scholarship focused on Koranic matters. But the ‘Abbasid dynasty which followed promoted Hellenistic and humanistic learning in accordance with the doctrines of the officially favoured Mu'tazili school of Islamic interpretation. This school was founded in Basra by Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) and held that the Koran is a created work and that god desires only the best for man, views rejected by the Ash'ariyyah and Athariyyah ("Textualist") schools now considered orthodox. Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) (Arabic: ‎) was a Muslim theologian, and by some accounts is considered the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. ... The Ash’ariyyah are a school of Islamic aqeedah (theology) that is named after Imam Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash’ari (may Allaah have mercy on him). ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ...


Thus the "gates of ijtihad" were opened, allowing discussion and debate within Islam, supposedly among 135 schools of thought. In 800, Baghdad was the largest Muslim city in the world, the first to have a population of over 1 million. Its "House of Wisdom" (Dār al-Ḥikma) was the intellectual hub of the Muslim world. Philosophers such as al-Kindī (801–873) and al-Fārābī (870–950) translated the works of Aristotle and applied his thinking to Islam. Al-Khwārizmī (790-840) wrote the The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, the first book on algebra. (The word "algebra" come from the Arabic title of the book. The word "algorithm" comes from al-Khwārizmī's name.) He also wrote The Image of the Earth, an updated version of Ptolemy's Geography, and participated in a project to determine the circumference of the Earth by measuring the length of a degree of meridian on a plain in Iraq. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Portrait of Al-Kindi For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi AbÅ«-YÅ«suf Ya’qÅ«b ibn Ishāq al-KindÄ« (c. ... AbÅ« Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi (in Persian: محمد فارابی) or AbÅ« Nasr al-Fārābi (in some sources, known as Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzalagh al-Farabi), also known in the West as Alpharabius, Al-Farabi, Farabi, and Abunaser (870–950 CE) was an... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... al-Khwarizmi redirects here. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ...

Illumination from the Stuttgarter Psalter
Illumination from the Stuttgarter Psalter

Opponents of ijtihad began proclaiming the "closing of the gates of ijtihad" in the tenth century. Discussion of humanism and other philosophical issues continued, but became increasingly restricted. Muslim learning depended on the whim and patronage of the ruler and Islam did not develop a university system or other permanent institution to honour and promote non-Koranic scholarship. Image File history File links Stuttgart_Psalter_fol23. ... Image File history File links Stuttgart_Psalter_fol23. ...


In the course of the 11th century, Islam's scientific knowledge began to reach Western Europe. The astrolabe, invented in classical times, was reintroduced to Europe and the works of Euclid and Archimedes, lost in the West, were translated from Arabic to Latin in Spain. The modern Hindu-Arabic numerals, including a notation for zero, was developed by Hindu mathematicians in the fifth and sixth centuries. Muslim mathematicians learned of it in the seventh century and added a notation for decimal factions in the ninth and tenth centuries. Around 1000, Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) made an abacus with counters engraved with Hindu-Arabic numbers. A treatise by Al-Khwārizmī on how to perform calculations with these numerals was translated into Latin in Spain in the 12th century. A 16th century astrolabe. ... For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... Sylvester II, or Silvester II (c. ...


Christianity West and East

From the early Christians, early medieval Christians inherited a church united by major creeds, a stable Biblical canon, and a well-developed philosophical tradition. The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ...


During the early Middle Ages, the divide between Eastern and Western Christianity widened, paving the way for the East-West Schism in the 11th century. In the West, the power of the Bishop of Rome expanded. In 607, Boniface III became the first Bishop of Rome to use the title Pope. Pope Gregory the Great used his office as a temporal power, expanded Rome's missionary efforts to the British Isles, and laid the foundations for the expansion of monastic orders. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... Boniface III was Pope from February 19 to November 12, 607. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ...


In the East, the conquests of Islam reduced the power of the Greek-speaking patriarchates. A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ...


Celtic Christianity comprised a separate Christian tradition in the British Isles. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the...


Christianization of the West

Main article: Christianization

The Roman Catholic Church, the only centralized institution to survive the fall of the Western Roman Empire intact, was the sole unifying cultural influence in the West, selectively preserving some Latin learning, maintaining the art of writing, and preserving a centralized administration through its network of bishops ordained in succession. The Early Middle Ages are characterized by the urban control of bishops and the territorial control exercised by dukes and counts. The rise of urban communes marked the beginning of the High Middle Ages. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...


The Christianization of Germanic tribes began in the fourth century with the Goths, and continued throughout the Early Middle Ages, in the sixth to seventh centuries led by the Hiberno-Scottish mission, replaced in the eighth to ninth centuries by the Anglo-Saxon mission, with Anglo-Saxons like Alcuin playing an important role in the Carolingian renaissance. By AD 1000, even Iceland became Christian, leaving only more remote parts of Europe (Scandinavia, the Baltic and Finno-Ugric lands) to be Christianized during the High Middle Ages. By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Germanic Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century. ... This article is about the scholar Alcuin of York. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ...


Urbanization

See also: Historical urban community sizes.

Urban planner Tertius Chandler has made a survey of city sizes through history.[25] For the period considered here, the largest cities in the world were: Constantinople (340-570), Ctesiphon of the Sassanids (570-637), Changan in China (637-775), Baghdad (775-935), and Cordoba (935-1013).[2] It has been suggested that List of largest cities throughout history be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x1080, 828 KB) Summary I took this photograph in June 2006 in Istanbul Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x1080, 828 KB) Summary I took this photograph in June 2006 in Istanbul Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Nickname: Changan Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: http://www. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ...


These are Chandler's estimates for the largest cities in the Europe and Middle East (in units of one thousand inhabitants):

  • AD 361 Constantinople (300), Ctesiphon (250), Rome (150), Antioch (150), Alexandria (125).
  • AD 500 Constantinople (400), Ctesiphon (400), Antioch (150), Carthage (100), Rome (100).
  • AD 622 Ctesiphon (500), Constantinople (350), Alexandria (94), Aleppo (72), Rayy (68).
  • AD 800 Baghdad (700), Constantinople (250), Cordoba (160), Basra (100), Fostat (100) — cf. Rome (50), Paris (25).
  • AD 900 Baghdad (900), Constantinople (300), Cordoba (200), Alexandria (175), Fostat (150) — cf. Rome (40).
  • AD 1000 Cordoba (450), Constantinople (300), Cairo (135), Baghdad (125), Nishapur (125) — cf. Rome (35), Paris (20).

Chandler’s default assumption is 10,000 inhabitants/km². Muslim cities are thought to have had higher population densities. A city is defined as a continuously inhabited area. Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ...


Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire (10th century)

Main article: Holy Roman Empire
Under Otto I, the Holy Roman Empire included Germany, northern Italy, Austria, and the Netherlands
Under Otto I, the Holy Roman Empire included Germany, northern Italy, Austria, and the Netherlands

Listless and often ill, Carolingian Emperor Charles the Fat, provoked an uprising led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia which resulted in the division of the empire into the kingdoms of France, Germany, and (northern) Italy (887). Taking advantage of the weakness of the German government, the Magyars had established themselves in the Alföld, or Hungarian grasslands, and began raiding across Germany, Italy, and even France. The German nobles elected Henry the Fowler, duke of Saxony, their king at a Reichstag, or national assembly, in Fritzlar in 919. Henry's power was only marginally greater than that of the other leaders of the stem duchies, which were the feudal expression of the former German tribes. Henry's son King Otto I (r. 936-973) was able to defeat a revolt of the dukes supported by French King Louis IV (939). In 951, Otto marched into Italy and married the widowed Queen Adelaide, named himself king of the Lombards, and received homage from Berengar of Ivrea, king of Italy (r. 950-52). Otto named his relatives the new leaders of the stem duchies, but this approach didn't completely solve the problem of disloyalty. His son Liudolf, duke of Swabia, revolted and welcomed the Magyars into Germany (953). At Lechfeld, near Augsburg in Bavaria, Otto caught up the Magyars while they were enjoying a razzia and achieved a signal victory (955). After this, the Magyars ceased to be a nation that lived on plunder and their leaders created a Christian kingdom called Hungary (1000). Otto, his prestige greatly enhanced, marched into Italy again and was crowned emperor (imperator augustus) by Pope John XII in Rome (962). Historians count this event as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, although the term was not used until much later. The Ottonian state is also considered the first Reich, or German Empire. Otto used the imperial title without attaching it to any territory. He and later emperors thought of themselves as part of a continuous line of emperors that begins with Charlemagne. (Several of these "emperors" were simply local Italian magnates who bullied the pope into coronating them.) Otto deposed John XII for conspiring with Berengar against him and named Pope Leo VIII to replace him (963). Berengar was captured and taken to Germany. John was able to reverse the deposition after Otto left, but died in the arms of his mistress soon afterwards. This article is about the medieval empire. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1785, 901 KB) Summary La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1785, 901 KB) Summary La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... Heinrich I depicted as The Bamberg Knight Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ... Louis IV dOutremer: King of France 936 to 954, member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Saint Adelaide (931 – 16 December 999) was perhaps the most prominent European woman of the 10th century. ... Berengar of Ivrea (?-966), sometimes also referred to as Berengar II of Italy was marquess of Ivrea, and later King of Italy. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars killed... John XII (Rome, c. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Leo VIII (died 965), Pope from 963 to 964, a Roman by birth, held the lay office of protoserinus when he was elected to the papal chair at the instance of Otto the Great, by the Roman synod which deposed John XII in December 963. ...


Aside from founding the German Empire, Otto's achievements include the creation "Ottonian church system," in which the clergy (the only literate section of the population) assumed the duties of an imperial civil service. He raised the papacy out of the muck of Rome's local gangster politics, assured that the position was competently filled, and gave it a dignity that allowed it to assume leadership of an international church.


Europe in AD 1000

A 9th-century Viking longship excavated in 1882.
A 9th-century Viking longship excavated in 1882.
Main article: 1000

Speculation that the world would end in the year 1000 was confined to a few uneasy French monks.[26] Ordinary clerks used regnal years, i.e. the 4th year of the reign of Robert II (the Pious) of France. The use of the modern "anno domini" system of dating was confined to the Venerable Bede and other chroniclers of universal history. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 611 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Longship Viking Gokstad ship Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 611 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Longship Viking Gokstad ship Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ... Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ...


Europe remained a backwater compared to Islam, with its vast network of caravan trade, or China, at this time the world's most populous empire under the Song Dynasty. Constantinople had a population of about 300,000, but Rome had a mere 35,000 and Paris 20,000.[3][4] In contrast, Islam had over a dozen major cities stretching from Córdoba, Spain, at this time the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants, to central Asia. The Vikings had a trade network in northern Europe, including a route connecting the Baltic to Constantinople through Russia. But it was modest affair compared to the caravan routes that connected the great Muslim cities of Cordoba, Alexandria, Cairo, Baghdad, Basra, and Mecca. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Ships on the Dnieper, by Nicholas Roerich. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


With nearly the entire nation freshly ravaged by the Vikings, England was in a desperate state. The long-suffering English later responded with a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002, leading to a round of reprisals and finally to Danish rule (1013). But Christianization made rapid progress and proved itself the long-term solution to the problem of barbarian raiding. Scandinavia had been recently Christianized and the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark established. Kievan Rus, recently converted to Orthodox Christianity, flourished as the largest state in Europe. Iceland and Hungary were both declared Christian about AD 1000. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...

In Europe, marriage was established among the nobility.[27] North of Italy, where masonry construction was never extinguished, stone construction was replacing timber in important structures. Deforestation of the densely wooded continent was under way. The tenth century marked a return of urban life, with the Italian cities doubling in population. London, abandoned for many centuries, was by 1000 once again England's main economic centre. By 1000, Bruges and Ghent held regular trade fairs behind castle walls, a tentative return of economic life to western Europe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 490 KB) Description: Hildesheim, St Michaels Church (Hildesheim) Photographer: Longbow4u, photo taken myself, 20. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 490 KB) Description: Hildesheim, St Michaels Church (Hildesheim) Photographer: Longbow4u, photo taken myself, 20. ... Ottonian Architecture evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great (936-975). ... Michaeliskirche: View from southeast. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ...


This time also marks the disintegration of the Muslim Caliphate, an imposing and united rival only a century before. Muslim unity was hobbled by the divisions between Shiite and Sunni conflicts as well as Arab Persian ones. At this time, there were three caliphs, an Umayyid caliph in Spain, an Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, and a Shiite (Fatimid) caliph in Egypt. The population of Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, had shrunk to 125,000 (compared to 900,000 in AD 900).[28] The Umayyids were still strong and assertive in 1000, but declined rapidly after 1002 and disappeared entirely by 1031. Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


In the culture of Europe, several features surfaced soon after 1000 that mark the end of the Early Middle Ages: the rise of the medieval communes, the reawakening of city life, and the appearance of the burgher class, the founding of the first universities, the rediscovery of Roman law, and the beginnings of vernacular literature. Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... Burgher can refer to: a title; in the European Middle Ages, a burgher was any freeman of a burgh or borough; or any inhabitant of a borough, a person who lives in town (in Dutch the word for citizen is burger and the German cognate is Bürger). ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ...


In 1000, the papacy was firmly under the control of German Emperor Otto III, or "emperor of the world" as he styled himself. But later church reforms enhanced its independence and prestige: the Cluniac movement, the building of the first great Transalpine stone cathedrals and the collation of the mass of accumulated decretals into a formulated canon law. The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by the Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, William I, who placed it under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... Decretals (Epistolae decretales) is the name that is given in Canon Law to those letters of the pope which formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


Timeline

Further information: Timeline of the Middle Ages

This is a timeline of the Middle Ages. ... The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks under Clovis I and the Alamanni, traditionally in 496. ... Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ... The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at a small place near Poitiers, (Gaul) in the spring 507. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... Ardo was claimed by some to be the actual last king of the Visigoths in Hispania, as opposed to Roderic. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... A simple cross: example of iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the cultures own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... The blood court at Cannstatt (Blutgericht zu Cannstatt) took place as Carloman in 746 invited all nobles of the Alamanni, to a council at Cannstatt. ... Pépin le Bref [1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... The Bloody Verdict of Verden (from German Blutgericht) was an alleged massacre of Saxons in 782, ordered by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article is about the scholar Alcuin of York. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... A simple cross: example of iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the cultures own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse: Haraldr hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald HÃ¥rfagre), (c. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, for the purpose of settling the Normans in Neustria and to protect Charles kingdom from any new invasion from the northmen. No written records survive... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Combatants East Francia Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars killed by... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... The Battle of Maldon took place in 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Ethelred the Unready. ... 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Notes

  1. ^ Events used to mark the period's beginning include the sack of Rome by the Goths (410), the deposition of the last western Roman Emperor (476), the Battle of Tolbiac (496) and the Gothic War (535–552). Particular events taken to mark its end include the founding of the Holy Roman Empire by Otto I the Great (962), the Great Schism (1054) and the Norman conquest of England (1066).
  2. ^ Hopkins, Keith Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (200 B.C.-A.D. 400)
  3. ^ Berglund, B.E. 2003."Human impact and climate changes - synchronous events and a causal link?", Quaternary International 105: 7-12.
  4. ^ Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 51-93
  5. ^ Gibbon, Edward, A History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776.
  6. ^ Excerpta Valesiana
  7. ^ McEvedy 1992, op. cit.
  8. ^ Berglund, ibid.
  9. ^ City populations from Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census (1987, Edwin Mellon Press) by Tertius Chandler
  10. ^ Berglund, ibid.
  11. ^ Cini Castagnoli, G.C., Bonino, G., Taricco, C. and Bernasconi, S.M. 2002. "Solar radiation variability in the last 1400 years recorded in the carbon isotope ratio of a Mediterranean sea core", Advances in Space Research 29: 1989-1994.
  12. ^ "English and Welsh are races apart", BBC.
  13. ^ No. 1318: Three-Field Rotation
  14. ^ This surplus would allow the replacement of the ox by the horse after the introduction of the padded horse collar in the 12th century.
  15. ^ Islam eventually penetrated into Eastern Europe in the 920s when Volga Bulgaria exploited the decline of Khazar power in the region to adopt Islam from the Baghdad missionaries. The state religion of Khazaria, Judaism, disappeared as a political force with the fall of Khazaria, while Islam of Volga Bulgaria has survived in the region up to the present.
  16. ^ Pierre Riché, Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century, (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Pr., 1976), pp. 100-129).
  17. ^ Pierre Riché, Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century, (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Pr., 1976), pp. 307-323).
  18. ^ William Stahl, Roman Science, (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Pr.) 1962, see esp. pp. 120-133.
  19. ^ Linda E. Voigts, "Anglo-Saxon Plant Remedies and the Anglo-Saxons," Isis, 70(1979):250-268; reprinted in M. H. Shank, ed., The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000).
  20. ^ Stephen C. McCluskey, "Gregory of Tours, Monastic Timekeeping, and Early Christian Attitudes to Astronomy," Isis, 81(1990):9-22; reprinted in M. H. Shank, ed., The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000).
  21. ^ Stephen C. McCluskey, Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1998), pp. 149-57.
  22. ^ Faith Wallis, "'Number Mystique' in Early Medieval Computus Texts," pp. 179-99 in T. Koetsier and L. Bergmans, eds. Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study, (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005).
  23. ^ Excerpt: "The period from the end of the Roman Empire to about AD 800 is often called the Dark Ages. There was not much progress made in Europe during this period. The foundations were laid, however, for important advances that were to follow in the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance.". From: "Science". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 
  24. ^ Ronald Numbers (Lecturer). (2006, May 11). Myths and Truths in Science and Religion: A historical perspective [Video Lecture]. University of Cambridge (Howard Building, Downing College): The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion.
  25. ^ Chandler, Tertius, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census (1987, Edwin Mellon Press)
  26. ^ Cantor, 1993 Europe in 1050 p 235.
  27. ^ The proscribed degree was the seventh degree of consanguinity, which made virtually all marriages annullable by application to the Pope.
  28. ^ Chandler, Tertius, ibid.

For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks under Clovis I and the Alamanni, traditionally in 496. ... The Gothic War, 535–552, was the expression of Justinians decision in 535 to reverse the course of events of the past century in the West and win back for the Eastern Roman Empire the provinces of Italy that had been lost, first to Odoacer and then to the... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Otto I at his victory over Berengar of Friuli Grave of Otto I in Magdeburg Otto I the Great ( November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the... The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Two horse collars A horse collar is a device used to distribute load around a horses neck, for pulling a wagon or plow. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ...

See also

Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... See also: Ancient literature, 10th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... Early medieval European dress, from about 400 to 1100, changed very gradually. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... Phantom time hypothesis is a theory developed by Heribert Illig which suggests that the Early Middle Ages (614–911 CE) never occurred, meaning that all artifacts attributed to this time period are from other times and that all historical figures from this time period are outright fabrications. ...

Further reading

  • Geoffrey Barraclough, (1947) 1988. The Origins of Modern Germany (Oxford: Blackwell)
  • Peter Hunter Blair, (1956) 1966. An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge University Press)
  • John Bagnell Bury, (1928) 1967. The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians The traditional view.
  • Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. I 1966. Michael M. Postan, et al, editors.
  • Norman F. Cantor, The Medieval World 300 to 1300
  • Christopher Dawson, 1956. The Making of Europe: An Introduction to the History of European Unity (New York: Meridian)
  • Georges Duby, 1974. The Early Growth of the European Economy: Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Centuries (New York: Cornell University Press) Howard B. Clark, translator.
  • Georges Duby, editor, 1988. A History of Private Life II: Revelations of the Medieval World (Harvard University Press)
  • Heinrich Fichtenau, (1957) 1978. The Carolingian Empire (University of Toronto) Peter Munz, translator.
  • Charles Homer Haskins, (1915) 1959 etc. The Normans in European History The foundation of Norman studies, superseded in details.
  • Richard Hodges, 1982. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000 (New York: St Martin's Press)
  • Edward James, 1988. The Franks (Oxford: Basil Blackwell)
  • David Knowles, (1962) 1988. The Evolution of Medieval Thought
  • Richard Krautheimer, 1980. Rome: Profile of a City 312-1308 (Princeton University Press)
  • Robin Lane Fox, 1986. Pagans and Christians (New York: Knopf)
  • John Marenbon (1983) 1988.Early Medieval Philosophy (480-1150): An Introduction ((London: Routledge)
  • Rosamond McKittrick, 1983 The Frankish Church Under the Carolingians (London: Longmans, Green)
  • John Morris, 1973. The Age of Arthur: A History of the British Isles from 350-650 (New York: Scribner's)
  • Karl Frederick Morrison, 1969. Tradition and Authority in the Western Church, 300-1140 (Princeton University Press)
  • Pierre Riché, (1978) 1988. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne
  • P.H. Sawyer, (1962) 1972. The Age of the Vikings (New York: St Martin's press)
  • Richard Southern, 1953. The Making of the Middle Ages (Yale University Press)
  • Susanne Wemple, 1981. Women in Frankish Society: Marriage and the Cloister (University of Pennsylvania)
Geoffrey Barraclough (1908-1984) was a British historian, known as a medievalist and historian of Germany. ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada on November 19, 1929, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ... Christopher Henry Dawson (1889 – 1970) was an English independent scholar, who wrote many books on cultural history and Christendom. ... Georges Duby Georges Duby (October 7, 1919 - December 3, 1996) was a French historian specializing in the Middle Ages. ... Heinrich von Fichtenau (December 10, 1912— June 15, 2000) was an Austrian medievalist best known for his studies of medieval diplomatics, social and intellectual history. ... Charles Homer Haskins (1870-1937) was an American historian of the Middle Ages, and advisor to US President Woodrow Wilson. ... Richard Hodges Richard Hodges OBE, FSA (born September 29, 1952) is a contemporary British archaeologist whose work primarily concerns trade and economics during the early part of the Middle Ages. ... David Knowles (Studley, Warwickshire 1896-1974) was an English Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey and historian. ... Richard Krautheimer (born 1897 in Fürth (Franconia), Germany – died in Rome, Italy, 1994) was a 20th century Byzantinist and baroque scholar and architectural historian. ... Robin Lane Fox (born 1946) is an English academic and historian, currently a Fellow of New College, Oxford, and University Reader in Ancient History. ... Sir Richard W. Southern (1912-2001) was a notable medieval historian, based at the University of Oxford. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Czechs & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 – 658) Moravian principality (late 8th century – 833) in... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... The article refers to the history of Georgia’s autonomous republic of Abkhazia. ... The article refers to the history of Georgia’s autonomous province of Adjaria. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Episkopi Cantonment Official languages English Government Sovereign Base Areas  - Administrator Richard Lacey British overseas territory    - Established 1960  Area  - Total 254 km² 98 sq mi  Population  - Density n/a/km² (n/a) n/a/sq mi Currency Cypriot pound (CYP) Time zone EET (UTC+2... The Ã…land Islands occupy a position of great strategic importance, commanding as they do both one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm and the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, in addition to being situated proximate to the Gulf of Finland. ... The Azores were known in the fourteenth century and can be seen incompletely, for example, in the Atlas Catalan. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Gagauz people descend from the Seljuk Turks that settled in Dobruja, together with the Pechenegs, Uz (Oghuz) and Cuman (Kipchak) people that followed the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Ä°zzeddin Keykavus II (1236-1276). ... For the garment with this name, see guernsey. ... Kosovo was formed in 1945. ... Motto Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres(Portuguese) Of all islands, the most beautiful and free Anthem A Portuguesa (national) Hino da Região Autónoma da Madeira (local) Capital (and largest city) Funchal Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Alberto João Jardim Establishment  -  Settled 1420   -  Autonomy... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location of Nakhchivan in the South Caucasus region Detailed map of Nakhchivan Capital (and largest city) Nakhchivan City Official languages Azerbaijani Government  -  Parliamentary Chairman Vasif Talibov Autonomous republic  -  Establishment of the Nakhchivan ASSR    -  Nahchivan Autonomous Republic   Area  -  Total 5,5001 km²  2,124 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  2005 estimate... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian, Russian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... This is the history of Republika Srpska, one of the two entities comprising Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This is the history of Transnistria. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...

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At the beginning of the Middle Ages, the western half of the Roman Empire began to fragment into smaller, weaker kingdoms.
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