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Encyclopedia > Early Islamic philosophy

Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. Aquinas knew of at least some of the Mutazilite work and the Renaissance and the use of empirical methods were inspired at least in part by Muslim works taken in Spain in 1492. The outstanding achievements of early Muslims are: Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Empirical methods are the means by which scientists gather information about the world in order to develop theories. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • the development of a strict science of citation, the isnad or "backing"
  • the development of a method of open inquiry to disprove claims, the ijtihad, which could be generally applied to many types of questions (although which to apply it to is an ethical question)
  • willingness to both accept and challenge authority within the same process
  • recognition that science and philosophy are both subordinate to morality, and that moral choices are prior to any investigation or concern with either.

Early Muslim philosophy can be starkly divided into four clear sets of influences, listed below. Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for the investigation of phenomena and the acquisition of new knowledge of the natural world, as well as the correction and integration of previous knowledge, based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning. ... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Quran and the Sunnah. ...

Contents


Muhammad

The life of Muhammad or sira which generated both the Qur'an (revelation) and hadith (his daily utterances and discourses on social and legal matters), during which philosophy was defined by acceptance or rejection of his message. Together the sira and hadith constitute the sunnah and are validated by isnad ("backing") to determine the likely truth of the report of any given saying of Muhammad. Key figures are Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud and Al-Nasa'i. Each sifted through literally millions of hadith to accept a list of under 10,000. This work, which was not completed until the 10th century, began shortly after The Farewell Sermon in 631, after which Muhammad could not mediate disputes. After his death Abu Bakr began to collect all fragments of his sayings. In this period, Muhammad was simply authority and philosophy distinguished from his personal style only by the revelation. For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Alcoran, Turkish Kuran), is the central text of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: hadÄ«th, Arabic pl. ... Sunnah (Arabic: ) means “way” or “custom”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”, or what is commonly known as the Prophet’s traditions. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري (born 810 - died 870), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (Hadith) from Muhammad, was born at Bokhara (Bukharä), of an Iranian family, in AH... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (born 204 A.H. - 261 (or 268?) A.H/ 875), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam. ... Al-Tirmidhi, full name Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Musa ibn al-Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi (824-892, ie 209 AH - 13 Rajab 279 AH) was a medieval collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), who wrote the Sunan al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical hadith compilations used... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... Abu Daud, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... Al-Nasāī, full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasāī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, al-Sunan al-ṣughrā, as well as 15... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Farewell Sermon, also known as the Prophets final sermon, is a famous sermon by Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, delivered before his death, on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 A.H. (632 CE), at the end of his first & final pilgrimage. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ...


Dominance of Kalam

With kalam, in which questions about the sira and hadith, as well as science and law, began to be investigated beyond the scope of Muhammad's beliefs. This period is characterized by emergence of ijtihad and the first fiqh. As the Sunnah became published and accepted, philosophy separate from Muslim theology was discouraged due to a lack of participants. During this period, traditions similar to Socratic method began to evolve, but philosophy remained subordinate to religion. Kalam in Arabic means speech or discourse and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. ... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Quran and the Sunnah. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Muslim theology is a branch of knowledge about God or Allah based on Muslim divine religious books or sources, namely the Quran and the Prophetic traditions. ... Socratic method (or method of elenchos or Socratic debate) is a dialectic method of inquiry, largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts and first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. ...


Mutazilite school

The rise of the Mutazilites, which built on Greek philosophy to challenge the kalam, integrate Plato and Aristotle in particular, and expand the use of ijtihad ("independent thought") to open questions of science and society, and what we today call modern philosophy. During this period the procedural traditions of Islam were highly developed. Ijtihad had strong influences on the development of the modern scientific method, while isnad is indistinguishable in form from modern scientific citation. With these tools, the Mutazilites were able to revive Greek views, and correct them. Early Muslim medicine and Early Muslim sociology in particular benefited from the Mutazilite approach, but it led to very strong reaction. Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ... Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos, Louvre, Paris Aristotle (Ancient Greek: AristotélÄ“s 384 – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for the investigation of phenomena and the acquisition of new knowledge of the natural world, as well as the correction and integration of previous knowledge, based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. ... Prophetic Medicine: Prophetic Medicine (al-tibb) was a genre of medical writing intended as an alternative to the Greek-based medical system (See:Galen). ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ...


Rise of the Asharite school

The Asharites put an end to philosophy as such in the Muslim world, but permitted these methods to continue to be applied to science and technology. This marked the 12th-to-14th century peak of innovation in Muslim civilization, after which lack of improvements in the basic processes and confusion with theology and law had degraded methods. During this period many remarkable achievements of engineering and social organization were made, and the ulama began to generate a fiqh based on taqlid ("emulation") rather than on the old ijtihad. An influential 12th-century work, "The Incoherence of the Philosophers", by Al-Ghazali, laid the groundwork to "shut the door of ijtihad" later on in the 15th-century, with the assistance of the new Ottoman Empire. The Asharite (Arabic الأشعرية al-ash`aryah) is a school of early Muslim philosophy that wasinstrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development radically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ... Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Ulema is a common romanisation for the plural of Arabic ˤĀlim Scholar, namely ˤUlamā (علماء). The same word appears in Turkish as Ulema and in Persian as Olæma. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Taqlid is typically considered blind following, and is allegedly what inspired the Wahhabi movement to eradicate forms of Sufism that had - per their perspective - departed significantly from both the spirit and practice of Islam. ... The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-Falasifa) is the title of a landmark polemic in Islamic philosophy by the Sufi sympathetic Al-Ghazali of the Asharite school against the neoplatonic school of thought in Islamic Philosophy. ... Al-Ghazali Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (Arabic: ابو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالى for short: الغزالى ) (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111 in Tus) was a Muslim theologian, and philosopher, known as Algazel to the Western Medieval world, Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, or al-Ghazzali as it... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Early Islamic philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (635 words)
Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy.
As the Sunnah became published and accepted, philosophy separate from Muslim theology was discouraged due to a lack of participants.
Early Muslim medicine and Early Muslim sociology in particular benefited from the Mutazilite approach, but it led to very strong reaction.
Islamic philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2963 words)
Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a part of the Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam.
Islamic philosophy may be defined in a number of different ways, but the perspective taken here is that it represents the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture.
1640) and Transcendent Philosophy ملاصدرا و حكمت متعاليه
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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