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Encyclopedia > Early East Slavs
History of Russia series,
History of Ukraine,
and History of Belarus
Early East Slavs
Kievan Rus’
Volga Bulgaria
Khazaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Imperial Russia
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation

The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. Each of the many nationalities of Russia has a separate history and complex origins. The historical origins of the Russian state, however, are chiefly those of the East Slavs and the assimilated Finno-Ugric peoples of the North-Eastern Europe. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... After the Union of Lublin in 1569 and the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the gentry of Ukraine voted for membership in the Polish part of the Commonwealth. ... This article describes the history of the Eastern European nation of Belarus and the Belarusian people. ... Kievan Rus′ (Russian: , Kievskaya Rus; Ukrainian: , Kyivs’ka Rus’) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (Russian: Ки́ев, Kiev; Ukrainian: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ...

Contents


Inhabitants of the East European Plain

Relatively little is known about East Slavs prior to approximately 9th century AD. The reason for this lies mainly in the apparent absence of written language (Cyrillic was created around 863 specifically for adoption by Slavs) and remoteness of East Slavic lands from more civilized areas. What little we know comes from archaeological digs, accounts of foreigners who occasionally visited Rus', and results of comparative analyses of Slavic languages by linguists. Except for the controversial Book of Veles, very few native Russian documents dating prior to 11th century (and none prior to 9th century) were ever discovered. The earliest known major manuscript with information on Russian history is the Primary Chronicle, written in late 11th - early 12th century. It lists the twelve Slavic plemena (tribal unions or nations) which settled by the 9th century between the Baltic and the Black seas. These plemena are poliane, derevliane, dregovichi, radimichi, viatichi, krivichi, slovene, dulebi, (white) khorvati, severiane, uglichi, tivertsi. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... The Book of Veles (Veles Book, Vles book, Vlesbook, Isenbecks Planks, Велесова книга, Влес книга, Влескнига, Книга Велеса, Дощечки Изенбека, Дощьки Изенбека) is claimed to be a text of ancient Slavic religion and history. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from around 850 to 1110. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The term Baltic countries is sometimes used more or less synonymously for Northern Europe (Russia not included) The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the... Map of the Black Sea. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Based on archaeological and linguistic evidence, historians theorize that the Slavs formed as an ethnic group in the middle of 2nd millennium BC in the area that is now split between Poland, Czech republic, Slovakia, western Belarus and northwestern Ukraine. By 8th century BC Slavs had entered the Iron Age and started their gradual expansion to the east and to the south. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


In the centuries to follow, Slavic settlers met multiple other ethnic groups that either lived or moved to the East European Plain. The best known of these groups were the nomadic Scythians, who occupied the region of modern Ukraine and southwestern Russia from about the 6th century BC to the 2nd century BC and whose skill in warfare and horsemanship is legendary. Scythians largely disappeared by 1st century BC, but this term was sometimes used in later Roman documents as a reference to eastern Slavs. Between the 1st century AD and the 9th century, Goths, nomadic Huns, Avars, and Magyars passed through the region in their migrations. Although some of them subjugated the Slavs in the region, these tribes left little of lasting importance. More significant in this period was the expansion of the Slavs, who were agriculturists and beekeepers as well as hunters, fishers, herders, and trappers. By the 6th century, the Slavs were the dominant ethnic group on the East European Plain. By 600 AD, the Slavs split linguistically into southern, western, and eastern branches. The East Slavs settled along the Dnieper river in what is now Ukraine; they then spread northward to the northern Volga valley, east of modern-day Moscow and westward to the basins of the northern Dniester and the Western Bug rivers in present-day Moldova and southern Ukraine. Their location allowed them to control the trade route between the Scandinavia-Baltic sea region and the eastern remnants of the Roman Empire, particularly the Byzantine Empire and the Grecian colonies on the northern coast of Black Sea. They had trade relations with both Vikings and Byzantians. Kiev - the future capital of Rus' - was likely established in 5-6th century AD as a fortress which controlled Dnieper river and was used to collect taxes from boats returning from Byzantia. Many other cities were built in the subsequent 500 years. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BC were... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who migrated into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... Árpád Feszty and assistants vast (over 8000 m2) canvas, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Site in Hungary Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... This article is about the river. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Saint Basils Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin at Red Square. ... Length 1350 km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 62,000  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Black Sea Basin countries Ukraine, Moldova The river Dniester (Polish: Dniestr, Ukrainian: Дністер, Romanian: Nistru, Russian: Днестр, Latin: Tyras) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західний Буг, Zakhidnyi Buh), flows from central Ukraine to the west, forming part of the boundary between that nation and Poland, passes along the Polish-Belarusian... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... Official Tourist Site HR-Net (Hellenic Resources Network)/ comprehensive Greek news site Official Greek Statistics Site Ask for Greece/ A volunteer community for Q&As about Greece Greece Museums/ Museum directory of Greece Take a short virtual tour of Athens Take a long virtual tour of Athens Greece Webcam Radio... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Motto: Oblast Municipality Municipal government City council (Київська Міська рада) Mayor Oleksandr Omelchenko Area 800 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 2,642,486 100% 3,299/km² Founded City rights around 5th century 1487 Latitude Longitude 50°27′ N 30°30′ E Area code +380 44 Car plates  ? Twin towns Athens, Brussels, Budapest... This article is about the river. ...


In the eighth and ninth centuries, some East Slavic tribes had to pay tribute to the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking people who adopted Judaism in the late eighth or ninth century and lived in the southern Volga and Caucasus regions. The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... The Caucasus , a region boardering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


East Slavs and the Varangians

By the ninth century, Scandinavian warriors and merchants, called Varangians (more commonly known as Vikings), had penetrated the East Slavic regions. See Kievan Rus' for continuation. Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... The Varangians or Variags were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Sweden. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Kievan Rus′ (Russian: , Kievskaya Rus; Ukrainian: , Kyivs’ka Rus’) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (Russian: Ки́ев, Kiev; Ukrainian: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


Tribes

The Dregovichs or (more correct) Dregovichi (Дреговичи, Dregovichi in Russian; Дреговичі, Drehovychi in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited the territories down the stream of the Pripyat River and northern parts of the Right-bank Dnieper river (the borders of the tribes domain are still not eastablished... The Drevlians (Древляне, Drevlyane in Russian; Деревляни, Derevliany in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories of Polesie, Right-bank Ukraine west of Polans, down the stream of the rivers Teteriv, Uzh, Ubort, and Stviga. ... The Ilmen Slavs (Ильменские славяне in Russian; also known as Словене, or Slovene), the northernmost tribe of the Early East Slavs, which inhabited the shores of the Lake Ilmen and the basin of the rivers of Volkhov, Lovat, Msta and the upper stream of the Mologa River in the 6... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ... In the Early Middle Ages there were two separate Slavic tribes bearing the name of Polans: Polans, an Eastern Slavic tribe living in the area of Dnieper river Polans, an Western Slavic tribe living in the area of Warta. ... The Radimichs (Радимичи in Russian; Радимичі in Ukrainian), were a tribe of Early East Slavs of the last few centuries of the 1st millennium, which inhabited upper east parts of the Dnieper down the Sozh River and its tributaries. ... The Vyatichs (Вятичи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited a part of the Oka basin. ... The Severyans (Северяне in Russian, or northerners) were a tribe of Early East Slavs, which inhabited the regions along the rivers Desna, Seim, and Suda at the end of the 1st millennium. ... Tivertsi, a. ... The Ulichs (Uglichs) (Уличи, Угличи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 8th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea. ... The Ulichs (Uglichs) (Уличи, Угличи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 8th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea. ... The Dulebs (Дулёбы in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries. ... The Buzhans or (more correct) Buzhane (Russian: ,Ukrainian: ) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs. ... Polochans (Полочане in Russian) were a tribe of early East Slavs, who inhabited the area in the middle of the Western Dvina in the 9th century. ...

See also

Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... The following is a list of Slavic states that existed in the first half of the second millennium on the territories of contemporary Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. ...

References


 
 

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