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Encyclopedia > Early Christianity

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Christianity Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Christian cross Image File history File links Christian_cross. ...

Jesus Christ
Virgin birth · Resurrection This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ...


Foundations
Church · New Covenant
Apostles · Kingdom · Gospel
Timeline Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose...


Bible
Old Testament · New Testament
Books · Canon · Apocrypha
For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ...


Christian theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the...


History and traditions
Early · Councils · Creeds · Missions
East-West Schism · Crusades · Reformation
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church... Christian traditions are traditions of practice or belief associated with Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Reformation redirects here. ...

Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations
Ecumenism · Relation to other religions
Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...

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Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus (c. 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). The term is sometimes used in a narrower sense of just the very first followers (disciples) of Jesus of Nazareth and the faith as preached and practiced by the Twelve Apostles, their contemporaries, and their immediate successors, also called the Apostolic Age. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Entombment of Christ by Pieter Lastman The death of Jesus is an event described by the New Testament, as occurring after the Passion of Jesus, as a result of his crucifixion. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ...


Early Christianity, which began within Judaism, became clearly distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. It continued to revere the Jewish Bible, generally using the Septuagint translation that was in general use among Greek-speaking Jews and Gentile Godfearers, and added to it the writings that would become the New Testament, thus developing the first Christian Biblical canons. It defended Christian beliefs against criticism by non-Christian Jews and followers of other Roman religions, survived various persecutions, consisted of divisions that accused each other of heresy, and developed church hierarchy. Christianity synthesized Jewish morals, Greek theology, and Roman administration. What started as a religious movement within Second Temple Judaism became, by the end of this period, the favored religion of the Roman Empire under Constantine the Great (leading later to the rise of Christendom), and a significant religion also outside of the empire. The church prevailed over pagans and heretics because it offered an attractive doctrine and because the church leaders addressed human needs better than their rivals. The First Council of Nicaea marks the end of this era and the beginning of the period of the first Seven Ecumenical Councils (325 - 787). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [תורה] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [חומש] (The five, also Pentateuch or The five books of... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Godfearers or Sebioi in Greek (Arabic: Sabieen/Sabioon, Hebrew: Toshavim) are messianic Non-Jews who from the earliest of times have worshipped The Name of the Hebrew Elohim. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A folio from P46, early 3rd c. ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... A stone (2. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Constantine. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ...


Origin of Christianity as a distinct religion

Main article: History of early Christianity
By the end of the 1st century, Roman law recognized Christians as distinct from Jews, exempting them from a special tax on the Jews and denying them Jewish religious freedoms.
By the end of the 1st century, Roman law recognized Christians as distinct from Jews, exempting them from a special tax on the Jews and denying them Jewish religious freedoms.

Jesus and all his original followers were Jews or Jewish proselytes. The followers of Jesus composed a sect of Judaism marked by their belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the long-awaited Messiah (Acts 2:22-36), and that the Kingdom of God had come or would soon come, in fulfilment of expectation (Acts 19:8). The apostles, especially Paul the Apostle, the Apostle to the Gentiles, also gained converts among the gentiles (non-Jews). Practice among the groups that followed Jesus included those who were strictly Jewish, or those strongly attracted to Jewish practice, including the church leaders in Jerusalem. Many believe Paul's epistles founded a Christian theology, see also Pauline Christianity, marking another distinction from existing second temple Judaism. For a counterview, see New Perspective on Paul. He also persuaded the leaders of the Jerusalem Church to allow Gentile converts exemption from full Jewish law (see Council of Jerusalem, for the parallel in Judaism, see Noachide law). Luke, writing near the end of the first century, identified the Roman Centurion Cornelius as the first Gentile (non-Jewish) convert.[1] Jews who did not convert to Christianity and the growing Christian community gradually became more hostile toward each other. After the Destruction of the Second Temple in 70, Jerusalem ceased to be the center of Jewish religious life, and probably Christian religious life as well. Rabbinic Judaism developed as mainstream Jewish practice, first in Yavne, where the Great Sanhedrin was first reconstituted.[2] Rabbinical Jews rejected the recent works of the Septuagint, such as 2 Maccabees, which Christians retained. Early in the second century, Christians began to accept early Christian texts as scripture. Christianity established itself as a predominantly Gentile religion that spanned the Roman Empire and beyond. Scholar James D. G. Dunn has proposed that Peter was the bridge-man (i.e. the pontifex maximus) between the two other "prominent leading figures": Paul and James the Just.[3] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The fiscus Iudaicus (Latin: Jewish tax) was a tax paid by the Jewish subjects of the Roman Empire after the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in favor of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome. ... Proselyte, from the Greek proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger (1 Chronicles 22:2), i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... In Christianity, Parousia means the (Second) Coming of Christ. ... In Abrahamic religions, messianic prophecies describe the coming, acts, authority, personality, nature, etc. ... St. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... Pillars of the Church, in the first Christian century, seems to have referred to the leaders of the Nazarenes, as the Jerusalem Jesus movement was called, principally, the Family of Jesus, later known as the Desposyni, including his bothers James, Joses or Joseph, Simon or Simeon, and Jude or Judas... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... The New Perspective on Paul is the name given to a significant shift in how New Testament scholars interpret the writings of Paul of Tarsus, particularly in regard to Judaism and the later Protestant understanding of Justification by Faith. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... Cornelius was a Roman centurion who is considered by Christians to be the first Gentile convert to the faith, as related in the Acts of the Apostles, 10:1. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Various events contributed to or marked the widening split between Pharisaic/Rabbinic Judaism and the emerging Christian religion. ... ... Yavne (Hebrew יבנה, Arabic يبنة Yibnah) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... James D. G. (Jimmy) Dunn was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure...


The gospels that eventually became synoptic gospels of the Christian Bible identify Jesus as establishing a New Covenant with his flesh and blood,[4] the bread and wine of the Eucharist. The previous covenant was that of Moses, called the Mosaic Covenant. Whether or not the Mosaic Covenant still applies to Christians today is still a matter of dispute, see Biblical law in Christianity for details. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ... The Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the Eucharistic wine used at Holy Communion // Main article: Salvation The New Testament teaches that the Blood of... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity...


Christian groups such as Ebionites that insisted on circumcision and other aspects of Jewish law were disparaged as Judaizers, especially after the 3rd century. The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ...


Beliefs

Early Christian beliefs were based on the apostolic preaching (kerygma), considered to be preserved in tradition and, according as was produced, in New Testament scripture.[5] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... Kerygma (κηπύσσω, keÌ„rússoÌ„, “to cry or proclaim as a herald”) (Matthew 3:1; Romans 10:14) is the Greek word used in the New Testament for preaching (see Luke 4:18-19). ... The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Christology

Divinity of Christ

Main article: Logos

Most Christians identified Jesus as divine from a very early period, although holding a variety of competing views as to what exactly this implied.[6] Early Christian views tended to see Jesus as a unique agent of God;[7] by the Council of Nicaea in 325 he was identified as God in the fullest sense, literally "true God from true God". This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


The first and second-century texts that would later be canonized as the New Testament repeatedly refer to Jesus' divinity, though there is scholarly debate as to whether or not they call him God[8]. Within 20-30 years of the death of Jesus, Paul, who developed the first Christian theology, refers to Jesus as the resurrected Son of God, the savior who would return from heaven and save his faithful, dead and living, from the imminent destruction of the world. The Synoptic Gospels describe him as the Son of God, born of the Holy Spirit, who will return to judge the nations. The Gospel of John identifies Jesus as the human incarnation of the divine word or "Logos" (see Jesus the Logos) and True Vine. The Book of Revelation depicts Jesus as the "the first and the last", who died and now lives for ever and who holds the keys of death and Hades,[9] and as the Alpha and Omega who is to come soon.[10][11] The book speaks of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God as reigning with him for a thousand years[12] before the final defeat of Satan[13] and the Judgement at the Great White Throne.[14] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... In Christology, the conception that Jesus is the Logos (a Greek word meaning word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of Jesus divinity, as well as that of the Trinity, as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Alpha and Omega is an appellation of Jesus in the book of Revelation (22:13) where he is also called the first and the last, the beginning and the end. ... The Christian Last Judgment when all people will stand in judgment before Jesus Christ and a verdict of their salvation will be made. ...


The term "Logos" was used in Greek philosophy (see Heraclitus) and in Jewish religious writing (see Philo) to mean the ultimate ordering principle of the universe. Those who rejected the identification of Jesus with the Logos, rejecting also the Gospel of John, were called Alogi (see also Monarchianism).[15][16] Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... The Alogi were a group of heretics to the Christian church in the second century. ... Monarchianism, or Monarchism as it is sometimes called, is a set of beliefs that emphasize God as being one, that God is the single and only ruler. ...


Adoptionists, such as the Ebionites, considered him as a man who became the Son of God at his baptism, his transfiguration, or his resurrection. Adoptionism or adoptianism is an attempt to explain how Jesus is related God (that is, it was one option that arose in the Trinitarian controversies of the early church). ... In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ...


Trinity

Main article: Trinitarianism

The Trinity is a post-New Testament doctrine.[17] However, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are associated in various New Testament passages.[18] The Great Commission of Matthew 28:19 possibly reflects the baptismal practice at Matthew's time. Baptism has been in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost since the end of the first century.[19] Acts 2:38 speaks of baptism "in the name of Jesus Christ", which some interpret as another method of baptism, while others do not, since "in the name of" is used elsewhere in Acts to mean not a form of words but "by the authority of", "for the sake of".[20] Aside from this verse, Matthew does not equate Jesus with God nor does he specify inequality either, though he indicates a special relationship between them.[21] One of the elements virtually universal among diverse early Christians was the understanding that Jesus the Son was uniquely united with God the Father.[22] Trinitarianism is the Christian doctrine that God, although one being, exists in three distinct persons (hypostases) known collectively as the Holy Trinity. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ...


According to the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the Trinity was revealed to the disciples by revelation and in religious visions called theoria[23] during the Theophany and the Transfiguration of Jesus called the Tabor Light or uncreated light. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... In Eastern Orthodox theology, Tabor Light (also Tabors Light, Taboric Light; Greek , also Uncreated Light, Divine Light; Russian ) is the light revealed on Mount Tabor at the Transfiguration of Jesus, identified with the light seen by Paul at his conversion. ...


The close of the early Christian era is defined as the First Council of Nicea, which gave the trinity its dogmatic form. But the term trinity (coined by Tertullian) and concepts related to the trinity existed earlier in the church. The phrase "Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" became common, especially at baptism. Another trinitarian formula, "Glory to the Father, through the Son, in the Holy Spirit," was common even before the Arian controversy. However, this earlier formula does not express the co-equality of the three persons.[24] Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Arian may refer to: Arian, being well endowed. ...


The Council used the Greek term homousios (literally "of the same substance, essence or being") to express its view of the relation of the Son to the Father. However, it also appears in the early Christian era[25] as used by Origen, Paul of Samosata, and Alexander of Alexandria though not without controversy, see for example Synods of Antioch . Various Christian writings refer to Jesus as a man and as God, but it was this Council that gave official sanction to the common Trinity formulation using this term. Homoousianism (from the Greek ομολοζ meaning same and ousia meaning essence or being) is the offical doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church with regard to the ontological status of the three parts of the Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. ... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Paul of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch (260-269), Life Paul was born at Samosata into a family of humble origin. ... St. ... Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times. ...


Many, including Oneness Pentecostals and some Restorationists, styling themselves as restoring early Christian practice, reject the trinitarian concepts of the early church, and generally place no importance in the post-apostolic writings of the Church Fathers on the subject. (See below in the discussion on the Church Fathers.) Oneness Pentecostalism is a movement of Pentecostal Christianity that teaches the atoning death of Jesus Christ, His resurrection, His soon return, and the inerrancy of the word of God. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to several unaffiliated religious movements that believe that grave defects were introduced by Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians into Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers...


Eschatology

Kingdom of God

The apostles apparently believed that Jesus would soon return to establish the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. The general term for this set of beliefs is parousia (or Second Coming). The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... In Christianity, Parousia means the (Second) Coming of Christ. ...


Early Christians commonly believed that Christ's return would establish not the general resurrection but a thousand-year kingdom, with the general resurrection following (a belief known as chiliasm or premillenialism).[26] The book of Revelation is the main source of this teaching.[27] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about...


Early Christians followed the Pharisaic precedent[28] of believing in a physical resurrection of the dead. They believed that the saved received various divine rewards corresponding to their holiness. While all the saved would gain eternal life in Christ, not all of the saved would live in heaven.[citation needed] The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning separated , that is, one who is separated for a life of purity (Ernest Klein, Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language). ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ...


Apologists defended the resurrection of the dead against pagan philosophers, who considered the soul worthy of perfection but not the body. Origen, however, promoted a Platonic viewpoint and denied the physical resurrection.[citation needed]


Cosmology

The ancient Jewish picture was of the sky as a firmament, a dome covering the earth. But the prevailing picture in early Christian times was that of the earth as a sphere with one or more other spheres, containing the stars, rotating around it. They sometimes described the souls of the dead waiting underground for the general resurrection. They described gehenna (roughly, hell) as a subterranean fire, see also Lake of Fire. In some Hellenic traditions, influential in the Alexandrian church, souls escaped the material world of the earth and returned to the spirit realm above. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the Book of Revelation, the beast, the false prophet, the Satan, death, hades, and all those whose names arent written in the Book of Life are thrown into the lake of fire[1]. In some interpretations, the servants of iniquity are tortured forever in the lake. ...


Prayer for the dead

See also: Prayer for the dead

That early Christians prayed for the dead, believing that the dead were thereby benefitted, is attested from at least the second century, and celebration of the Eucharist for the dead is attested since at least the third century.[29] Specific examples of belief in the communion of the living with the dead through prayer are found in many of the Church Fathers[30] The Encyclopædia Britannica says that: "The well-attested early Christian practice of prayer for the dead ... was encouraged by the episode (rejected by Protestants as apocryphal) in which Judas Maccabeus (Jewish leader of the revolt against the tyrant Antiochus IV Epiphanes) makes atonement for the idolatry of his fallen soldiers by providing prayers and a monetary sin offering on their behalf (2 Maccabees 12:41–46); by the apostle Paul's prayer for Onesiphorus (2 Timothy 1:18); and by the implication in Matthew 12:32 that there may be forgiveness of sins in the world to come."[31] Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of mans personality through and after death, religion naturally concerns itself with the relations between the living and the dead. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... St. ... Onesiphorus (name meaning bringing profit) was a Christian of Ephesus who showed St. ...


Hades

The Greek word "Hades", which, like the Hebrew word "sheol", is generally used of the abode where the dead are reckoned to be, appears several times in the New Testament.[32] In the parable of the rich man and poor Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31), the dead rich man "in Hades" (16:23), speaks of being "tormented in this flame" (16:24), and is said to be separated by a "great gulf" from Abraham (16:26), in whose bosom Lazarus is said to be placed (16:22). The word "Hades" was used in Acts 2:27-31 (as in the Septuagint) to translate the word "sheol" of the Hebrew text of the Psalm there quoted. Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... The phrase Bosom of Abraham refers to the place of comfort in sheol (Greek: hades) where the Jews said the righteous dead awaited Judgment Day. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Early Church Fathers who wrote in Greek, such as Hippolytus of Rome in his book on Hades, continued to use the term "Hades".[33] Early Christian writers in Latin also used either the Greek word "Hades" itself[34] or employed as its equivalent the Latin word "infernus", the Roman word for the underworld,[35] as Jerome did in his translation of the New Testament.[36] In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... This discourse, more than others, describes Josephus religious views versus the prevailing view of the Greco-Romans of his day. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ...


Angels and Satan

Early Christians understood angels to be active in supporting the church and Satan to be actively opposed to it. Hippolytus, for example, recounts angels physically scourging the first antipope to force him to repent.[37][38] Christian writers commonly saw Satan (or Beelzebub, see Mark 3) as the author of heresies. In John 8:44, Satan, rather than Abraham, is named as the father of those Jews who rejected Jesus. See also Rejection of Jesus. The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... “Belzebub” redirects here. ... Mark 3 is the third chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. ...


The word "angel" is derived from Greek ἄγγελος, the basic meaning of which is "messenger". Visitations from the "angel of the LORD" in the Old Testament are taken by many to be pre-Incarnation manifestations of Christ.[39][40][41] Accordingly, Justin Martyr spoke of Christ as "King, and Priest, and God, and Lord, and angel, and man, and captain, and stone, and a Son born, and first made subject to suffering, then returning to heaven, and again coming with glory, and He is preached as having the everlasting kingdom".[42] He interpreted as Christ the Angel who spoke with Abraham in Genesis 18, and argued for the divinity of Christ.[43] Death, as a skeleton which carries a scythe, visiting a dying man. ...


Orthodoxy and heterodoxy

Traditionally, orthodoxy and heresy have been viewed in relation to the "orthodoxy" as an authentic lineage of tradition. Other forms of Christianity were viewed as deviant streams of thought and therefore "heterodox", or heretical. This view was dominant until the publication of Walter Bauer's Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum ("Orthodoxy and heresy in ancient Christianity") in 1934. Bauer endeavored to rethink early Christianity historically, independent from the views of the church. He stated that the early church was very diverse and included many "heretical" groups that had an equal claim to apostolic tradition. Bauer interpreted the struggle between the orthodox and heterodox to be the "mainstream" Roman church struggling to attain dominance. He presented Edessa and Egypt as places where the "orthodoxy" of Rome had little influence during the second century. As he saw it, the theological thought of the Orient at the time would later be labeled "heresy". The response by modern scholars has been mixed. Some scholars clearly support Bauer's conclusions and others express concerns about his possible bias. More moderate responses have become prominent and Bauer's theory is generally accepted. However, modern scholars have critiqued and updated Bauer's model.[44] “Orthodox” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Heterodox literally means pertaining to other doctrines or other worship. ... Walter Bauer (1877 - 17 November 1960) was a scholar of the development of the early Christian churches. ...


Divisions

Perhaps one of the most important discussions among scholars of early Christianity in the past century is to what extent it is appropriate to speak of "orthodoxy" and "heresy". Higher criticism drastically altered the previous perception that heresy was a very rare exception to the orthodoxy. Bauer was particularly influential in the reconsideration of the historical model. During the 1970s, increasing focus on the effect of social, political and economic circumstances on the formation of early Christianity occurred as Bauer's work found a wider audience. Some scholars argue against the increasing focus on heresies. A movement away from presuming the correctness or dominance of the orthodoxy is seen as understandable, in light of modern approaches. However, they feel that instead of an even and neutral approach to historical analysis that the heterodox sects are given an assumption of superiority over the orthodox movement. The current debate is vigorous and broad. While it is difficult to summarize all current views, general statements may be made, remembering that such broad strokes will have exceptions in specific cases.[45] Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ...


Adoptionism

Main article: Adoptionism

Many second century Christians believed that Jesus had been a man whom God had adopted as the Son.[46] Adoptionists believed that Jesus had achieved divinity through moral perfection.[47] This outlook was appears in The Shepherd of Hermas and, according to some scholars, in the epistles of Paul. The Ebionites and Paul of Samosata (200 to 275) held similar views.[48] Adoptionism conflicted with the tradition that Jesus embodied the eternal Logos, as in the Gospel of John. Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ... Paul of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch (260-269), Life Paul was born at Samosata into a family of humble origin. ...


Adoptionist heresies would recur in Antioch (5th century), Spain (8th century), and France (12th century).


Arianism

Main article: Arianism

Arianism was the most challenging heresy in the history of the Church.[47] The initial version of the Nicene Creed, which largely defines orthodox Christianity, was drawn up in response to Arius's challenge. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box...


In 318, an Alexandrian priest named Arius (c 280-336[47]) began challenging his bishop, Alexander, regarding the nature of Christ.[47] Arius taught that the Son was not co-eternal with the Father but had proceeded from Him, and that the Holy Spirit had proceeded from the Son. Arius's beliefs spread quickly among the clergy.[47] Alexander called a council of Egyptian bishops and unfrocked Arius and his followers, but some other bishops sympathized with Arius.[47] The controversy spread through the Greek East.[47] Constantine, seeking political stability, played down differences between Arius and Alexander.[47] He could not, however, get them to settle their differences quietly.[47] Finally, Constantine called a universal Christian council to settle the controversy.[47] Athanasius, representing Alexander, argued that if Father and Son were not one substance, polytheism would triumph.[47] The creed of 325 was acceptable to Arius except for the phrase "same substance," referring to the Son and the Father; Arius would have accepted "similar substance."[47] Arianism led to controversy centuries later with the filioque. Arian Visigoths refused to accept the Nicene Creed until it was changed to say that the Holy Spirit proceeds not just from the Father but also from the Son. In Christian theology the filioque clause (and the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


Ebionites

Main article: Ebionites

Ebionites ("poor ones") practiced Jewish Christianity, followed the Law, and believed Jesus to have been adopted as God's Son.[48] They flourished in the early centuries of Christianity, especially east of the Jordan.[48] They seem to have been ascetics, to have rejected Paul's epistles, and to have used one gospel of uncertain identity[48], see also Gospel of the Ebionites. In the second century, the Church denounced them as heretics. They waned but survived for five centuries as Syriac Christians. The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... The Gospel of the Ebionites is a text sharing an affinity with the Gospel of the Hebrews and the Gospel of the Nazarenes. ...


Gnosticism

Main articles: Gnosticism and Valentinius

Early in the common era, several distinct religious sects, some of them Christian, adhered to an array of beliefs that would later be termed Gnostic. The most successful Christian Gnostic was the priest Valentinus (c. 100 - c. 160), who founded a Gnostic church in Rome and developed an elaborate cosmology. Gnostics considered the material world to be a prison created by a fallen or evil spirit, the god of the material world (called the demiurge). Gnostics identified the God of the Hebrew Bible as this demiurge. Secret knowledge (gnosis) was said to liberate one's soul to return to the true God in the realm of light. Valentinus and other Christian gnostics identified Jesus as the Savior, a spirit sent from the true God into the material world to liberate the souls trapped there. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... -Quevedo Valentinius, also called Valentinus (c. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... This article is about the Gnostic Valentinus. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ...


While some elements that appear to be Gnostic are found in early Christian writing, proto-orthodox Christianity labeled Gnosticism a heresy and rejected its dualistic cosmology and its vilification of the material world and the creator of the material. Gnosticism's stance was that the God of the Old Testament was not the true God. It was considered to be the demiurge and either fallen, as taught by Valentinus (c. 100 - c. 160) or evil, as taught by the Sethians and Ophites. Proto-orthodox Christianity is a term created by religious philosopher Bart D. Ehrman. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... This article is about the Gnostic Valentinus. ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to...


The Gospel of John, according to Stephen L Harris, both includes Gnostic elements and refutes Gnostic beliefs, presenting a dualistic universe of light and dark, spirit and matter, good and evil, much like the Gnostic accounts, but instead of escaping the material world, Jesus bridges the spiritual and physical worlds.[49] Raymond E. Brown wrote that even though gnostics interpreted John to support their doctrines, the author didn't intend that. The epistles were written (whether by the author of the Gospel or someone in his circle) to argue against gnostic doctrines.[50] For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ...


The Gospel of Thomas has some Gnostic elements but lacks the full Gnostic cosmology. The scene in John in which "doubting Thomas" ascertains that the resurrected Jesus is physical refutes the Gnostic idea that Jesus returned to spirit form after death. The written gospel draws on an earlier oral tradition associated with Thomas. Some scholars argue that the Gospel of John was meant to oppose the beliefs of that community.[51] The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ...


Some believe[citation needed] that there were at least three distinct divisions within the Christian movement of the 1st century: the Jewish Christians (led by the Apostle James the Just, with Jesus's disciples, and their followers), Pauline Christians (followers of Paul of Tarsus) and Gnostic Christians.[citation needed] Others believe that Gnostic Christianity was a later development, some time around the middle or late second century, around the time of Valentinus.[52] Gnosticism was in turn made up of many smaller groups, some of which did not claim any connection to Jesus Christ. In Mandaeist Gnosticism, Mandaeans maintain that Jesus was a mšiha kdaba or "false messiah" who perverted the teachings entrusted to him by John the Baptist. The word k(a)daba, however, derives from two roots in Mandaic: the first root, meaning "to lie," is the one traditionally ascribed to Jesus; the second, meaning "to write," might provide a second meaning, that of "book;" hence some Mandaeans, motivated perhaps by an ecumenical spirit, maintain that Jesus was not a "lying Messiah" but a "Book Messiah", the "book" in question presumably being the Christian Gospels. This however seems to be a folk etymology without support in the Mandaean texts.[53] A modern view has argued that Marcionism is mistakenly reckoned among the Gnostics, and really represents a fourth interpretation of the significance of Jesus.[54] Gnostics freely exchanged concepts and texts. It is considered likely that Valentinius was influenced by previous concepts such as Sophia, as much as he influenced others. Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... Religions Mandaeism Scriptures Ginza Rba, Qolusta Languages Mandaic, Arabic, Aramaic Mandaeism or Mandaeanism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... A false messiah is a person that falsely claims or others falsely claim to be the Jewish Messiah. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ...


Marcionism

Main articles: Marcion and Marcionism

In 144, the Church in Rome expelled Marcion of Sinope. He thereupon set up his own separate ecclesiastical organization, later called Marcionism. Like the Gnostics, he promoted dualism. Unlike the Gnostics, however, he founded his beliefs not on secret knowledge (gnosis) but on the vast difference between what he saw as the "evil" deity of the Old Testament and the God of love of the New, on which he expounded in his Antithesis. Consequently, Marcionists were vehemently anti-Judaism in their beliefs. They rejected The Hebrew Gospel (see also Gospel of the Hebrews) and all the other Gospels with the exception of a short version of the Gospel of Luke, often called the Gospel of Marcion. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... The Gospel of Marcion or the Gospel of the Lord was a text used by the mid-second century anti-Christian teacher Marcion to the exclusion of the other gospels. ...


From the perspectives of Tertullian and Epiphanius (when the four gospels had largely canonical status, perhaps in reaction to the challenge created by Marcion), it appeared that Marcion rejected the non-Lukan gospels, however, in Marcion's time, it may be that the only gospel he was familiar with from Pontus was the gospel that would later be called Luke. It is also possible that Marcion's gospel was actually modified by his critics to become the gospel we know today as Luke, rather than the story from his critics that he changed a canonical gospel to get his version. For example: compare Luke 5:39 to 5:36-38; did Marcion delete 5:39 from his Gospel or was it added later to counteract a Marcionist interpretation of 5:36-38? See also New Wine into Old Wineskins. One must keep in mind that we only know of Marcion through his critics and they considered him a major threat to the form of Christianity that they knew. John Knox (the modern writer, not to be confused with John Knox the Protestant Reformer) in Marcion and the New Testament: An Essay in the Early History of the Canon (ISBN 0-404-16183-9) was the first to propose that Marcion's Gospel may have preceded Luke's Gospel and Acts.[55] New Wine into Old Wineskins is a saying of Jesus found in the Gospel of Matthew , Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Luke . ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Luke the Evangelist. ...


Marcion argued that Christianity should be solely based on Christian Love. He went so far as to say that Jesus’ mission was to overthrow Demiurge -- the fickle, cruel, despotic God of the Old Testament -- and replace Him with the Supreme God of Love whom Jesus came to reveal. Marcion was labeled a gnostic by Irenaeus. Irenaeus' labeled Marcion this because of Marcion expressing this core gnostic belief, that the creator God of the Jews and the Old Testament was the demiurge. This position, he said, was supported by the ten Epistles of Paul that Marcion also accepted. His writing had a profound effect upon the development of Christianity and the canon.[56] Possibly the most central idea in Christian Theology is the Holiness of God. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ...


Montanism

Main article: Montanism

About 156, Montanus launched a ministry of prophecy, criticizing Christians as increasingly worldly and bishops as increasingly autocratic. Traveling in his native Anatolia, he and two women preached a return to primitive Christian simplicity, prophecy, celibacy, and asceticism.[47] Tertullian, having grown puritanical with age, embraced Montanism as a more outright application of Christ's teaching.[47] Montanus's followers revered him as the Paraclete that Christ had promised, and he led his sect out into a field to meet the New Jerusalem.[47] His sect spread across the Roman Empire, survived persecution, and relished martyrdom.[47] The Church banned them as a heresy, and in the 6th century Justinian ordered the sect's extinction.[47] Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see New Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The sect's ecstasy, speaking in tongues, and other details are similar to those found in Pentecostalism. Released on September 27, 2005 by 845Ent. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal...


Religious writing

See also: List of early Christian writers and List of early Christian texts of disputed authorship

Early Christians wrote many religious works, some of which were later canonized as the New Testament of today. Various authors wrote the gospels and other books of the New Testament. ... There are a number of early Christian writings whose authorship is in dispute. ...


Oral tradition and first written works

See also: Logia

Christian testimony was entirely oral for roughly twenty years after Jesus' death. Christians passed along Jesus' teachings, proclaimed his resurrection, and prophesied his imminent return. Apostles established churches and oral traditions in various places, such as Jerusalem, Antioch, Caesarea, and Ephesus. These traditions gradually developed distinct characteristics. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Logia is a term applied to collections of sayings credited to Jesus and used as source materials by the Gospel writers in the writing of the familiar canonic narrative gospels. ...


When those who had heard Jesus' actual words began to die, Christians started recording the sayings in writing. The hypothetical Q document, a collection of Jesus' sayings, is perhaps the first such record (c 50). The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ...


Paul's epistles

See also: Pauline epistles

At about the same time, Paul of Tarsus also began writing (or dictating[57]) letters ("epistles") to various churches that would later be considered scripture. Paul articulated the first Christian theology, that all people inherit Adam's guilt and can only be saved from death by the atoning death of the Son of God, Jesus' crucifixion. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ...


Gospels and Acts

See also: Gospel and Acts of the Apostles (genre)

The gospel of Mark was written during c. 65-70, possibly motivated by the First Jewish-Roman War. The gospel of Matthew was written c. 80-85 to convince a Jewish audience that Jesus was the expected Messiah (Christ) and a greater Moses. The gospel of Luke, together with Acts (see Luke-Acts) was c. 85-90, considered the most literate and artistic of the gospels. Finally, the gospel of John was written, portraying Jesus as the incarnation of the divine Word, who primarily taught about himself as a savior. All four gospels originally circulated anonymously, and they were attributed to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John in the 2nd century. Various authors wrote further epistles and the Apocalypse of John.[58] Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... The Acts of the Apostles is a genre of of Early Christian literature, claiming to recount the lives and works of the apostles of Jesus. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Luke the Evangelist. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


Later epistles

See also: General epistles

Epistles by other hands than Paul's circulated in the early church. Many of them, including one written as late as c 150,[17] were eventually included in the New Testament canon. Many later epistles concern issues of church leadership, discipline, and disputes. General epistles are books in the New Testament in the form of letters. ...


Revelation

See also: Apocalyptic literature

Several apocalypses circulated in the early church, and one of them, the Revelation of John, was later included in the New Testament. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Revelation of St. ...


Defining Scripture

See also: Biblical canon

Debates about scripture were underway in the mid-second century, concurrent with a drastic increase of new scriptures, both Jewish and Christian. Debates regarding practice and belief gradually became reliant on the use of scripture. Similarly, in the third century a shift away from direct revelation as a source of authority occurred. "Scripture" still had a broad meaning and usually referred to the Septuagint. Beyond the Torah (the Law) and some of the earliest prophetic works (the Prophets), there was no universal agreement to a canon, but it was not debated much at first. By the mid-second century, tensions arose with the growing rift between Christianity and Judaism, leading eventually to the determination of a Jewish canon by the emerging rabbinic movement,[59] though, even as of today, there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Jewish canon was set, see Development of the Jewish Bible canon for details. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... In general, continuous revelation or continuing revelation is a theological belief or position that God continues to reveal divine principles or commandments to humanity. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... This article is about the selection of the books which make up the Tanakh. ...


Regardless, throughout the Jewish diaspora newer writings were still collected and the fluid Septuagint collection was the primary source of scripture for Christians. Many works under the names of known apostles, such as the Gospel of Thomas, were accorded scriptural status in at least some Christian circles. Apostolic writings, such as I Clement and the Epistle of Barnabas, were considered scripture even within the orthodoxy through the fifth century. A problem for scholars is that there is a lack of direct evidence on when Christians began accepting their own scriptures alongside the Septuagint. Well into the second century Christians held onto a strong preference for oral tradition as clearly demonstrated by writers of the time, such as Papias.[60] The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ... The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek treatise with some features of an epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ...


The acceptance of the Septuagint was generally uncontested. Later Jerome would express his preference for adhering strictly to the Jewish canon, but his view held little currency even in his own day. It was not until the Protestant Reformation that substantial numbers of Christians began to reject those books of the Septuagint which are not found in the Jewish canon. For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Church fathers

Main article: Church Fathers

Greek and Latin fathers of the early church defined and defended Christian doctrine. The term was originally used for bishops and, after the early church period, was applied to holy, orthodox writers whose opinions were given special weight.[48] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers...


Apostolic Fathers

St. Clement I was an apostolic father.
St. Clement I was an apostolic father.
See also: Apostolic Fathers

The earliest Christian writings after the New Testament are a group of letters credited to the Apostolic Fathers. These include the Epistle of Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas and the Epistles of Clement, as well as the Didache. Taken as a whole, the collection is notable for its literary simplicity, religious zeal and lack of Hellenistic philosophy or rhetoric. Image File history File links StClement1. ... Image File history File links StClement1. ... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st century and early 2nd century who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon, at... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st century and early 2nd century who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon, at... The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek treatise with some features of an epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ...


Post-apostolic fathers

See also: Ante-Nicene Fathers

Post-apostolic fathers defined and defended Christian doctrine. The Apologists became prominent in the second century. This includes such notable figures as Justin Martyr (d. 165), Tatian (d. c. 185), and Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-211/216). They debated with prevalent philosophers of their day, defending and arguing for Christianity. They focused mainly on monotheism and their harshest words were used for ancient mythologies.[61] Fathers such as Irenaeus affirmed the authority of the apostolic episcopacy (bishops). The Ante-Nicene Fathers, subtitled , is a selected set of books containing English translations of the major early Christian writings. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Tatian was an early Assyrian[1] Christian writer and theologian of the second century. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ...


Tradition

The church fathers themselves were conscious of being a part of an ongoing tradition, and frequently appealed to earlier writers to defend their opinions. As the centuries passed, the result was a growing body of religious literature which was customarily used for devotional purposes and theological argumentation. It is these church fathers who form our most important sources for understanding the development of early Christianity, and their importance to their immediate successors explains their ongoing importance today. At the Protestant Reformation, the Reformers frequently appealed to the church fathers in defense of their propositions, though they also showed a willingness to disagree with them. By contrast, the Restorationists later viewed the church fathers as entirely suspect, and appealed in support of their views either to supposed new revelations or else to the New Testament directly without reference to later Christianity. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Rules and creeds

In the 2nd century, Christians circulated formulas outlining essential Christian belief, called the Rule of Faith.[48] They guided the understanding of scripture, and differentiated orthodox belief from heresy.[48] While the rule, unlike a creed, appeared in various forms, Christians held that these forms were essentially the same, descended unchanged from the apostles.[48] Rule of Faith is the name given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief, such as the Bible alone, as among Protestants; the Bible and the Church, as among Romanists; reason alone, as among rationalists; the inner light of the spirit, as among mystics. ...


Originally, candidates for baptism accepted a short formula of belief, with formulas varying in detail from one place to another.[48] Starting at least in the 3rd century, three-part credal statements were part of some baptism formulas.[48] These formulas became more uniform and nearly always three-part by the 4th century.[48] The rule of faith and baptismal confessions influenced the Old Roman Creed, an earlier and shorter version of the Apostle's Creed.[48] The Apostles Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, probably from the first or second century. ...


The early Christian era ends with Emperor Constantine convening the Council of Nicaea, where the original version of the Nicene Creed was formulated. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


Practices

From the writings of early Christians, historians have tried to piece together an understanding of various early Christian practices including worship services, customs and observances. Early Christian writers such as Justin Martyr (100 - 165) described these practices. Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ...


Sacraments

Rituals that would later be defined as sacraments existed in the early church.


Baptism

Main article: Baptism

Early Christian beliefs regarding baptism were variable.[62] In the most usual form of early Christian baptism, the candidate stood in water and water was poured over the upper body.[62] Tertullian describes the rite as preceded by a fast or vigil, a confession of sins, and renouncing the devil.[63] After immersion came anointing, the imposition of hands, and a symbolic meal of milk and honey.[64] The rite was normally presided over by a bishop and culminated with the Eucharist.[65] From the 2nd to 4th century, Pentecost and Easter were proper seasons for baptism.[66] In cases of need, however, any male Christian could administer baptism at any time.[67] The theology of baptism attained precision in the 3rd and 4th centuries.[62] This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


While it is clear that infant baptism was widely practiced in the 3rd century,[68] the origins of the practice are controversial. Some believe that the apostolic church practiced infant baptism, arguing that the mention of the baptism of households in the Acts of the Apostles must have included infants.[69] In the second century, Irenaeus may have referred to it,[70][71][72] For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ...


The third century evidence is clearer, with both Origen[73] and Cyprian advocating the practice. Tertullian refers to the practice (and that sponsors would speak on behalf of the children), but argues against it, on the grounds that baptism should be postponed until after marriage.[74] Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... This page is about Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ...


Interpretation of the baptismal practices of the early church is important to groups such as Baptists and Anabaptists, who believe that infant baptism was a later development. Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ...


Eucharist

Early Christians blessed bread and wine as part of the Lord's supper. Where pagans would sacrifice animals for religious reasons, Christians would perform the eucharist, or unbloody sacrifice. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


Holy orders

The early church featured two or three levels of clergy, overseers (bishops), elders (presbyters, sometimes interchangeable with bishops), and deacons (assistants). By the year 200, only bishops had the authority to ordain priests. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


Imposition of hands

See also: Laying on of hands

After baptism, the officiating apostle or priest would lay hands on the subject's head to introduce the Holy Spirit into the believer. The laying on of hands is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms. ...


Penance

By the 3rd century, a system of public penance served as a "second baptism."[48] The penitent Christian, either voluntarily or under threat of excommunication, would undergo penance of less or greater length, depending on the severity of the sin.[48] Penance consisted of a rigorous course of fasting, prayer, and almsgiving, during which the penitent was excluded from the eucharist.[48]


Worship

Fresco of a meal at a tomb in the Catacomb of Saints Marcellinus and Peter, Via Labicana, Rome
Fresco of a meal[75] at a tomb in the Catacomb of Saints Marcellinus and Peter, Via Labicana, Rome

The first worship services were informal gatherings in homes of church members. Christians considered each other to be brothers and sisters, each contributing their respective gifts to the community. Gatherings featured readings, such as from Paul's epistles and later the gospels and other texts. The Lord's Supper comprised a communal meal with prayers in memory of Jesus. Services were known as agape feasts or love feasts. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... A procession in the catacomb of Callistus. ... Saint Marcellinus and Peter were two 4th century Christian martyrs in the city of Rome. ... Via Labicana, an ancient highroad of Italy, leading east southeast from Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Agape feast was one term used for the Eucharistic celebration of the early Christians. ...


Second century sources, such as the Didache, specify that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are for the baptized only. In his First Apology, a letter of defense written to Roman emperor, Antonius Pius, 161-180, Justin described a newly baptized member of the community sharing in the bread and wine of the Eucharist, which was restricted to the baptized.[76] The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... The First Apology was an early work of Christian apologetics addressed by Justin Martyr to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Despite Ignatius' rejection of Judaizing, see above, Christianity continued many of the patterns of Judaism, adapting to Christian use synagogue liturgical worship, prayer, use of Sacred Scripture, a priesthood, a religious calendar commemorating on certain days each year certain events and/or beliefs, use of music in worship, giving material support to the religious leadership, and practices such as fasting and almsgiving and baptism. A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Christians adopted as their Bible the Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures known as the Septuagint and later also canonized the books of the New Testament. There are however many phrases which appear to be quotations and other statements of fact, in the early church fathers, which cannot be found in the Bible as we know it. For example in Clement's First Letter he states that Paul "reached the limits of the West", and also appears to quote a variant form of Ezek 33. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, subtitled , is a selected set of books containing English translations of the major early Christian writings. ...


At worship, early Christians greeted each other with a holy kiss. Church leaders restricted the practice to keep the worshipers from taking pleasure in it, such as specifying that the lips be closed. The Holy Kiss is a punk rock band from San Francisco, California whose members include Matty Rue Morgue (vox, slide guitar), who, channels the grit and grace of Tom Waits through the body of a modern-day Lestat. ...


Many practices which later became characteristic of Christian worship had not yet developed. Singing was generally without instrumentation and was normally in unison. Many Christians had lost their lives rather than offer a mere pinch of incense to the emperor as to a god, and so the use of incense was strongly frowned upon even in Christian worship. These practices and others, such as the use of elaborate vestments and grand buildings, became popular only once the Peace of the Church changed the political situation and the growing properity of worshippers made them possible. Peace of the Church is a designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication of the Edict of Milan in 313 by the two Augusti, Western Roman Emperor Constantine I and his eastern colleague Licinius, an edict of toleration by which the Christians were accorded complete...


Church Community

Christians proclaimed a God of love who enjoined them to share a higher love with one another. Some interpreted the Old Testament as revealing primarily a God of justice, whereas the New Testament, particularly the letters of Paul and the Gospel of John, revealed a more loving God. Parallels are found in Pharisaic and Rabbinic Judaism. Paul of Tarsus is represented in Acts 17:22-33 as equating the Unknown God of the Greeks as revealed in the Christian God. Early Christian communities welcomed everyone, including slaves and women, who were generally shunned in Greco-Roman culture, but there were other exceptions, such as Epicurianism. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... Agapē (IPA: or IPA: ) (Gk. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... In addition to the twelve main Gods and the innumerable lesser deities, ancient Greeks used to worship an Unknown God (spelled Agnostos Theos in Greek). ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ...


Organization

Christian groups were first organized loosely. In Paul's time, there were no precisely delineated functions for bishops, elders, and deacons.[17] A Church hierarchy, however, seems to have developed by the early second century[17] (see Pastoral Epistles, c 90 - 140[17]). These structures were certainly formalized well before the end of the Early Christian period, which concluded with the legalization of Christianity in 313 and the holding of the First Council of Nicea in 325. The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ...


Some first-century Christian writings include reference to overseers ("bishops") and deacons, though these may have been informal leadership roles rather than formal positions. The Didache (dated by most scholars to the early second century),[77]) speaks of "appointing for yourself bishops and deacons" and also speaks about teachers and prophets and false prophets. Bishops were defined as spiritual authorities over geographical areas. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... False prophet is a label given to a person who is viewed as illegitimately claiming charismatic authority within a religious group. ...


By the end of the early Christian period, the church of the Roman Empire had hundreds of bishops, some of them (those of Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and, it seems, the chief bishops of other provinces) holding some form of jurisdiction over others.[78]


Jerusalem was an important church center before the city fell in 70 (see Council of Jerusalem). Rome was recognized as the first city of the church, Alexandria second, and then Antioch.[citation needed] Later, when the city of Constantinople was founded (330), this too became an important Christian centre within the empire, since the emperor resided there. This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ...


Monasticism

Christian monasticism started in Egypt. The first monks were hermits (eremetic monks). By the end of the early Christian era, Saint Pachomius was organizing his followers into a community and founding the tradition of monasticism in community (cenobitic monks). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A hermit, also known as an anchorite or anchoress, is a person living in voluntary seclusion, often for religious reasons. ... For the genus of jumping spider, see Pachomius (spider). ... The cenobitic tradition is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. ...


Interaction with Greco-Roman and Jewish cultures

The land in which Christianity began and through which it spread had been both Hellenized (after Alexander the Great) and Romanized (with the rise of the Roman Empire). Early church writings were in Greek, even those originating in Rome, as Greek was the international language, lingua franca, of the day (similar to English in the early 21st century) and was widely spoken even in Rome. Although Christianity was born from Judaism, there are scholars who argue that other religions and philosophical schools of thought also influenced the formation of the Christian faith. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


Languages often presume features of the culture of their native speakers. For instance, the concept represented by the Greek word psyche, that of the soul, was often understood as immaterial in Greek writers, who also discussed whether the soul was immortal or not. The writers of the New Testament, like the Jewish translators of the Old Testament (Septuagint), used this word to render the Hebrew nephesh. Christianity and some forms of Judaism believe in bodily resurrection. Judaism later rejected the Septuagint because of its divergence from what had become the accepted Hebrew text and also because of the use of the Septuagint by Christians.[79] Parallels to this exist in Christian history, where Greek, Latin or 16th century English are felt to be "proper" expressions of the scriptures, or of liturgy. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ...


In early Christianity, Koine Greek, the most widely spoken language in the Roman empire of the time, the language also in which Alexandrian Jews such as Philo wrote their works, was naturally the language most used in Christian writings. (Other less widely used languages were not excluded: Latin, for instance, was used by writers such as Tertullian and Marcus Minucius Felix and Syriac by Syriac Christianity.) Regarding issues like polytheism, Christianity stood with Judaism against the background pagan culture, being staunchly monotheistic. Early Christianity thus found itself, like Judaism before it, in conflict with the prevailing Greco-Roman culture, where polytheistic theology was not simply an abstraction, but influenced social customs at many levels. Banquets in honour of gods were a common occurrence, legal codes and international diplomacy depended on gods as witnesses and the ultimate court of appeal on justice. Christians were considered atheists, because they refused to honour the pagan gods.[80] In some cases, public opinion was against Christianity as antisocial (refusing to eat at pagan banquets) and immoral (unaccountable to the moral ethos couched in polytheistic terms). Tacitus recorded some of his impressions in 109: "a class hated for their abominations", "a most mischievous superstition", guilty of "hatred against mankind".[81] Christians were also accused of "cannibalism" (perhaps a reference to the Eucharist) and "incest" (perhaps a reference to the biblical prohibition of marriage outside the faith). Koine redirects here. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Felix Marcus Minucius was one of the earliest if not the earliest, of the Latin apologists for Christianity. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Persecution

See also: Persecution of early Christians by the Jews and Persecution of early Christians by the Romans

Christians were persecuted on an irregular basis in Rome. In his On the Life of the Caesars Suetonius (ca. 69/75 - after 130) wrote of the Emperor Claudius that, "since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he expelled them from Rome."[82] The similarity between the name "Chrestus" and "Christus" (Latin for "Christ") and the tradition witnessed to in the Jewish Encylopedia that Claudius took this action because of dissensions "regarding the advent of the Messiah"[83] have led to the supposition that this is a reference to the presence of Christians among the Jews in Rome.[84] The common Greek name of Chrestus may have been that of a Jewish agitator in Rome rather than a reference to Christ.[85]Claudius's measure is dated to 49, and Acts 18:1-3 relates that, when Paul of Tarsus arrived in Corinth, probably in the following year, a Jewish Christian couple, Priscilla and Aquila, had arrived there shortly before (προσφάτως) as a result of Claudius's expulsion of "all Jews" from Rome, a phrase that suggests that the Emperor's action was directed against Jews in general, and not against the Christian Jews in particular. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... First Christians In its first three centuries, the Christian church endured regular (though not constant) persecution at the hands of Roman authorities. ... On the Life of the Caesars[1], in Latin De vita Caesarum, or as it is often known in English, The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... In Jewish messianism and eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Priscilla and Aquila were a First Century Christian couple described in the New Testament. ...


In the year 64, the Christians, specified by this name in the account written later by the Roman historian Tacitus (died c. 117), were blamed by Nero as a scapegoat for the Great Fire of Rome in that year. He probably chose them as a new and secretive cult, mistrusted by the people: Tacitus called Christianity a "deadly superstition"; but he also noted that Nero's persecution of the Christians was so harsh that the inhabitants of Rome resented its cruelty.[86][87] For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ... According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ...


Christians also suffered persecutions under the reigns of Domitian and Trajan. Persecutions continued intermittently through the second century. Even during periods between organized persecutions, Christians were still sporadically subject to trial and condemnation. After the late second century relative calm held in Rome. The reign of the Severi emperors is particularly noted as not only tolerant of the various religions in Rome, but actively interested in them. Alexander Severus is said to have had a shrine in his palace with an icon of Christ.[88] The persecutions peaked with the Diocletian Persecution of 303-312. Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... The Diocletian Persecution was the last, and most severe, episode of persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. ...


Important cities

Early Christianity spread from city to city in the Hellenized Roman Empire and beyond.


Jerusalem

The Edicule of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, believed to be the site of Calvary and the Empty Tomb of Christ, with the dome of the rotunda visible above.
The Edicule of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, believed to be the site of Calvary and the Empty Tomb of Christ, with the dome of the rotunda visible above.
Ascension Rock on the Mount of Olives, said to bear the imprint of Jesus' right foot.
Ascension Rock on the Mount of Olives, said to bear the imprint of Jesus' right foot.
See also: Early Bishops of Jerusalem and Acts of the Apostles and Liturgy of St James

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia[89]: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 737 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Daniel Maleck Lewy, 2005, all permissions are given. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1024 pixel, file size: 737 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Daniel Maleck Lewy, 2005, all permissions are given. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A Reenacting of the event in the Via Dolorosa Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic... For the Canadian suspension bridge, see Lions Gate Bridge. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1115 KB) óĦ Tomb of Jesus in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem 03/2005 by Wayne McLean ( jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1115 KB) óĦ Tomb of Jesus in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem 03/2005 by Wayne McLean ( jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre ... Golgotha redirects here. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Patriarch of Jerusalem according to the Greek Orthodox tradition. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... // Overview The Liturgy of Saint James is based on the traditions of the ancient rite of the Early Christian Church at Jerusalem, as the Mystagogic Catecheses of St Cyril of Jerusalem imply. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Under the administration of Pontius Pilate, Jesus Christ was arrested and put to death. The Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension of the Divine Saviour have rendered Jerusalem -- which was already glorious -- the most celebrated city in all the world. The enthusiasm with which, after the Day of Pentecost, thousands of Jews declared themselves disciples of Jesus Christ provoked a violent persecution of Christians, in which the deacon Stephen was the first martyr (Acts 6:8-15).

According to Galatians 2:9, the Pillars of the Church: Peter, James the Just and John the Apostle resided there.[90] Pilate redirects here. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven following his resurrection. ... … The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... St. ... Pillars of the Church, in the first Christian century, seems to have referred to the leaders of the Nazarenes, as the Jerusalem Jesus movement was called, principally, the Family of Jesus, later known as the Desposyni, including his bothers James, Joses or Joseph, Simon or Simeon, and Jude or Judas... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ...


The first church historian, Eusebius[91] recorded a list of Bishops of Jerusalem from James the Just to Judas in 135, at the end of the Bar Kokhba revolt, all of them Jewish or literally "of the circumcision". After the revolt, the Romans excluded Jews from Jerusalem, except for the Ninth of Ab.[92] Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ...


Jerusalem received special recognition in Canon VII of Nicaea, without yet becoming a metropolitan see[93]:

Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honoured, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honour.
It is very hard to determine just what was the “precedence” granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the metropolis referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to.

Aelia refers to Aelia Capitolina, the name of the Roman colony the emperor Hadrian built on top of the ruins of Jerusalem after the Bar Kokhba revolt.[94] Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ...


Antioch

See also: School of Antioch

Antioch, the third most important city of the Roman Empire,[48] then part of Syria province, today Antakya, Turkey, was the site of an early church, traditionally said to be founded by Peter and reportedly where Christians were first so-called (Acts 11:26). The gospel of Matthew may well have been written here. The church father Ignatius of Antioch was its third bishop. The School of Antioch, founded in 270, was one of two major centers of early church learning. By the end of the era, it was one of the three most important holy sees of Christendom, one of three to wield ecclesiastical authority over nearby metropolitans.[95] During the first Christian centuries the schools of Alexandria and Antioch were the main theological centers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation). ... Antakya (Antiokheia, Antakiya, ), located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River (in Turkish: Asi Nehri) about 20 miles from the sea, is the seat of Hatay Province, Turkey. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ...


Caesarea

See also: Caesarea Maritima#Christian hub

Caesarea, at first Caesarea Maritima, then after 133 Caesarea Palaestina, was founded by Herod the Great and was the capital of Iudaea province and later Palaestina Prima. Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Herod the Great. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ...


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia[96]:

St. Peter established the church there when he baptized the centurion Cornelius (Acts 10:11); St. Paul often sojourned there (ix, 30, xviii, 22, xxi, 8), and was imprisoned there for two years before being taken to Rome (xxiii, 23, xxv, 1-13). However, there is no record of any bishops of Caesarea until the second century. At the end of this century a council was held there to regulate the celebration of Easter. In the third century Origen took refuge at Caesarea, and wrote there many of his exegetic and theological works, among others the famous "Hexapla", the manuscript of which was for a long time preserved in the episcopal library of that city. Through Origen and the scholarly priest, St. Pamphilus, the theological school of Caesarea won a universal reputation. St. Gregory the Wonder-Worker, St. Basil the Great, and others came from afar to study there. its ecclesiastical library passed for the richest in antiquity; it was there that St. Jerome performed much of his Scriptural labours. The library was probably destroyed either in 614 by the Persians, or about 637 by the Saracens.

The Archbishop of Caesarea was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the crusades. ... The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate Easter. ... Hexapla (Gr. ... Pamphilus, presbyter of Caesarea (late 3rd century – martyred February 409), chief among Biblical scholars of his generation, was the friend and teacher of Eusebius, who recorded details of his career in a three-book Vita that has been lost. ... Basil (ca. ... For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ...

Alexandria

See also: Alexandrian school and Catechetical School of Alexandria

Established by Alexander the Great, Alexandria and its famous libraries were a center of Hellenistic learning. The Septuagint translation began there. It had a significant Jewish population, of which Philo of Alexandria is probably its most known author.[97] It produced superior scripture and notable church fathers, such as Clement, Origen, and Athanasius. By the end of the era, Alexandria, Rome, and Antioch were accorded authority over nearby metropolitans. The Council of Nicaea (canon VI) affirmed Alexandria's traditional authority over Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis (North Africa). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Alexandrian school is a collective designation for certain tendencies in literature, philosophy, medicine, and the sciences that developed in the Hellenistic cultural center of Alexandria, Egypt around the 1st century. ... The Catechetical School of Alexandria (founded c. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia[98]:

An important seaport of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile. It was founded by Alexander the Great to replace the small borough called Racondah or Rakhotis, 331 B.C. The Ptolemies, Alexander's successors on the throne of Egypt, soon made it the intellectual and commercial metropolis of the world. Cæsar who visited it 46 B.C. left it to Queen Cleopatra, but when Octavius went there in 30 B.C. he transformed the Egyptian kingdom into a Roman province. Alexandria continued prosperous under the Roman rule but declined a little under that of Constantinople. ... Christianity was brought to Alexandria by the Evangelist St. Mark. It was made illustrious by a lineage of learned doctors such as Pantænus, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen; it has been governed by a series of great bishops amongst whom Athanasius and Cyril must be mentioned.

Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ...

Rome

St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, believed to be the burial site of St. Paul.
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, believed to be the burial site of St. Paul.
See also: First phase of papal supremacy

The seat of imperial power soon became a center of church authority, grew in power decade by decade, and became the head of the church.[99] Paul's Epistle to the Romans (c 58) attests to a large Christian community here.[48] The see is traditionally said to be founded by Peter, see also Primacy of Simon Peter, who had invested it with apostolic authority. Church father Clement, bishop of Rome, asserted his see's apostolic authority. Not even by the end of the era were Rome and Alexandria, which by tradition held authority over sees outside their own province,[100] referred to as patriarchates[101] of the highest honor,[citation needed] and the Emperor Constantine's identification with the Christian church bolstered the bishop of Rome,[citation needed] according to the Donation of Constantine, which is a document forged seemingly four or five centuries later than the close of the early Christian era. This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura — known in English as the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls or St Paul-without-the-Walls — is one of five churches considered to be the great ancient basilicas of Rome. ... Referring to the doctrine of Papal Supremacy the Catechism of the Catholic Church notes in paragraph 882, “the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Bible, English, King James, Matthew A number of Christian denominations hold that Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles, favoured by Jesus of Nazareth with the first place of honour and authority. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... Saint Clement I was the Bishop of Rome, and thus pope, from 88 to 99 AD. Also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, he was the fourth pope, according to Catholic tradition. ... A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ...


The first bishops spoke Greek, Victor I (c 189) was the first to speak Latin.[48]


During the second century, Christians and semi-Christians of diverse views congregated in Rome.[48] Conflicts in the church led to schism.[48]


The Roman church survived various persecutions, and many clergy were martyred.[48] When Rome burned in 64, Nero blamed the Christians and persecuted them.[48] In the "Massacre of 258", under Valerian, the emperor killed a great many Christian clergy, including Pope Sixtus II and Antipope Novatian and Cyprian of Carthage.[102] Persecutions finally ended in Rome and across the empire early in the 4th century. According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ... Publius Licinius Valerianus[1] (c. ... Sixtus II was pope from August 30, 257 to August 6, 258, following Stephen I as bishop of Rome in 257. ... Novatian (died 258) was a scholar and antipope who held the title between 251 and 258. ... This page does not concern Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow. ...


Other significant places

Northwest Africa

Carthage gave the early church two Latin fathers, Tertullian and Cyprian. Hippo Regius had been the home of Numidian kings, it became a center of Christianity, and Augustine was its bishop. The deserts of Egypt were home to ascetic fathers, such as Pachomius and Anthony. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ...


Northeast Africa

The Aksumite Empire of Ethiopia, with its capital at Axum, officially adopted Christianty as its state religion in 325. However, significant connections were made earlier, for example Acts 8:26-40 records the baptism of an Ethiopian eunuch and the Queen of Sheba is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Aksum was an important participant in international trade from the 1st century CE (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) until circa the later part of the 1st millennium when it succumbed to a long decline against pressures from the various Islamic powers leagued against it. ... Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament). ...


Anatolia

See also: Christiantity in Anatolia during Roman times

The tradition of John the Apostle was strong in Anatolia (also called Asia, the near-east, modern Turkey). The gospel of John was likely written in Ephesus. According to the New Testament, the Apostle Paul was from Tarsus and his missionary journeys were primarily in this region. See also Seven churches of Asia. Smyrna was home to Polycarp, the bishop who reportedly knew the Apostle John personally, and probably to Irenaeus. In the 2nd century, Anatolia was home to Quartodecimanism and Montanism, both later declared heretical by Proto-orthodox Christianity. In 325, Constantine convoked the first Christian ecumenical council in Nicaea and in 330 he moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople, see also Byzantine Empire. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Scene from southern Anatolia The History of Anatolia covers the civilizations, and states established in and around the Anatolia, a peninsula of Western Asia. ... John the Apostle (Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... 68. ... The seven churches of Asia are seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... Proto-orthodox Christianity is a term created by religious philosopher Bart D. Ehrman. ... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne İznik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Armenia

The Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia was the first to adopt Christianity as a state religion, in either 301 or 314. The Armenian church was founded by Gregory the Illuminator. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Saint Gregory the Enlightener (Armenian: translit. ...


Syria

The supposed house of St. Ananias in Damascus.
The supposed house of St. Ananias in Damascus.

The Syriac-speaking (see also Aramaic of Jesus) Christian community generated the Diatesseron, the four gospels as a continuous narrative.[48] It might have been compiled in Edessa. The Didascalia Apostolorum, originally written in Greek early in the 3rd century, was likely composed by a Jewish convert in northern Syria.[48] According to the New Testament, the Apostle Paul was converted on the Road to Damascus. Though it is a minority viewpoint, there are those who advocate that the New Testament was originally written in Aramaic. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1080, 1649 KB) Inside the alleged house of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1080, 1649 KB) Inside the alleged house of St. ... Ananias was one of the Seventy Apostles sent out by Jesus in Luke 10. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Most scholars believe that Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, with some Hebrew and Greek, although there is some debate in academia as to what degree. ... See diatessaron (interval) for the musical term. ... Didascalia Apostolorum (or just Didascalia) is the title of a treatise which pretends to have been written by the Apostles at the time of the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15), but is really a composition of the third century. ... The Road to Damascus is a Biblical reference to the conversion of a persecutor of Christians named Saul on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus in the Roman province of Syria in AD 36. ... Aramaic primacy is the view that the Christian New Testament and/or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language. ...


Assyria

The Assyrian Church of the East (in modern Iraq) is traditionally said to be founded by Saint Thomas through Addai. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... St. ... Thaddeus, Saint Addai or Addeus was one of the Seventy Apostles of Christ, not to be confused with Thaddeus of the Twelve Apostles. ...


Iran

There was a Christian church in Iran from early times, but since they tended to side with Christian Byzantium, Shapur II ordered their execution in 341, but it is believed he was not entirely successful. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Sassanid Church or Sassanian Chruch was established in 422 under Yezdegird I, shah of Sassanid Persia (Iran), to satisfy Persias (Irans) relatively large indigenous Christian population. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...


India

The Christian Church in India (known as the Malankara Church or Church of Malabar) is traditionally said to be founded by St Thomas the Apostle in 52. [103] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      St... This article is about the year 52. ...


Legacy

In the fourth century, Constantine converted to Christianity[104] and legalized it, showing it personal favour (see Constantine I and Christianity for details). He convened the first of the ecumenical councils at Nicea, where the church dogmatically defined the Trinity. Of the next six ecumenical councils, the First Council of Constantinople further defined the Trinity and the Council of Ephesus affirmed Mary as the Mother of God. They anathematized various heresies, and declared heretical some early Christian writings, as when the Second Council of Constantinople condemned certain tenets of Origen. The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople) was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held in 553. ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ...


In modern times, several Christian denominations intentionally follow what they believe to be early Christian practices, such as believer's baptism, Sabbath in Christianity, and Passover (Christian holiday) (see also Christian Torah-submission), in place of established Christian traditions. These Restorationist sects consider themselves to be restoring the authentic practices of the early Christian era, before what they call the "Great Apostasy." This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... This article is about a holiday celebrated by a small number of Christians. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Ten Commandments on... Restorationism is not a single religious movement, but a wave of comparably motivated movements that arose in the eastern United States and Canada in the early 19th century in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is...


Since the 19th century, historians have learned much more about the early Christian community. Major texts, such as the Didache (in second-millennium copies) and the Gospel of Thomas (in two manuscripts dated as early as about 200 and 340), have been rediscovered in the last 200 years. The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ...


Restorationism

In the 19th century, chiefly in America, a movement known as Restorationism arose, which claimed to restore "original Christianity." With few exceptions, the practices Restorationists claimed to be restoring were not straightforward reconstructions of the pre-Nicene Christianity described here, but were instead imaginative reconstructions of primitive Christianity, about which there is little historical record apart from the New Testament. In some cases, as with the Latter-Day Saints the restoration was based upon previously unknown scriptural writings. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and should not to be confused with the different, though similar term Latter Day Saint. ...


Baptists and Anabaptists and Oneness Pentecostalism all claim the existence of a hidden lineage of believers throughout history, but there is little evidence to support their claims. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Oneness...


In general, restorationists do not proceed by careful historical analysis of pre-Nicene Christianity. Instead, they work forward from the New Testament, reconstructing as best they can the practices of the apostolic and post-apostolic church without reference to later developments. In part, this is because the doctrine of a Great Apostasy renders, in their mind, the later pre-Nicene Church as corrupted. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is...


References

  • Berard, Wayne Daniel. When Christians Were Jews (That Is, Now). Cowley Publications (2006). ISBN 1561012807.
  • Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander. The Romans: From Village to Empire. Oxford University Press (2004). ISBN 0195118758.
  • Dauphin, C. "De l'Église de la circoncision à l'Église de la gentilité – sur une nouvelle voie hors de l'impasse". Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. Liber Annuus XLIII (1993).
  • Dunn, James D.G. Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135. Pp 33-34. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999). ISBN 0802844987.
  • Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins (2005). ISBN 0060738170.
  • Esler, Phillip F. The Early Christian World. Routledge (2004). ISBN 0415333121.
  • Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible. Mayfield (1985). ISBN 087484696X.
  • Hunt, Emily Jane. Christianity in the Second Century: The Case of Tatian. Routledge (2003). ISBN 0415304059.
  • Keck, Leander E. Paul and His Letters. Fortress Press (1988). ISBN 0800623401.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. The Christian Tradition: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). University of Chicago Press (1975). ISBN 0226653714.
  • Pritz, Ray A., Nazarene Jewish Christianity From the End of the New Testament Period Until Its Disappearance in the Fourth Century. Magnes Press - E.J. Brill, Jerusalem - Leiden (1988).
  • Richardson, Cyril Charles. Early Christian Fathers. Westminster John Knox Press (1953). ISBN 0664227473.
  • Stark, Rodney.The Rise of Christianity. Harper Collins Pbk. Ed edition 1997. ISBN 0060677015
  • Stambaugh, John E. & Balch, David L. The New Testament in Its Social Environment. John Knox Press (1986). ISBN 0664250122.
  • Tabor, James D. "Ancient Judaism: Nazarenes and Ebionites", The Jewish Roman World of Jesus. Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (1998).
  • Taylor, Joan E. Christians and the Holy Places: The Myth of Jewish-Christian Origins. Oxford University Press (1993). ISBN 0198147856.
  • Thiede, Carsten Peter. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity. Palgrabe Macmillan (2003). ISBN 1403961433.
  • White, L. Michael. From Jesus to Christianity. HarperCollins (2004). ISBN 0060526556.
  • Wright, N.T. The New Testament and the People of God. Fortress Press (1992). ISBN 0800626818.
  • Wylen, Stephen M. The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction. Paulist Press (1995). ISBN 0809136104.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Cornelius: "The baptism of Cornelius is an important event in the history of the Early Church. The gates of the Church, within which thus far only those who were circumcised and observed the Law of Moses had been admitted, were now thrown open to the uncircumcised Gentiles without the obligation of submitting to the Jewish ceremonial laws."
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Academies in Palestine: Jabneh, Temporary Center of the Jewish Nation: "The destruction of Jerusalem put as abrupt an end to the disputes of the schools as it did to the contests between political parties [ Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes, Zealots ]. It was then that a disciple of Hillel, the venerable Johanan ben Zakkai, founded a new home for Jewish Law in Jabneh (Jamnia), and thus evoked a new intellectual life from the ruins of a fallen political existence. The college at Jabneh, which at once constituted itself the successor of the Great Sanhedrin of Jerusalem by putting into practise the ordinances of that body as far as was necessary and practicable, attracted all those who had escaped the national catastrophe and who had become prominent by their character and their learning."
  3. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 32, page 577, by James D. G. Dunn: "For Peter was probably in fact and effect the bridge-man (pontifex maximus!) who did more than any other to hold together the diversity of first-century Christianity. James the brother of Jesus and Paul, the two other most prominent leading figures in first-century Christianity, were too much identified with their respective "brands" of Christianity, at least in the eyes of Christians at the opposite ends of this particular spectrum. But Peter, as shown particularly by the Antioch episode in Gal 2, had both a care to hold firm to his Jewish heritage, which Paul lacked, and an openness to the demands of developing Christianity, which James lacked. John might have served as such a figure of the center holding together the extremes, but if the writings linked with his name are at all indicative of his own stance he was too much of an individualist to provide such a rallying point. Others could link the developing new religion more firmly to its founding events and to Jesus himself. But none of them, including the rest of the twelve, seem to have played any role of continuing significance for the whole sweep of Christianity—though James the brother of John might have proved an exception had he been spared." [Italics original]
  4. ^ Technically, the term New Covenant only appears in the Synoptic Gospels in Luke 22:20 and even then not in all versions, see Bruce M. Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament for details. The New Covenant is primarily described in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
  5. ^ In recent centuries some have posited for parts of the New Testament dates as late as the third century, early Christians attributed it to the Apostles themselves and their contemporaries (such as Mark and Luke).
  6. ^ Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, (Eerdmans, 2005), page 650.
  7. ^ Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, (Eerdmans, 2005), page 204.
  8. ^ See Raymond E. Brown's "Does the New Testament call Jesus God?" in Theological Studies, #26, 1965, p. 545-73 for a good summary of the debate.
  9. ^ Template:Biblereference
  10. ^ Revelation 22:12
  11. ^ The book has many other images, in particular that of a fearsome beast whose worshippers and those who receive its mark "will drink the wine of God's wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb" (Revelation 14:9-11), an effect not attributed to the Lamb itself.
  12. ^ Revelation 20:4-6
  13. ^ Revelation 20:7-10
  14. ^ Revelation 20:11-14
  15. ^ "Alogi or Alogoi", Early Church.org.uk.
  16. ^ "Alogi", Francis P. Havey, The Catholic Encyclopedia Volume I, 1907.
  17. ^ a b c d e Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  18. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Trinity".
  19. ^ "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  20. ^ Acts 2:38, 3:6, 4:18, 5:40, 9:27-28, 16:18; cf. "The phrase 'baptized in the name of Jesus' is simply Luke's way to distinguish Christian baptism from other baptisms of the period, such as John's baptism (which Luke mentions in Acts 1:5, 22, 10:37, 11:16, 13:24, 18:25, 19:4), Jewish proselyte baptism, and the baptisms of pagan cults (such as Mithraism)" (Trinitarian Baptism); "baptism is differentiated elsewhere in narratives by being described as 'in the name of Jesus,' as opposed to the 'baptism of John' and so forth" (Jesus Name Baptism?).
  21. ^ The Oxford Companion of the Bible, "Trinity".
  22. ^ History of Dogma II.III.2, Adolf von Harnack. 'Jesus Christ, who is the Saviour. . . sent by God "in these last days," and who stands with God himself in a union special and unique.'
  23. ^ "[http://www.orthodoxfaith.com/spirituality_difference.html The Difference Between Orthodox Spirituality and Other Confessions]", Metropolitan Hierotheos Vlachos, OrthodoxFaith.com 2003. "Thus the disciples of Christ acquired the knowledge of the Triune God in theoria (vision of God) and by revelation. It was revealed to them that God is one essence in three hypostases."
  24. ^ "The Blessed Trinity", G.H.Joyce, The Catholic Encyclopedia Volume XV, 1912.
  25. ^ The first two writers listed are mentioned in Catholic Encyclopedia: Homoousion as applying the word precisely to the relation between Christ and the Father.
  26. ^ History of the Christian Church Vol. 2 p.381, Philip Schaff, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, n.d.). "The most striking point in the eschatology of the ante-Nicene age is the prominent chiliasm, or millenarianism, that is the belief of a visible reign of Christ in glory on earth with the risen saints for a thousand years, before the general resurrection and judgement. It was indeed not the doctrine of the church embodied in any creed or form of devotion, but a widely current opinion of distinguished teachers, such as Barnabas, Papias, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Methodius, and Lactantius, while Caius, Origen, Dionysius the Great, Eusebius (as afterwards Jerome and Augustin) opposed it."
  27. ^ "Millenarianism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  28. ^ Not all Jews believed in resurrection. The Sadducees rejected all scripture but the Torah and denied the resurrection as an innovation.
  29. ^ Gerald O' Collins and Mario Farrugia, Catholicism: the story of Catholic Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) p. 36; George Cross, "The Differentiation of the Roman and Greek Catholic Views of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 106; cf. Pastor I, iii. 7, also Ambrose, De Excessu fratris Satyri 80
  30. ^ Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27.
  31. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Purgatory
  32. ^ Henry Clarence Thiessen, Lectures in Systematic Theology, Eerdmans (1979), page 381.
  33. ^ Against Plato, on the Cause of the Universe.
  34. ^ For instance, Tertullian in [http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0310.htm De anima, chapter 7.
  35. ^ For instance, the Latin translation of Origen's De Principiis by Rufinus Book IV, chapter I
  36. ^ "In Latin, St Jerome translated Hades as infernus, the Roman name for the underworld and thus an exact cognate" (Christian History
  37. ^ Church History 5.28.7-12, Eusebius.
  38. ^ "Monarchians", John Chapman, The Catholic Encyclopedia Volume X, 1911.
  39. ^ "Who is the angel of the Lord?", gotQuestions?.org.
  40. ^ "An Angel You Ought to Know", Loren Jacobs, Jews for Jesus.
  41. ^ "The Angel of the Lord: Who Is He?", Biblical Artefacts And Studies.
  42. ^ Dialogue with Trypho 34, Justin Martyr.
  43. ^ For a detailed study of the significance Justin saw in the title of "Angel" given to the Messiah in the Septuagint version of Isaiah 9:6, the then most widely known version of that text, see "Christ As Angel: The Reclamation Of A Primitive Title", Günther Juncker, Trinity Journal 15:2 (Fall 1994): 221–250.
  44. ^ Hunt (2003). Pp 10-11.
  45. ^ Esler (2004). Pp 893-894.
  46. ^ History of Dogma II.III.3, Adolf von Harnack. "Jesus was either regarded as the man whom God hath chosen, in whom the Deity or the Spirit of God dwelt, and who, after being tested, was adopted by God and invested with dominion, (Adoptian Christology); or Jesus was regarded as a heavenly spiritual being (the highest after God) who took flesh, and again returned to heaven after the completion of his work on earth (pneumatic Christology)."
  47. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CC
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  49. ^ Understanding the Bible, Stephen L Harris. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  50. ^ The Community of the Beloved Disciple, Raymond E. Brown, Paulist Press. (French translation: La communauté du disciple bien-aimé Les Éditions du Cerf, Paris 1983 ISBN 2-204-02000-1), pp. 117-134
  51. ^ Beyond Belief,Elaine Pagels, 2003.
  52. ^ No Longer Jews: The Search for Gnostic Origins, Carl B. Smith, Hendrickson Publishers (September 2004). ISBN-13: 978-1565639447
  53. ^ Macuch, Rudolf (1965). Handbook of Classical and Modern Mandaic. Berlin: De Gruyter & Co., 61 fn. 105. 
  54. ^ "MARCION", Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 ed., Volume VI7, p. 693.
  55. ^ "Marcion and Marcionite Gnosticism", Cky J. Carrigan, Ph.D., On Truth, November 1996.
  56. ^ Metzger, Bruce. Canon of the NT ISBN 978-0-19-826180-3; The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 characterized Marcion as "perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known."; Harnack's Origin of the New Testament: "Marcion, on the contrary, treats the Catholic Church as one that “follows the Testament of the Creator-God,” and directs the full force of his attack against this Testament and against the falsification of the Gospel and of the Pauline Epistles by the original Apostles and the writers of the Gospels. He would necessarily have dealt with the two Testaments of the Catholic Church if the Church had already possessed a New Testament. His polemic would necessarily have been much less simple if he had been opposed to a Church which, by possessing a New Testament side by side with the Old Testament, had ipso facto placed the latter under the shelter of the former. In fact Marcion’s position towards the Catholic Church is intelligible, in the full force of its simplicity, only under the supposition that the Church had not yet in her hand any “litera scripta Novi Testamenti.”"
  57. ^ It may be that he employed an amanuensis, only occasionally writing himself, for example see Galatians 6:11, Romans 16:22, 1Corinthians 16:21, Colossians 4:18, 2Thessalonians 3:17, Philemon 1:19. Joseph Barber Lightfoot in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians writes: "At this point [Gal 6:11] the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name (2 Thess 2:2; 3:17) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries… In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin), that his handwriting may reflect the energy and determination of his soul."
  58. ^ Harris (1985). Pp 263-268.
  59. ^ White (2004). Pp 446-447.
  60. ^ White (2004). Pp 446-447.
  61. ^ Richardson (1953). Pp 16-17.
  62. ^ a b c Bowker, John (ed.). The Oxford dictionary of world religions. New York: Oxford University Press. 1997
  63. ^ "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  64. ^ "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  65. ^ "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  66. ^ "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  67. ^ "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  68. ^ "Infant Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  69. ^ Gregg Strawbridge, Ph.D.; John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion; Jordan Bajis; Bryan Chapell; Gregg Strawbridge (response to objections)
  70. ^ "He (Jesus) came to save all through means of Himself — all, I say, who through Him are born again to God and children, infants, and boys, and youths, and old men" (Adversus Haereses, ii, 22, 4)
  71. ^ "Infant Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  72. ^ Paul King Jewett, Infant Baptism and the Covenant of Grace, (Eerdmans 1978), page 127.
  73. ^ Homilies on Leviticus 8.3.11; Commentary on Romans 5.9; and Homily on Luke 14.5
  74. ^ "The delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary ... that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? ... For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred - in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom - until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence" (On Baptism 18).
  75. ^ The word "Agape" in the inscription has led some to interpret the scene as that of an Agape feast. However, the phrase within which the word appears is "Agape misce nobis" (Agape, mix for us, i.e. prepare the wine for us), making it more likely that Agape is the name of the woman holding the cup. A very similar fresco and inscription elsewhere in the same catacomb has, in exactly the same position within the fresco, the words "Misce mi Irene" (Mix for me, Irene). A reproduction of this other fresco can be seen at Catacombe dei Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, where it is accompanied by the explanation (in Italian) "One of the most frequently recurring scenes in the paintings is that of the banquet, generally interpreted as a symbolic representation of the joys of the afterlife, but in which it may be possible to discern a realistic presentation of the agapae, the funeral banquets held to commemorate the dead person." Agape, like Irene, may thus be the name of the person buried where the fresco was painted.
  76. ^ ...after we have thus washed him who has been convinced (converted to Christianity) and has assented to our teaching, we bring him to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized person, ...so that we may be saved with an everlasting salvation. Having ended the prayers, we salute one another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands. And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. ... And when the president has given thanks, and all the people have expressed their assent, those who are called by us deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to those who are absent they carry away a portion....And this food is called among us Eucharistia or [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. ... we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, "This do ye in remembrance of Me, this is My body;" and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, "This is My blood;" and gave it to them alone. The First Apology of Justin.
  77. ^ Bruce Metzger Metzger, Bruce. The canon of the New Testament. 1997
  78. ^ Canon VI of the First Council of Nicea, which closes the period under consideration in this article, reads: "Let the ancient customs in Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis prevail, that the Bishop of Alexandria have jurisdiction in all these, since the like is customary for the Bishop of Rome also. Likewise in Antioch and the other provinces, let the Churches retain their privileges. And this is to be universally understood, that if any one be made bishop without the consent of the Metropolitan, the great Synod has declared that such a man ought not to be a bishop ..." As can be seen, the title of "Patriarch", later applied to some of these bishops, was not used by the Council: "Nobody can maintain that the bishops of Antioch and Alexandria were called patriarchs then, or that the jurisdiction they had then was co-extensive with what they had afterward, when they were so called" (ffoulkes, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, quoted in Volume XIV of Philip Schaff's The Seven Ecumenical Councils).
  79. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Bible Translations: Aquila: "Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith. A revision in the sense of the canonical Jewish text was necessary. This revision was made by a proselyte, Aquila, who lived during the reign of Hadrian (117-138)."
  80. ^ "Worship in the Early Church", Richard C. Leonard, Laudemont Ministries 1997.
  81. ^ Annals XV, 44.
  82. ^ The Life of Claudius, chapter 25
  83. ^ "In 49-50, in consequence of dissensions among them regarding the advent of the Messiah, (the Jews) were forbidden to hold religious services. The leaders in the controversy, and many others of the Jewish citizens, left the city."
  84. ^ Early Christian Writings: Information on Suetonius
  85. ^ H. Dixon Slingerland, Claudian Policymaking and the Early Imperial Repression of Judaism at Rome. South Florida Studies in the History of Judaism (1997) 89-150
  86. ^ Stambaugh (1986). Pg 164-165.
  87. ^ Francis (1997). Pg 80.
  88. ^ Stambaugh (1986). Pg 165.
  89. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71): III. HISTORY D. Under the Roman Domination; until A.D. 70
  90. ^ St. James the Less: "Then we lose sight of James till St. Paul, three years after his conversion (A.D. 37), went up to Jerusalem. ... On the same occasion, the "pillars" of the Church, James, Peter, and John "gave to me (Paul) and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the circumcision" (Galatians 2:9)."
  91. ^ Church History, Book IV, chapter V
  92. ^ see H.H. Ben-Sasson below
  93. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII
  94. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 334: "Jerusalem was in fact built up again [after the revolt, 135], but as a pagan Roman city named Aelia Capitolina, after the emperor Aelius Adrianus and the tutelary god of Rome. Jews were forbidden to live in the city and were allowed to visit it only once a year, on the Ninth of Ab, to mourn the ruins of their holy Temple. In an effort to wipe out all memory of the bond between the Jews and the land, Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to Syria-Palestina, a name that became common in non-Jewish literature."; Jewish Encyclopedia: Bar Kokba and Bar Kokba War: Cause of the War: "It was probably at this time that Hadrian desired to erect the Roman colony Ælia Capitolina upon the ruins of Jerusalem, and to replace the old Temple by one dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus. Dio Cassius, at least, mentions this fact as the cause of the war, while Eusebius and other ecclesiastical historians refer to them as a result. It is therefore assumed that the building was already begun before the war, but interrupted by it (Münter, Graetz, Gregorovius)."
  95. ^ "The earliest bishops exercising such powers... were those of Rome (over the whole or part of Italy), Alexandria (over Egypt and Libya), and Antioch (over large parts of Asia Minor). These three were recognized by the Council of Nicaea (325)." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 1240
  96. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Caesarea Palaestinae
  97. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Alexandria, Egypt— Ancient
  98. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Alexandria
  99. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: The Seventh: Letter to Pope Hadrian: "Therefore, O most holy Head (Caput)", "And after this, may there be no further schism and separation in the one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, of which Christ our true God is the Head."; Pope Hadrian's letter: "the holy Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church your spiritual mother ... the head of all Churches"; Canon IV: "For Peter the supreme head (ἡ κερυφαία ἀκρότης) of the Apostles"; Letter to the Emperor and Empress: "Christ our God (who is the head of the Church)".
  100. ^ First Council of Nicaea, canon VI
  101. ^ "The term 'patriarch' was not assigned to these bishops until the 6th century, but they held patriarchal authority over nearby metropolitans" (Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005) "Nobody can maintain that the bishops of Antioch and Alexandria were called patriarchs then, or that the jurisdiction they had then was co-extensive with what they had afterward, when they were so called" (ffoulkes, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, quoted in Volume XIV of Philip Schaff's The Seven Ecumenical Councils).
  102. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Valerian; Schaff's History Vol 2 Chap 2 §22
  103. ^ T.K. Joseph (1955). Six St. Thomases Of South India. University of California, 27. 
  104. ^ He was baptized only shortly before his death (Bryn Mawr Classical Review).

Hillel (הלל) (born Babylon 1st Century BCE - died ?Jerusalem, 1st Century CE) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. ... The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... The Essenes (sg. ... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ... Hillel (הלל) (born Babylon 1st Century BCE - died ?Jerusalem, 1st Century CE) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. ... Yohanan ben Zakkai was a Jewish sage of the first century of the common era, and a primary contributor to the core text of rabbinic Judaism, the Mishnah. ... Halakha (הלכה or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. ... After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai relocated to the city of Yavne/Jamnia and founded a school of Jewish law there, becoming a major source for the later Mishna. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... John Chapman may be: Johnny Appleseed - Ecologist John Herbert Chapman - Space Researcher John Chapman (footballer) - Association Football manager John Chapman (evangelist) John T Chapman (writer) - British TV writer John Chapman OSB – 4th Abbot of Downside Abbey, Somerset This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share... The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... Jews for Jesus is a Christian [1] evangelical organization which targets Jews for conversion to Christianity. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Trinity Journal is generally accepted to have been the first WebZine ever published. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey, (born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A secretary is a person who performs routine, administrative, or personal tasks for a superior. ... Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13, 1828–December 21, 1889) was an English theologian and Bishop of Durham. ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... Aquila of Sinope was a 2nd Century CE native of Pontus in Anatolia known for producing a slavishly literal translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek around 130 CE.[1] He was a proselyte to Judaism and a disciple of Rabbi Akiba[1] (d. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ...

See also

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Ten Commandments on... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... The Ante-Nicene Fathers, subtitled , is a selected set of books containing English translations of the major early Christian writings. ...

External links

  • Early Christians
  • Early Christian Writings
  • Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  • Early Church Texts A site with a growing number of original language patristic texts and translations, together with an extensive set of links to online resources about the Early Church.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: The Fathers of the Church
  • PBS Frontline: The First Christians
  • "The Old Testament of the Early Church" Revisited, Albert C. Sundberg, Jr.
  • The Jewish Roman World of Jesus
  • From the Jesus-people to Early Christianity - 30 - 110 AD
  • First Christians and Rome
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... 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The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... 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The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Reformation redirects here. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... 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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Parallels between Christianity and Buddhism have been noted across the ages by scholars but are now being more widely appreciated as individuals search accessible Buddhist scriptures in ancient and modern languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... Early Christianity developed in Roman Judea and in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries leading an underground existence as an illicit mystery religion, in the 4th century undergoing syncretism with Roman imperial cult and Hellenistic philosophy, a process completed by AD 391 with the ban...

 
 

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