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Human ear
Human ear

The ear is the sense organ that detects sounds. The vertebrate ear shows a common biology from fish to humans, with variations in structure according to order and species. It not only acts as a receiver for sound, but plays a major role in the sense of balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system. Look up ear in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... http://www. ... http://www. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... For meanings of the word balance, see: Look up balance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ...


The word "ear" may be used correctly to describe the entire organ or just the visible portion. In most animals, the visible ear is a flap of tissue that is also called the pinna. The pinna may be all that shows of the ear, but it serves only the first of many steps in hearing and plays no role in the sense of balance. In people, the pinna is often called the auricle. Vertebrates have a pair of ears, placed symmetrically on opposite sides of the head. This arrangement aids in the ability to localize sound sources. Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ...

Contents

Introduction to ears and hearing

Audition is the scientific name for the perception of sound. Sound is a form of energy that moves through air, water, and other matter, in waves of pressure. Sound is the means of auditory communication, including frog calls, bird songs and spoken language. Although the ear is the vertebrate sense organ that recognizes sound, it is the brain and central nervous system that "hears". Sound waves are perceived by the brain through the firing of nerve cells in the auditory portion of the central nervous system. The ear changes sound pressure waves from the outside world into a signal of nerve impulses sent to the brain. Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ...

Anatomy of the human ear. (The length of the auditory canal is exaggerated in this image)
Anatomy of the human ear. (The length of the auditory canal is exaggerated in this image)

The outer part of the ear collects sound. That sound pressure is amplified through the middle portion of the ear and, in land animals, passed from the medium of air into a liquid medium. The change from air to liquid occurs because air surrounds the head and is contained in the ear canal and middle ear, but not in the inner ear. The inner ear is hollow, embedded in the temporal bone, the densest bone of the body. The hollow channels of the inner ear are filled with liquid, and contain a sensory epithelium that is studded with hair cells. The microscopic "hairs" of these cells are structural protein filaments that project out into the fluid. The hair cells are mechanoreceptors that release a chemical neurotransmitter when stimulated. Sound waves moving through fluid push the filaments; if the filaments bend over enough it causes the hair cells to fire. In this way sound waves are transformed into nerve impulses. In vision, the rods and cones of the retina play a similar role with light as the hair cells do with sound. The nerve impulses travel from the left and right ears through the eighth cranial nerve to both sides of the brain stem and up to the portion of the cerebral cortex dedicated to sound. This auditory part of the cerebral cortex is in the temporal lobe. ... Sound pressure is the pressure deviation from the local ambient pressure caused by a sound wave. ... The temporal bones (os temporales) are situated at the sides and base of the skull. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of the auditory system that are found within the cochleas organ of Corti. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ...


The part of the ear that is dedicated to sensing balance and position also sends impulses through the eighth cranial nerve, the VIIIth nerve's Vestibular Portion. Those impulses are sent to the vestibular portion of the central nervous system. The human ear can generally hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (the audio range). Although the sensation of hearing requires an intact and functioning auditory portion of the central nervous system as well as a working ear, human deafness (extreme insensitivity to sound) most commonly occurs because of abnormalities of the inner ear, rather than the nerves or tracts of the central auditory system.[1] This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ...


Mammalian ear

Bat pinnae come in different sizes and shapes
Bat pinnae come in different sizes and shapes

The shape of outer ear of mammals varies widely across species. However the inner workings of mammalian ears (including humans') are very similar. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2314x3220, 1743 KB) Wikipedia links on Talk: Because the description below is a Wikimedia Commons description page, the links are to Wikimedia Commons pages also. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2314x3220, 1743 KB) Wikipedia links on Talk: Because the description below is a Wikimedia Commons description page, the links are to Wikimedia Commons pages also. ...


Parts of the ear

Outer ear (pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum)

Main article: Outer ear

The outer ear is the most external portion of the ear. The outer ear includes the pinna (also called auricle), the ear canal, and the very most superficial layer of the ear drum (also called the tympanic membrane). In humans, and almost all vertebrates, the only visible portion of the ear is the outer ear. Although the word "ear" may properly refer to the pinna (the flesh covered cartilage appendage on either side of the head), this portion of the ear is not vital for hearing. The outer ear does help get sound (and imposes filtering), but the ear canal is very important. Unless the canal is open, hearing will be dampened. Ear wax (medical name - cerumen) is produced by glands in the skin of the outer portion of the ear canal. This outer ear canal skin is applied to cartilage; the thinner skin of the deep canal lies on the bone of the skull. Only the thicker cerumen-producing ear canal skin has hairs. The outer ear ends at the most superficial layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is commonly called the ear drum. The outer ear is the external portion of the ear. ... Cerumen, commonly known as earwax, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals. ...


The pinna helps direct sound through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). The framework of the auricle consists of a single piece of yellow fibrocartilage with a complicated relief on the anterior, concave side and a fairly smooth configuration on the posterior, convex side. The Darwinian tubercle, which is present in some people, lies in the descending part of the helix and corresponds to the true ear tip of the long-eared mammals. The lobule merely contains subcutaneous tissue.[2] In some animals with mobile pinnae (like the horse), each pinna can be aimed independently to better receive the sound. For these animals, the pinnae help localize the direction of the sound source. Human beings localize sound within the central nervous system, by comparing arrival-time differences and loudness from each ear, in brain circuits that are connected to both ears. The tympanic membrane, colloquially known as the eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. ...


Human outer ear and culture
Extensive ear modification
Extensive ear modification

The auricles also have an effect on facial appearance. In Western societies, protruding ears (present in about 5% of ethnic Europeans) have been considered unattractive, particularly if asymmetric. The first surgery to reduce the projection of prominent ears was published in the medical literature in 1881. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ...


The ears have also been ornamented with jewelry for thousands of years, traditionally by piercing of the earlobe. In some cultures, ornaments are placed to stretch and enlarge the earlobes to make them very large. Tearing of the earlobe from the weight of heavy earrings, or from traumatic pull of an earring (for example by snagging on a sweater being removed), is fairly common.[3] The repair of such a tear is usually not difficult. An earring with an intricate design An earring is a piece of jewelry that is worn on the ear. ... On the ear of humans and many other animals, the earlobe (lobulus auriculæ, sometimes simply lobe or lobule) is the soft lower part of the external ear or pinna. ...


A cosmetic surgical procedure to reduce the size or change the shape of the ear is called an otoplasty. In the rare cases when no pinna is formed (atresia), or is extremely small (microtia) reconstruction the auricle is possible. Most often, a cartilage graft from another part of the body (generally, rib cartilage) is used to form the matrix of the ear, and skin grafts or rotation flaps are used to provide the covering skin. However, when babies are born without an auricle on one or both sides, or when the auricle is very tiny, the ear canal is ordinarily either small or absent, and the middle ear often has deformities. The initial medical intervention is aimed at assessing the baby's hearing and the condition of the ear canal, as well as the middle and inner ear. Depending on the results of tests, reconstruction of the outer ear is done in stages, with planning for any possible repairs of the rest of the ear.[4][5][6] Otoplasty cosmetic surgery to change the appearance of a persons external ears. ... Unilateral Grade III microtia (left side). ...


Middle ear

Main article: Middle ear

The middle ear, an air-filled cavity behind the ear drum (tympanic membrane), includes the three ear bones or ossicles: the malleus (or hammer), incus (or anvil), and stapes (or stirrup). The opening of the Eustachian tube is also within the middle ear. The malleus has a long process (the manubrium, or handle) that is attached to the mobile portion of the eardrum. The incus is the bridge between the malleus and stapes. The stapes is the smallest named bone in the human body. The three bones are arranged so that movement of the tympanic membrane causes movement of the malleus, which causes movement of the incus, which causes movement of the stapes. When the stapes footplate pushes on the oval window, it causes movement of fluid within the cochlea (a portion of the inner ear). The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest bones in the human body. ... The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ...


In humans and other land animals the middle ear (like the ear canal) is normally filled with air. Unlike the open ear canal, however, the air of the middle ear is not in direct contact with the atmosphere outside the body. The Eustachian tube connects from the chamber of the middle ear to the back of the pharynx. The middle ear is very much like a specialized paranasal sinus, called the tympanic cavity; it, like the paranasal sinuses, is a hollow mucosa-lined cavity in the skull that is ventilated through the nose. The mastoid portion of the human temporal bone, which can be felt as a bump in the skull behind the pinna, also contains air, which is ventilated through the middle ear. The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Middle Ear
Components of the middle ear

Normally, the Eustachian tube is collapsed, but it gapes open both with swallowing and with positive pressure. When taking off in an airplane, the surrounding air pressure goes from higher (on the ground) to lower (in the sky). The air in the middle ear expands as the plane gains altitude, and pushes its way into the back of the nose and mouth. On the way down, the volume of air in the middle ear shrinks, and a slight vacuum is produced. Active opening of the Eustachian tube is required to equalize the pressure between the middle ear and the surrounding atmosphere as the plane descends. The diver also experiences this change in pressure, but with greater rates of pressure change; active opening of the Eustachian tube is required more frequently as the diver goes deeper into higher pressure. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The malleus is hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum. ... The tensor tympani muscle arises from the auditory tube and inserts onto the handle of the malleus, damping down vibration in the ossicles and so reducing the amplitude of sounds. ... This article refers to a bone in the mammalian ear. ... The stapedius is the smallest striated muscle in the human body. ... For more uses of the word labyrinth, see Labyrinth (disambiguation) The labyrinth is a system of fluid passages in the inner ear, including both the cochlea which is part of the auditory system, and the vestibular system which provides the sense of balance. ... The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the oval window which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. ... The ear canal (external auditory meatus, external acoustic meatus), is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear. ... The tympanum or tympanic membrane, colloquially known as eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. ... The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ... The tympanic cavity is a small cavity surrounding the bones of the inner ear. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ...


The arrangement of the tympanic membrane and ossicles works to efficiently couple the sound from the opening of the ear canal to the cochlea. There are several simple mechanisms that combine to increase the sound pressure. The first is the "hydraulic principle". The surface area of the tympanic membrane is many times that of the stapes footplate. Sound energy strikes the tympanic membrane and is concentrated to the smaller footplate. A second mechanism is the "lever principle". The dimensions of the articulating ear ossicles lead to an increase in the force applied to the stapes footplate compared with that applied to the malleus. A third mechanism channels the sound pressure to one end of the cochlea, and protects the other end from being struck by sound waves. In humans, this is called "round window protection", and will be more fully discussed in the next section.


Abnormalities such as impacted ear wax (occlusion of the external ear canal), fixed or missing ossicles, or holes in the tympanic membrane generally produce conductive hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss may also result from middle ear inflammation causing fluid build-up in the normally air-filled space. Tympanoplasty is the general name of the operation to repair the middle ear's tympanic membrane and ossicles. Grafts from muscle fascia are ordinarily used to rebuild an intact ear drum. Sometimes artificial ear bones are placed to substitute for damaged ones, or a disrupted ossicular chain is rebuilt in order to conduct sound effectively.


Inner ear: cochlea, vestibule, and semi-circular canals

Main article: Inner ear
Inner Ear
Components of the inner ear

The inner ear includes both the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and a sense organ that is attuned to the effects of both gravity and motion (labyrinth or vestibular apparatus). The balance portion of the inner ear consists of three semi-circular canals and the vestibule. The inner ear is encased in the hardest bone of the body. Within this ivory hard bone, there are fluid-filled hollows. Within the cochlea are three fluid filled spaces: the tympanic canal, the vestibular canal, and the middle canal. The eighth cranial nerve comes from the brain stem to enter the inner ear. When sound strikes the ear drum, the movement is transferred to the footplate of the stapes, which presses into one of the fluid-filled ducts of the cochlea. The fluid inside this duct is moved, flowing against the receptor cells of the Organ of Corti, which fire. These stimulate the spiral ganglion, which sends information through the auditory portion of the eighth cranial nerve to the brain. Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... Image File history File links Bony_labyrinth. ... The posterior semicircular canal, vertical like the superior, is directed backward, nearly parallel to the posterior surface of the petrous bone. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The utricle, larger than the saccule, is of an oblong form, compressed transversely, and occupies the upper and back part of the vestibule, lying in contact with the recessus ellipticus and the part below it. ... The lateral or horizontal canal (external semicircular canal) is the shortest of the three canals. ... This is a page about the part of the ear. ... The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. ... Categories: Stub ... Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. ... For more uses of the word labyrinth, see Labyrinth (disambiguation) The labyrinth is a system of fluid passages in the inner ear, including both the cochlea which is part of the auditory system, and the vestibular system which provides the sense of balance. ... The semicircular canals are three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear that are the equivalent of three gyroscopes located in three planes perpendicular. ... This is a page about the part of the ear. ... The organ of Corti is the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells, or hair cells. // Structure and function It has highly specialized structures that respond to fluid-borne vibrations in the cochlea with a shearing vector in the hairs of some cochlear hair cells. ... The spiral ganglion is the group of nerve cells that serve the sense of hearing by sending a representation of sound from the cochlea to the brain. ...


Hair cells are also the receptor cells involved in balance, although the hair cells of the auditory and vestibular systems of the ear are not identical. Vestibular hair cells are stimulated by movement of fluid in the semicircular canals and the utricle and saccule. Firing of vestibular hair cells stimulates the Vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve.[7]


Damage to the human ear

Outer ear trauma

Auricle

The auricle can be easily damaged. Because it is skin-covered cartilage, with only a thin padding of connective tissue, rough handling of the ear can cause enough swelling to jeopardize the blood-supply to its framework, the auricular cartilage. That entire cartilage framework is fed by a thin covering membrane called the perichondrium (meaning literally: around the cartilage). Any fluid from swelling or blood from injury that collects between the perichondrium and the underlying cartilage puts the cartilage in danger of being separated from its supply of nutrients. If portions of the cartilage starve and die, the ear never heals back into its normal shape. Instead, the cartilage becomes lumpy and distorted. Wrestler's Ear is one term used to describe the result, because wrestling is one of the most common ways such an injury occurs. Cauliflower ear is another name for the same condition, because the thickened auricle can resemble that vegetable. The perichondrium is a layer of dense connective tissue which surrounds the cartilage. ... Cauliflower ear (also hematoma auris or perichondrial hematoma) is a condition most common among wrestlers, rugby players, mixed martial artists, and boxers. ...


The lobule of the ear (ear lobe) is the one part of the human auricle that normally contains no cartilage. Instead, it is a wedge of adipose tissue (fat) covered by skin. There are many normal variations to the shape of the ear lobe, which may be small or large. Tears of the earlobe can be generally repaired with good results. Since there is no cartilage, there is not the risk of deformity from a blood clot or pressure injury to the ear lobe.


Other injuries to the external ear occur fairly frequently, and can leave a major deformity. Some of the more common ones include, laceration from glass, knives, and bite injuries, avulsion injuries, cancer, frostbite, and burns. Definition A cut is an injury that results in a break or opening in the skin. ... the loss or seperation of a bodypart. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about a medical condition. ... Burns may refer to: // Burns (surname), a family name (and people with that name) Montgomery Burns, Simpsons character Burns (clan), a Scottish clan Frank Burns, a BBC Sport stand-in presenter from the early 1990s. ...


Ear canal

Ear canal injuries can come from firecrackers and other explosives, and mechanical trauma from placement of foreign bodies into the ear. The ear canal is most often self-traumatized from efforts at ear cleaning. The outer part of the ear canal rests on the flesh of the head; the inner part rests in the opening of the bony skull (called the external auditory meatus). The skin is very different on each part. The outer skin is thick, and contains glands as well as hair follicles. The glands make cerumen (also called ear wax). The skin of the outer part moves a bit if the pinna is pulled; it is only loosely applied to the underlying tissues. The skin of the bony canal, on the other hand, is not only among the most delicate skin in the human body, it is tightly applied to the underlying bone. A slender object used to blindly clean cerumen out of the ear often results instead with the wax being pushed in, and contact with the thin skin of the bony canal is likely to lead to laceration and bleeding. Anatomy of the human ear. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ... Cerumen, commonly known as earwax, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals. ...


Middle ear trauma

Like outer ear trauma, middle ear trauma most often comes from blast injuries and insertion of foreign objects into the ear. Skull fractures that go through the part of the skull containing the ear structures (the temporal bone) can also cause damage to the middle ear. Small perforations of the tympanic membrane usually heal on their own, but large perforations may require grafting. Displacement of the ossicles will cause a conductive hearing loss that can only be corrected with surgery. Forcible displacement of the stapes into the inner ear can cause a sensory neural hearing loss that cannot be corrected even if the ossicles are put back into proper position. Because human skin has a top waterproof layer of dead skin cells that are constantly shedding, displacement of portions of the tympanic membrane or ear canal into the middle ear or deeper areas by trauma can be particularly traumatic. If the displaced skin lives within a closed area, the shed surface builds up over months and years and forms a cholesteatoma. The -oma ending of that word indicates a tumour in medical terminology, and although cholesteatoma is not a neoplasm (but a skin cyst), it can expand and erode the ear structures. The treatment for cholesteatoma is surgical. Cholesteatomas are benign tumors in cases where a perforation of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) does not heal without surgery, but instead grows through the hole into the middle ear and, if infection develops, results in a cyst-like tumor. ...


Inner ear trauma

There are two principal damage mechanisms to the inner ear in industrialized society, and both injure hair cells. The first is exposure to elevated sound levels (noise trauma), and the second is exposure to drugs and other substances (ototoxicity). Ototoxicity is damage of the ear (oto), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibulum, by a toxin (often medication). ...


In 1972 the U.S. EPA told Congress that at least 34 million people were exposed to sound levels on a daily basis that are likely to lead to significant hearing loss.[8] The worldwide implication for industrialized countries would place this exposed population in the hundreds of millions. Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ...


Vestigial structures

Comparative anatomy of primate ears: Human (left) and Barbary Macaque (right).
Comparative anatomy of primate ears: Human (left) and Barbary Macaque (right).

It has long been known that humans, and indeed other primates such as the orangutan and chimpanzee have ear muscles that are minimally developed and non-functional, yet still large enough to be easily identifiable.[9] These undeveloped muscles are vestigial structures. A muscle that cannot move the ear, for whatever reason, can no longer be said to have any biological function. This serves as evidence of homology between related species. In humans there is variability in these muscles, such that some people are able to move their ears in various directions, and it has been said that it may be possible for others to gain such movement by repeated trials.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1011x706, 113 KB) Derived by LP from Image:Ear_with_earring. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1011x706, 113 KB) Derived by LP from Image:Ear_with_earring. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque. ... This article is about the primate. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... The human vermiform appendix is a vestigial structure; it no longer retains its original function. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ...


Non-vertebrate hearing organs

Only vertebrate animals have ears, although many invertebrates are able to detect sound using other kinds of sense organs. In insects, tympanal organs are used to hear distant sounds. They are not confined to the head, but can occur in different locations depending on the group of insects.[10] A hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac. ...


Simpler structures allow arthropods to detect near-at-hand sounds. Spiders and cockroaches, for example, have hairs on their legs which are used for detecting sound. Caterpillars may also have hairs on their body that perceive vibrations[11] and allow them to respond to the sound. Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ...


References

  1. ^ Greinwald, John H. Jr MD; Hartnick, Christopher J. MD The Evaluation of Children With Hearing Loss. Archives of Otolaryngology — Head & Neck Surgery. 128(1):84-87, January 2002
  2. ^ Stenström, J. Sten: Deformities of the ear; In: Grabb, W., C., Smith, J.S. (Edited): “Plastic Surgery”, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1979, ISBN 0-316-32269-5 (C), ISBN 0-316-32268-7 (P)
  3. ^ Deborah S. Sarnoff, Robert H. Gotkin, and Joan Swirsky (2002). Instant Beauty: Getting Gorgeous on Your Lunch Break. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 031228697X. 
  4. ^ Lam SM. Edward Talbot Ely: father of aesthetic otoplasty. [Biography. Historical Article. Journal Article] Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery. 6(1):64, 2004 Jan-Feb.
  5. ^ Siegert R. Combined reconstruction of congenital auricular atresia and severe microtia. [Evaluation Studies. Journal Article] Laryngoscope. 113(11):2021-7; discussion 2028-9, 2003 Nov.
  6. ^ Trigg DJ. Applebaum EL. Indications for the surgical repair of unilateral aural atresia in children. [Review] [33 refs] [Journal Article. Review] American Journal of Otology. 19(5):679-84; discussion 684-6, 1998 Sep.
  7. ^ Anson and Donaldson, Surgical Anatomy of the Temporal Bone, 4th Edition, Raven Press, 1992
  8. ^ Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session.
  9. ^ a b Darwin, Charles (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. John Murray: London.
  10. ^ Yack, JE, and JH Fullard, 1993. What is an insect ear? Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 86(6): 677-682.
  11. ^ Scoble, MJ. 1992. The Lepidoptera: Form, function, and diversity. Oxford Univ. Press.

For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ...

See also

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The absolute threshold of hearing (ATH) is the minimum sound level of a pure tone that an average ear with normal hearing can hear in a noiseless environment. ... The acoustic reflex (or stapedius reflex) is an involuntary muscle contraction that occurs in the middle ear of mammals in response to high-intensity sound stimuli. ... Cerumen, commonly known as earwax, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals. ... Cholesteatomas are benign tumors in cases where a perforation of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) does not heal without surgery, but instead grows through the hole into the middle ear and, if infection develops, results in a cyst-like tumor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A little girls pierced ear with a small earring. ... A typical ear piercing gun An ear piercing instrument, commonly referred to as an ear piercing gun, is a device designed to pierce earlobes by forcing a sharpened starter earring through the lobe. ... An earring with an intricate design An earring is a piece of jewelry that is worn on the ear. ... Békésy won a Nobel Prize in 1961 for his research on the workings of the inner ear. ... This is a glossary of medical terms related to communications disorders such as blindness and deafness. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Otoplasty cosmetic surgery to change the appearance of a persons external ears. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... Sound localization is a listeners ability to identify the location of origin of a detected sound or the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording). ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Tinnitus (pronounced or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... It has been suggested that Equilibrioception be merged into this article or section. ... Auditory Brainstem Response or Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometry is a screening test to monitor for hearing loss or deafness in newborn infants. ...

External links

Look up Ear in
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Ear
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ... The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. ... It has been suggested that Equilibrioception be merged into this article or section. ... The outer ear is the external portion of the ear. ... A left human ear. ... On the pinna, a curved prominence of cartilage, parallel with and in front of the helix, is called the antihelix, also known as the anthelix; this divides above into two crura, between which is a triangular depression, the fossa triangularis. ... In front of the concha, and projecting backward over the meatus, is a small pointed eminence, the tragus, so called from its being generally covered on its under surface with a tuft of hair, resembling a goat’s beard. ... Opposite the tragus, and separated from it by the intertragic notch, is a small tubercle, the antitragus. ... On the ear of humans and many other animals, the earlobe (lobulus auriculæ, sometimes simply lobe or lobule) is the soft lower part of the external ear or pinna. ... The ear canal (external auditory meatus, external acoustic meatus), is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... The tympanic membrane, colloquially known as the eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. ... The umbo is the most depressed part of the tympanic membrane. ... The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest bones in the human body. ... The malleus is hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum. ... This article refers to a bone in the mammalian ear. ... The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the oval window which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. ... The stapedius is the smallest striated muscle in the human body. ... The tensor tympani muscle arises from the auditory tube and inserts onto the handle of the malleus, damping down vibration in the ossicles and so reducing the amplitude of sounds. ... The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ... The base of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube lies directly under the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, where it forms an elevation, the torus tubarius or cushion, behind the pharyngeal orifice of the tube. ... Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... For more uses of the word labyrinth, see Labyrinth (disambiguation) The labyrinth is a system of fluid passages in the inner ear, including both the cochlea which is part of the auditory system, and the vestibular system which provides the sense of balance. ... The bony labyrinth (osseous labyrinth) consists of three parts: vestibule semicircular canals cochlea These are cavities hollowed out of the substance of the bone, and lined by periosteum; they contain a clear fluid, the perilymph, in which the membranous labyrinth is situated. ... This is a page about the part of the ear. ... The membranous labyrinth is lodged within the bony labyrinth, and has the same general form; it is, however, considerably smaller, and is partly separated from the bony walls by a quantity of fluid, the perilymph. ... The helicotrema is the part of the cochlear labyrinth where the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli meet. ... The round window is one of two membranes that separates the inner ear from the middle ear. ... The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. ... The spiral ganglion is the group of nerve cells that serve the sense of hearing by sending a representation of sound from the cochlea to the brain. ... The modiolus is a conical shaped central axis in the cochlea. ... The cochlear duct (or scala media) is an endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea, located in between the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, separated by the basilar membrane and Reissners membrane (the vestibular membrane) respectively. ... Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. ... The upper portion of the spiral ligament contains numerous capillary loops and small blood vessels, and is termed the stria vascularis. ... The periosteum, forming the outer wall of the ductus cochlearis, is greatly thickened and altered in character, and is called the spiral ligament. ... The organ of Corti is the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells, or hair cells. // Structure and function It has highly specialized structures that respond to fluid-borne vibrations in the cochlea with a shearing vector in the hairs of some cochlear hair cells. ... Scala vestibuli is a perilymph filled cavity inside the cochlea of the inner ear. ... Scala tympani is the name of one of the perilymph filled cavities in the cochlear labyrinth. ... Perilymph is a fluid located within the cochlea (part of the ear) in 2 of its 3 muscles; the scala typmani and scala vestibuli. ... Reissners membrane is a membrane inside the cochlea of the inner ear, it separates scala media from scala vestbuli and together with the basilar membrane it creates a compartment in the cochlea filled with perilymph, which is important for the function of the organ of Corti inside the scala... Cross section of the cochlea. ... Covering the sulcus spiralis internus and the spiral organ of Corti is the tectorial membrane, which is attached to the limbus laminae spiralis close to the inner edge of the vestibular membrane. ... The organ of Corti is the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells, or hair cells. // Structure and function It has highly specialized structures that respond to fluid-borne vibrations in the cochlea with a shearing vector in the hairs of some cochlear hair cells. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. ... Section through the spiral organ of Corti. ... The basilar crest gives attachment to the outer edge of the basilar membrane; immediately above the crest is a concavity, the sulcus spiralis externus. ... On the upper plate of that part of the lamina which is outside the vestibular membrane, the periosteum is thickened to form the limbus laminæ spiralis, this ends externally in a concavity, the sulcus spiralis internus, which represents, on section, the form of the letter C. Histology at uc. ... The osseous spiral lamina consists of two plates of bone, and between these are the canals for the transmission of the filaments of the acoustic nerve. ... It has been suggested that Equilibrioception be merged into this article or section. ... The utricle, larger than the saccule, is of an oblong form, compressed transversely, and occupies the upper and back part of the vestibule, lying in contact with the recessus ellipticus and the part below it. ... The portion of the utricle which is lodged in the recess forms a sort of pouch or cul-de-sac, the floor and anterior wall of which are thickened, and form the macula of utricle, which receives the utricular filaments of the acoustic nerve. ... Categories: Stub ... The saccule is the smaller of the two vestibular sacs; it is globular in form, and lies in the recessus sphæricus near the opening of the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. ... From the posterior wall of the saccule a canal, the ductus endolymphaticus, is given off; this duct is joined by the ductus utriculosaccularis, and then passes along the aquaeductus vestibuli and ends in a blind pouch, the endolymphatic sac, on the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal... From the posterior wall of the saccule a canal, the endolymphatic duct, is given off; this duct is joined by the ductus utriculosaccularis, and then passes along the aquaeductus vestibuli and ends in a blind pouch (saccus endolymphaticus) on the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone... A kinocilium is a special structure connected to the hair cells of the inner ears cochlea. ... An otolith, (oto-, ear + lithos, a stone), also called statoconium[1] or otoconium is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth. ... inner ear illustration showing semicircular canal, hair cells, ampulla, cupula, vestibular nerve, & fluid The semicircular canals are three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear that are the equivalent of three gyroscopes located in three planes perpendicular (at right angles) to each other. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The posterior semicircular canal, vertical like the superior, is directed backward, nearly parallel to the posterior surface of the petrous bone; it is the longest of the three canals, measuring from 18 to 22 mm. ... The lateral or horizontal canal (external semicircular canal) is the shortest of the three canals. ... The cupula forms the apex of the cochlea. ... The bony semicircular canals are three in number, superior, posterior, and lateral, and are situated above and behind the vestibule. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve (also known as the auditory or acoustic nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. ... The cochlear nuclei consist of: (a) the dorsal cochlear nucleus, corresponding to the tuberculum acusticum on the dorso-lateral surface of the inferior peduncle; and (b) the ventral or accessory cochlear nucleus, placed between the two divisions of the nerve, on the ventral aspect of the inferior peduncle. ... The trapezoid body is part of the acoustic pathway. ... For the cerebellar structure, see Dentate nucleus. ... The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. ... The paired inferior colliculi together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the corpora quadrigemina. ... The medial geniculate nucleus is a nucleus of the thalamus that acts as a relay for auditory information. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Teeth redirects here. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... For other uses, see Face (disambiguation). ... This article is about the anatomical feature. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... Image File history File links Human body features (external) Created by Vsion. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adams apple (disambiguation). ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... This article is about the body part. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... The Tail of Spence (or Spences tail) is an extension of the tissue of the breast which extends into the axilla (armpit). ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... The human rib cage is a part of the human skeleton within the thoracic area. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus tentacles or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or animal body; a large or main branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the joint in the arm. ... // The Human Forearm The forearm is the structure on the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist. ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Thumb (disambiguation). ... The second digit of a human hand is also referred to as the index finger, pointer finger, forefinger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, or digitus II. It is located between the first and third digits - that is, between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. ... The little finger, often called the pinky in American English and pinkie in Scottish English (from the Dutch word pink, meaning little finger), is the most ulnar and usually smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, next to the ring finger. ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... Manuel Márquez de León International Airport (IATA: LAP, ICAO: MMLP) is an international airport located at La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ... The calf or gastrosoleus is a pair of muscles—the gastrocnemius and soleus—at the back of the lower human leg. ... For other uses, see Heel (disambiguation). ... For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... Toes on foot. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... The mastoid process (or mastoid bone) is a conical bump of the posterior portion of the temporal bone that is situated behind the ear in humans and many other vertebrates and serves as a site of neck muscle attachment (the Sternocleidomastoid, Splenius capitis, and Longissimus capitis). ... A left human ear. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Mastoid can mean: Of, relating to or in the region of the mastoid process. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, the portion of the temporal bone of the skull that is behind the ear. ... Bezolds Abscess is an abscess in the sternocleidomastoid muscle where pus from a mastoiditis escapes into the sternocleidomastoid. ... Cholesteatomas are benign tumors in cases where a perforation of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) does not heal without surgery, but instead grows through the hole into the middle ear and, if infection develops, results in a cyst-like tumor. ... Rupture or perforation (hole) of the eardrum can occur in infection, trauma (e. ... Inner ear The inner ear is the bony labyrinth, a system of passages comprising two main functional parts: the organ of hearing, or cochlea and the vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... Otosclerosis is a progressive degenerative condition of the temporal bone which can result in hearing loss. ... Balance is the result of a number of body systems working together. ... Ménières disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance. ... Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a condition caused by problems in the inner ear. ... Vestibular Neuronitis is a paroxysmal, single attack of vertigo. ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... Labyrinthitis is a balance disorder that usually follows an upper respiratory tract infection (URI). ... A perilymph fistula is leakage of inner ear fluid into the air filled middle ear. ... A hearing impairment or hearing loss is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ... Conductive hearing loss is a failure in the efficient conduction of sound waves through the outer ear, typanic membrane (eardrum) or middle ears (ossicles). ... Sensorineural hearing loss is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve (Cranial nerve VIII), the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain. ... Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is the cumulative effect of aging on hearing. ... Tinnitus (pronounced or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... Hyperacusis is a health condition characterized by an over-sensitivity to certain frequency ranges of sound (a collapsed tolerance to normal environmental sound). ...

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