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Encyclopedia > EURion constellation
The small circles or dots constituting the EURion constellation are clearly visible on the centre-left of 10 euro banknotes.
The small circles or dots constituting the EURion constellation are clearly visible on the centre-left of 10 euro banknotes.
On the Bank of England £20 the EURion constellation appears as "musical notes".
On the Bank of England £20 the EURion constellation appears as "musical notes".

A number of recent banknote designs contain a pattern now known as the EURion constellation. It is added to help software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image. Such software can then block the user from reproducing banknotes to prevent counterfeiting using colour photocopiers. The name was coined by Markus Kuhn, who discovered it in early 2002 while experimenting with a Xerox colour photocopier that refuses to reproduce banknotes. The word is a portmanteau of Orion, a constellation of similar shape, and EUR, the Euro's ISO 4217 designation. Image of euro banknotes. ... Image of euro banknotes. ... The euro (symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, collectively known as the Eurozone. ... EURion Constellation design element from Bank of England £20 note. ... EURion Constellation design element from Bank of England £20 note. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... A counterfeit is an imitation that is made with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins. ... Dr. Markus G. Kuhn (born 1971 in Munich) is a German computer scientist, currently teaching and researching at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Xerox Corporation NYSE: XRX is the worlds largest document-management company, providing the industrys broadest range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Look up Portmanteau in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Orion, a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, perhaps the best-known in the sky. ... Orion is a remarkable constellation, visible from most places on the globe (but not always the whole year long). ... The euro (symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, collectively known as the Eurozone. ... ISO 4217 is an international standard describing three letter codes to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


The EURion constellation first described by Kuhn consists of a pattern of five small yellow, green or orange circles, which is repeated across areas of the banknote at different orientations. Andrew Steer later noted simple integer ratios between the squared distances of nearby circles, which gives further clues as to how the pattern is meant to be detected efficiently by image-processing software.


The EURion constellation is most prominent and was therefore first recognised on the 10 Euro banknotes. It was then also found on (now obsolete) Deutsche Mark notes, recent British banknotes, the backs of the new U.S. $20 and $50 bill, the current (post circa 1998) Danish banknotes, and all of the 2001 series of Canadian bills. It is also found on the new (2005) series of South African Rand banknotes and the Australian 2001 commemorative $5 note. The euro symbol The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for many countries within the European Union. ... The Deutsche Mark (DEM, DM) or German mark was the official currency of West and, from 1990 onwards, unified Germany. ... British banknotes are the banknotes of the United Kingdom and British Islands, denominated in pounds sterling (GBP). ... The U.S. twenty dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. ... 2004 Federal Reserve note - Obverse 2004 Federal Reserve note - Reverse The U.S. fifty dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Canadian dollar, CAD or C$, is the unit of currency of Canada. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The old R1 and new R10 bank notes The Rand is the currency of South Africa. ...

Example of CDS anti-counterfeit measures operating on image editing software.
Enlarge
Example of CDS anti-counterfeit measures operating on image editing software.

Users of recent versions of image editors, such as Adobe Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro, discovered that these also refuse to process banknotes. According to an article in Wired magazine, the banknote detection code in these applications, called the Counterfeit Deterrence System (CDS), was designed by the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group and supplied to companies such as Adobe as a binary module. However, experiments by Steven J. Murdoch and others showed that this banknote detection code does not rely on the EURion pattern. It detects other features of banknote designs that have yet to be described in public. Image File history File links PSP-CDS.gif Example error message created by the Counterfeit Deterrence System found in many image editing applications. ... Image File history File links PSP-CDS.gif Example error message created by the Counterfeit Deterrence System found in many image editing applications. ... Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editor (with some text and vector graphics capabilities) developed and published by Adobe Systems. ... Paint Shop Pro (PSP) is a bitmap graphics editor and vector graphics editor for computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system that was originally published by Minneapolis-based Jasc Software. ... Wired (magazine) is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... The Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group (CBCDG)’s mission is to investigate emerging threats to the security of banknotes and to propose solutions for implementation by issuing authorities. ... Adobe Systems (NASDAQ: ADBE)(LSE: ABS) is a computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California that was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke. ...


External links

  • http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/eurion.pdf (in Adobe Acrobat format)
  • http://www.freedom-to-tinker.com/archives/000497.html
  • http://www.wildspark.com/eurionize/ - Add the EURion Constellation to a PostScript document
  • http://www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,61890,00.html
  • http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/sjm217/projects/currency/ - Demonstration that the CDS does not use the EURion constellation and also other related information
  • http://www.nationalbanken.dk/DNDK/money.nsf/side/200-kr!OpenDocument - current danish currency

  Results from FactBites:
 
EURion constellation (177 words)
A number of new designs of banknotes contain a pattern known as the EURion constellation which can be used to detect their identity as banknotes to prevent counterfeiting using modern inexpensive digital scanners, colour printers, and image processing software.
The EURion constellation consists of a pattern of five small circles, which is repeated across areas of the banknote at different orientations.
The EURion constellation was first detected on the new Euro banknotes.
EURion constellation Information (642 words)
The small circles of the EURion constellation are clearly visible on the centre-left of 10 euro banknotes.
The name "EURion constellation" was coined by Markus Kuhn, who discovered the pattern in early 2002 while experimenting with a Xerox colour photocopier that refuses to reproduce banknotes.
The EURion constellation first described by Kuhn consists of a pattern of five small yellow, green or orange circles, which is repeated across areas of the banknote at different orientations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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