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Encyclopedia > E.T.A. Hoffmann
 ETA Hoffman
ETA Hoffman

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ETA Hoffman Drawing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1776. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other meanings see Fantasy (disambiguation) Fantasy is a genre of art, literature, film, television, and music that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of either plot, theme, setting, or all three. ...


Hoffmann's stories were tremendously influential in the 19th century, and he is one of the key authors of the Romantic movement. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...

Contents


Life

Hoffmann was born in 1776 in Königsberg, Prussia. Hoffmann's father was a lawyer. This article is about the year 1776. ... Map of Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград, German: Königsberg, Polish: Królewiec, Lithuanian: Karaliaučius, Latin: Regiomontium) is a seaport city, capital and main city of the Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa, German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad...


Ernst Hoffmann studied at the Gymnasium in Königsberg. He then worked as a Referendar in Glogau, Silesia and in Berlin in Brandenburg and next in Prussian provinces in the area of Greater Poland and Mazovia: Posen in South Prussia and later on to Plock in New East Prussia. One of his tasks was to invent names for Jews. He found some poetic ones like Goldbaum or Apfelbaum. A gymnasium is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska GÅ‚ogowa Mayor Zbigniew Rybka Area 35 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71,686 (2004) none 2120/km² Founded City rights 10th century 1253 Latitude Longitude 51°67 N 16°08 E Area code +48 76 Car plates DGL Twin towns... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (-Latin, Polish: ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Schlesien, Czech: Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... (help· info), IPA: , is the capital city as well as a state of Germany, and also the countrys largest city. ... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Poznania Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area 261,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 578 900 (2002) 850 000 2215/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1253 Latitude Longitude 52°1734 N - 52°3027 N 16°4408 E - 17°04... South Prussia (1793-1806) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created in Greater Poland after the second partition of Poland (1793). ... Motto: none Voivodship Masovian Municipal government Rada Miasta Płock Mayor Mirosław Milewski Area 88 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 128 210 - 1456/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 52°33 N 19°42 E Area code +48 24 Car plates WP Twin towns - Municipal Website Płock (pronounce: [pwɔʦk]) is a... New East Prussia (German Neu-Ostpreußen) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia between 1795 and 1807, created from areas acquired during the third Partition of Poland, with Warsaw as a capital. ...


He changed his third name from Wilhelm to Amadeus in 1813 in homage to the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Mozart drawing by Doris Stock 1789 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (born Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Theophilus Mozart on January 27th, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of classical music. ...


Hoffmann assimilated well in Polish society; the years spent in Poland he recognized as the happiest in his life. Unfortunately, after he was accused of spying for the Prussian king, social ostracism followed. In 1805 he moved again to Berlin, where he could further his talent as an artist and writer. Since 1814 he held a position at the Kammergericht, the chamber court. Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy where a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city for ten years. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Grave of E.T.A. Hoffmann
Grave of E.T.A. Hoffmann

Hoffmann died in Berlin in 1822 at the age of 46, and is buried near the Hallesches Tor, in the Jerusalem and New Churches Community Cemetery (his gravestone has his original initials). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x768, 135 KB)Grave of ETA Hoffmann in Berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x768, 135 KB)Grave of ETA Hoffmann in Berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... (help· info), IPA: , is the capital city as well as a state of Germany, and also the countrys largest city. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Work

Hoffmann wrote novels and short stories, and he composed music, including an opera, Undine. However, when reading the original text of E.T.A. Hoffmann's stories, one soon realizes that these stories were conceived and written at a politically very sensitive time. Comparable messages were expressed in earlier animal stories such as Reinicke Fuchs or Aesop's Fables. His most familiar story is "The Nutcracker and the Mouse King", which inspired the ballet by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. His story "The Sandman" similarly inspired Delibes's ballet Coppelia. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (help· info) (Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайкóвский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Der Sandmann is a short story written in German by E.T.A. Hoffmann which was the first in a book of stories titled Die Nachtstücke, which translates as The Night Pieces. ... Coppélia is a ballet by Leo Delibes based upon a story by E.T.A. Hoffmann entitled The Sandman. It concerns an inventor who makes a life-size dancing doll. ...


The Nutcracker story is full of charming mimed phantasies with Marie (Clara in the ballet), Fritz and Pate Drosselmayr, the mean Mouse King and the popular Nutcracker. Many children's version books of the Nutcracker have been published. Nutcracker performances have become a yearly feature in many cities around Christmas time. Yet these stories, as with the majority of his literary work, point beyond themselves in philosophical terms; Hoffmann invariably moves into territory where an exploration of the nature of Selfhood, Art and value-judgements are required in order for the reader to enjoy Hoffmann's writings more fully. Stories are, in their various media, the ultimate form of self-definition and world-interpretation; it is through stories that Hoffmann expresses his aesthetic, ethical and political concerns. A variety of nutcrackers A nutcracker is a device for cracking nuts. ... A variety of nutcrackers A nutcracker is a device for cracking nuts. ...


Assessment

Hoffmann is one of the best-known representatives of German Romanticism, and a pioneer of the fantasy genre, with a taste for the macabre combined with realism that influenced such authors as Franz Kafka, Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Dickens, and Nikolai Gogol. Hoffmann's work illuminates the darker side of the human spirit found behind the hypocritical harmony of bourgeois life, yet his wide-ranging influence upon and creative significance within the later German romantic period is frequently underestimated. In the philosophy, art, and culture of German-speaking countries, German Romanticism was the dominant cultural movement of much of the nineteenth century. ... For other meanings see Fantasy (disambiguation) Fantasy is a genre of art, literature, film, television, and music that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of either plot, theme, setting, or all three. ... This article is about the writing style, macabre. ... Realism in art and literature is the depiction of fact or reality, rather than imaginary subjects. ... Kafka redirects here. ... This daguerreotype of Poe was taken less than a year before his death at the age of 40. ... Charles Dickens was a prolific writer who was almost always working on a new installment for a story and rarely missed a deadline. ... Nikolai Gogol For the James Bond ally, see General Gogol Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: ) (April 1, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...


Jacques Offenbach's masterwork, the opera Tales of Hoffmann, takes some cues from The Devil's Elixir and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet Nutcracker is based on a story by Hoffmann. Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880), composer and cellist, was one of the originators of the operetta form, a precursor of the modern musical comedy. ... Les contes dHoffmann (Tales of Hoffmann) is an opera by Jacques Offenbach. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (help· info) (Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайкóвский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ...


Hoffmann also influenced 19th-century musical taste directly through his music criticism. His reviews of Beethoven's fifth symphony and other important works set new literary standards for writing about music, and encouraged later writers to see music as "the most Romantic of all the arts." Hoffmann's reviews have been collected for modern readers by Andrew Crumey, in E.T.A. Hoffmann's Writings on Music, Collected in a Single Volume (2004).


Hoffmann strove for artistic polymathy. He created far more in his works than mere political commentary achieved through satire. His masterpiece (it is generally agreed) is Kater Murr (see bibliographical references below). This novel deals with such issues as the aesthetic status of 'true' artistry, and the modes of self-transcendence that accompany any genuine endeavour to create. Hoffmann's portrayal of the character Kreisler (a genius musician) is wittily counterpointed with the character of the tomcat Murr — a virtuoso illustration of artistic pretentiousness that many of Hoffmann's contemporaries found offensive and subvertive of Romantic ideals.


Hoffmann's literature points to the failings of many so-called 'artists' to differentiate between the superficial and the authentic aspects of such Romantic ideals. The self-conscious effort to impress must, according to Hoffmann, be divorced from the self-aware effort to create. This essential duality in Kater Murr is structurally conveyed through a discursive 'splicing together' of two biographical narratives. Such a framework warrants an extensive exploration of its philosophical implications.


Bibliography

  • Der goldene Topf (The Golden Pot, a fable, 1814)
  • Die Elixiere des Teufels (The Devil's Elixir, 2 volumes, 1815/16)
  • Fantasiestücke in Callot's Manier (Fantastic pieces in the manner of Callot 4 volumes, 1814/15; with a commendatory preface by Jean Paul)
  • Nachtstücke (Night Pieces, 2 volumes, 1816/17)
  • Das Fräulein von Scuderi (Mademoiselle Scudéry, a short story considered his masterpiece, 1819)
  • Die Serapions-Brüder (The Serapion Band, 4 volumes, 1819-21) (After which the Serapion Fraternity of writers in early 20th Century Russia was to name itself.)
  • Die Lebensansichten des Katers Murr (two-volume fragment, 1819-21)
  • Seltsame Leiden eines Theaterdirektors
  • Klein Zaches genannt Zinnober
  • Die Irrungen
  • Die Geheimnisse
  • Der Sandmann

Jean Paul Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – November 14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter was a German author. ... In German, Fräulein (literally, little woman or little Mrs. ... Der Sandmann is a short story written in German by E.T.A. Hoffmann which was the first in a book of stories titled Die Nachtstücke, which translates as The Night Pieces. ...

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