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Encyclopedia > E. coli
Escherichia coli

Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Superdomain: Phylogenetica
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Species: E. coli
Binomial name
Escherichia coli
(Migula 1895)
Castellani and Chalmers 1919

Escherichia coli (IPA: [ˌɛ.ʃəˈɹɪ.kjə ˈkʰoʊ.laɪ]) (E. coli), is one of many species of bacteria living in the lower intestines of mammals, known as gut flora. When located in the large intestine, it assists with waste processing, vitamin K production, and food absorption. Discovered in 1885 by Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician and bacteriologist,[1] E. coli are abundant: the number of individual E. coli bacteria in the faeces that a human defecates in one day averages between 100 billion and 10 trillion.[citation needed] However, the bacteria are not confined to this environment, and specimens have also been located, for example, on the edge of hot springs. The E. coli strain O157:H7 is one of hundreds of strains of the bacterium that causes illness in humans.[2] Entamoeba coli is a non-pathogenic species of amoeba that is important clinically in humans only because it can be confused with Entamoeba histolytica, which is pathogenic, on microscopic examination of stained stool specimens. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Escherichia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Theodor Escherich (November 29, 1857 - February 15, 1911) was an Austrian (born in Ansbach, Mittelfranken, and died in Vienna, Austria) pediatrician and bacteriologist and a professor at universities in Munich, Graz, and Vienna. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation is the act or process by which organisms eliminate solid or semisolid waste material (feces) from the digestive tract via the anus. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ...


E. coli are unable to sporulate. Thus, treatments which kill all active bacteria, such as pasteurization or simple boiling, are effective for their eradication, without requiring the more rigorous sterilization which also deactivates spores. An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ...


As a result of their adaptation to mammalian intestines, E. coli grow best in vivo or at the higher temperatures characteristic of such an environment, rather than the cooler temperatures found in soil and other environments. In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...

Contents

Role in disease

E. coli can generally cause several intestinal and extra-intestinal infections such as urinary tract infections, meningitis, peritonitis, mastitis, septicemia and Gram-negative pneumonia. The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammalian breast caused by the blocking of the milk ducts while the mother is lactating (see breastfeeding). ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Virulence properties

The enteric E. coli are divided on the basis of virulence properties into enterotoxigenic (ETEC, causative agent of diarrhea in humans, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and horses), enteropathogenic (EPEC, causative agent of diarrhea in humans, rabbits, dogs, cats and horses); enteroinvasive (EIEC, found only in humans), verotoxigenic (VTEC, found in pigs, cattle, dogs and cats); enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC, found in humans, cattle, and goats, attacking porcine strains that colonize the gut in a manner similar to human EPEC strains) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC, found only in humans).


Urinary tract infections

It is much more common in females due to the shorter urethra (25–50 mm / 1-2 inches) compared to males (about 20 cm / 8 inches). Among the elderly UTI is in roughly equal proportions in men and women. Since bacteria invariably enter the urinary tract through the urethra (an ascending infection), poor toilet habits can predispose to infection (doctors often advise women to "wipe front to back, not back to front") but other factors are also important: (pregnancy in women, prostate enlargement in men) and in many cases the initiating event is unclear. While ascending infections are generally the rule for lower urinary tract infections and cystitis, the same may not necessarily be true for upper urinary tract infections like pyelonephritis which may be hematogenous in origin. Most cases of lower urinary tract infections in females are benign and do not need exhaustive laboratory work-ups. However, UTI in young infants must receive some imaging study, typically a retrograde urethrogram, to ascertain the presence/absence of congenital urinary tract anomalies. Males too must be investigated further. Specific methods of investigation include x-ray, MRI and CAT scan technology. In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... Pyelonephritis is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pyelum (pelvis) of the kidney (nephros in Greek). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... “MRI” redirects here. ... CT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


Gastrointestinal

Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped.
Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped.

If E. coli bacteria escape the intestinal tract through a perforation (hole or tear, for example from an ulcer, a ruptured appendix, or a surgical error) and enter the abdomen, they usually cause peritonitis that can be fatal without prompt treatment. However, E. coli are extremely sensitive to such antibiotics as streptomycin or gentamycin, so treatment with antibiotics is usually effective. This could rapidly change, since, as noted below, E. coli rapidly acquires drug resistance.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... Appendicitis, or epityphlitis, is a condition characterised by inflammation of the appendix. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Gentamicin is a aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ...


Certain strains of E. coli, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia coli O121 and Escherichia coli O104:H21, are toxigenic (some produce a toxin very similar to that seen in dysentery). They can cause food poisoning usually associated with eating unwashed vegetables and contaminated meat (contaminated during or shortly after slaughter or during storage or display). O157:H7 is further notorious for causing serious, even life threatening complications like HUS (Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome). The usual countermeasure is cooking suspect meat until it reaches an internal temperature of 160 degrees Fahrenheit (70 °C), or is "well done"; the alternative of careful inspection of slaughtering and butchering methods (to make sure that the animal's colon is removed and not punctured) has apparently not been systematically tried. This particular strain is linked to the 2006 United States E. coli outbreak of fresh spinach. Severity of the illness varies considerably; it can be fatal, particularly to young children, the elderly or the immunocompromised, but is more often mild. E. coli can harbor both heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. The latter, termed LT, is highly similar in structure and function to Cholera toxin. It contains one 'A' subunit and five 'B' subunits arranged into one holotoxin. The B subunits assist in adherence and entry of the toxin into host intestinal cells, where the A subunit is cleaved and prevents cells from absorbing water, causing diarrhea. LT is secreted by the Type 2 secretion pathway[4] Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombopenia). ... Warning: Wikipedia does not give medical advice. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause...


It has also been shown that Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), specifically O157:H7, can be found in filth flies on cattle farms, in house flies, can grow on wounded fruit and be transmitted to and by fruit flies.[5][6][7]


Since entrotoxigenic coli can be resident in animals which are resistant to the toxin, they may be spread through direct contact on farms, at petting zoos, etc. They may also be spread via airborne particles in such environments.[8] The United States government Department of Agriculture asked in 1978 what the effect of overfeeding animals antibiotics would be. The American Academy of Science eventually responded that antibiotic resistant E. coli would develop and would be untreatable. Nonetheless, heavy dosing of antibiotics in swine and cattle feed is a routine practice at large farms. A petting zoo (often called, and/or part of, a childrens zoo) features a combination of domestic animals and some wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. ...


E. coli is a frequent member of multispecies biofilms. Some strains are piliated and capable of accepting and transferring plasmids (rings of DNA) from and to other bacteria of the same and different species. E. coli often carry multidrug resistant plasmids and under stress readily transfer those plasmids to other species. Thus E. coli and the other enteroccia are important reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance.[9] Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ...


E. coli possess specific nucleation-precipitation machinery to produce soluble amyloid oligomers and precipitate them as curli, a network of fibers which bind the bacteria to host cells and each other. The importance of E. coli as a source of amyloid is unknown, but amyloid fibers are a component of numerous human disease processes including Alzheimer's.[10] For other uses, see Amyloid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an oligomer consists of a finite number of monomer units (oligo is Greek for a few), in contrast to a polymer which, at least in principle, consists of an infinite number of monomers. ... Alzheimers disease (AD), also known simply as Alzheimers, is a neurodegenerative disease that, in its most common form, is found in people over age 65. ...


Antibiotic therapy

Appropriate treatment depends on the disease and should be guided by laboratory analysis of the antibiotic sensitivities of the infecting strain of E. coli. As Gram-negative organisms, E. coli are resistant to many antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive organisms. Antibiotics which may be used to treat E. coli infection include (but are not limited to) amoxicillin as well as other semi-synthetic penicillins, many cephalosporins, carbapenems, aztreonam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and the aminoglycosides. Not all antibiotics are suitable for every disease caused by E. coli, a sensitivity test along with the advice of a physician should be sought. Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... Aztreonam (Azactam®) is a synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic (a monobactam) originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. ... Co-trimoxazole is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ...


Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem. Some of this is due to overuse of antibiotics in humans, but some of it is probably due to the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in food of animals.[11] Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics has become more serious in recent decades as strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases render many, if not all, of the penicillins and cephalosporins ineffective as therapy. Susceptibility testing should guide treatment in all infections in which the organism can be isolated for culture. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


A study published in the journal Science in August 2007 found that the rate of adaptative mutations in E. coli is "on the order of 10–5 per genome per generation, which is 1,000 times as high as previous estimates", a finding which may have significance for the study and management of bacterial antibiotic resistance.[12] Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


Phage therapy

Phage therapy—viruses that specifically target pathogenic bacteria—has been developed over the last 80 years, primarily in the former Soviet Union, where it was used to prevent diarrhea caused by E. coli, among other things, in the Red Army, and was widely available over the counter. [13] Presently, phage therapy for humans is available only at the Phage Therapy Center in the Republic of Georgia or in Poland. [14] A 3D rendering showing T4 type bacteriophages landing on a bacterium to inject genetic material. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ...


However on January the 2nd, 2007 the FDA gave Omnilytics approval to apply its 0157:H7 killing phage in a mist, spray or wash on live animals that will be slaughtered for human consumption. [15]


Vaccine

E. coli vaccines have been under development for many years.[16] In March of 2006, a vaccine eliciting an immune response against the E. coli O157:H7 O-specific polysaccharide conjugated to recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (O157-rEPA) was reported to be safe and immunogenic in children two to five years old. It has already been proven safe and immunogenic in adults.[17] A phase III clinical trial to verify the large-scale efficacy of the treatment is planned.[17] Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ...


In January 2007 the Canadian bio-pharmaceutical company Bioniche announced it has developed a cattle vaccine which reduces the number of bacteria shed in manure by a factor of 1000, to about 1000 bacteria per gram of manure.[18][19][20]


Strains

Model of successive binary fission in E. coli
Model of successive binary fission in E. coli

A "strain" of E. coli is a group with some particular characteristics that make it distinguishable from other E. coli strains. These differences are often detectable only on the molecular level; however, they may result in changes to the physiology or lifecycle of the bacterium, for example leading to pathogenicity. Different strains of E. coli live in different kinds of animals, so it is possible to tell whether fecal material in water came from humans or from birds, for example. New strains of E. coli arise all the time from the natural biological process of mutation, and some of those strains have characteristics that can be harmful to a host animal. Although in most healthy adult humans such a strain would probably cause no more than a bout of diarrhea, and might produce no symptoms at all, in young children, people who are or have recently been sick, or in people taking certain medications, an unfamiliar strain can cause serious illness and even death. A particularly virulent example of such a strain of E. coli is E. coli O157:H7. Quite recently, it has been demonstrated DH5 alpha strain of Escherichia coli can grow at temperatures as high at 49 degrees (Fotadar, et.al) centigrade. The implications of these results are wide. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pathogenicity is the ability of an organism to cause disease in another organism. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ...


In addition, E. coli and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation, which allows a new mutation to spread through an existing population. It is believed that this process led to the spread of toxin synthesis from Shigella to E. coli O157:H7. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ...


ESBL producing E.Coli

Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)–producing E. coli are antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli. ESBL-producing strains are bacteria that produce an enzyme called extended-spectrum beta lactamase, which makes them more resistant to antibiotics and makes the infections harder to treat. In many instances, only two oral antibiotics and a very limited group of intravenous antibiotics remain effective. Beta-lactamase is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


There is increased concern about the prevalence of this form of "superbug" in the United Kingdom has led to calls for further monitoring and a UK-wide strategy to deal with infections and the deaths caused[21]. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Role in microbiology

Because of its ubiquity, E. coli is frequently studied in microbiology and is the current "workhorse" in molecular biology. Its structure is clear, and it makes for an excellent target for novice, intermediate, and advanced students of the life sciences. The strains used in the laboratory have adapted themselves effectively to that environment, and are no longer as well adapted to life in the mammalian intestines as the wild type; a major adaptation is the loss of the large quantities of external biofilm mucopolysaccharide produced by the wild type in order to protect itself from antibodies and other chemical attacks, but which require a large expenditure of the organism's energy and material resources. This can be seen when culturing the organisms on agar plates; while the laboratory strains produce well defined individual colonies, with the wild type strains the colonies are embedded within this large mass of mucopolysaccharide, making it difficult to isolate individual colonies. An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... In biology, a wild type is one of the major genotypes of a species that occur in nature, in contrast to induced mutations or artificial cross-breeding. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long unbranched polysaccharides, made up of repeating disaccharides that may be sulphated (e. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual...


Bacterial conjugation was first discovered in E. coli, and it remains the primary model to study conjugation. Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. ...


Because of this long history of laboratory culture and manipulation, E. coli plays an important role in modern biological engineering. Researchers can alter the bacteria to serve as "factories" to synthesize DNA and/or proteins, which can then be produced in large quantities using the industrial fermentation processes. One of the first useful applications of recombinant DNA technology was the manipulation of E. coli to produce human insulin for patients with diabetes. [1] Biological engineering (a. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about industrial fermentation. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... is really just water but doctors get you to pay more Not to be confused with inulin. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Role in water purification and sewage treatment

All the different kinds of fecal coli bacteria, and all the very similar bacteria that live in the ground (in soil or decaying plants, of which the most common is Enterobacter aerogenes), are grouped together under the name coliform bacteria. Technically, the "coliform group" is defined to be all the aerobic and facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with the production of gas within 48 hours at 35 °C (95 °F). In the body, this gas is released as flatulence. E. coli cells are elongated, 1–2 µm in length and 0.1–0.5 µm in diameter. Species etc. ... Coliform bacteria are used often as an indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ...


The presence of coliform bacteria in surface water is a common indicator of fecal contamination. E. coli is commonly used as a model organism for bacteria in general. This is usually done using the MPN (most probable number) tests. This is usually a probabilistic test which assumes bacteria meeting certain growth and biochemical criteria as E. coli and quantitates it by various methods. "Presence" of E. coli numbers beyond a certain cut-off indicates fecal contamination of water and indicates further investigation into the matter. Often, a "confirmatory" test - the Eijckman test is done which tests for growth at a particular temperature. Many of these tests are routinely done at water storage and distribution systems. At other places, more advanced tests have replaced them. Other organisms like Streptococcus bovis and certain clostridia species are also used as an index of fecal contamination of drinking water sources - usually animal in origin. One of the root words of the family's scientific name, "enteric", refers to the intestine, and is often used synonymously with "fecal". In the field of water purification and sewage treatment, E. coli was chosen very early in the development of the technology as an "indicator" of the pollution level of water, meaning the amount of human fecal matter in it, measured using the Coliform Index. E. coli is used for detection because there are a lot more coliforms in human feces than there are pathogens (Salmonella typhi is an example of such a pathogen, causing typhoid fever), and E. coli is usually harmless, so it can't "get loose" in the lab and hurt anyone. However, sometimes it can be misleading to use E. coli alone as an indicator of human fecal contamination because there are other environments in which E. coli grows well, such as paper mills. Surface water is water on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, sea or ocean; as opposed to groundwater. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Streptococcus bovis is a rare cause of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis. ... Orders The Clostridia are a class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... The Coliform Index is a rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal bacteria. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ...


See also

See Wikinews article: E. coli outbreak kills 1, sickens nearly 100 In September 2006, there was an outbreak of food-borne illness caused by Escherichia coli () bacteria found in uncooked spinach[1] in 26 U.S. states. ... Coliform bacteria are used often as an indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Theodor Escherich (November 29, 1857 - February 15, 1911) was an Austrian (born in Ansbach, Mittelfranken, and died in Vienna, Austria) pediatrician and bacteriologist and a professor at universities in Munich, Graz, and Vienna. ... Ice-minus bacteria is a nickname given to a variant of the common bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (). This strain of lacks the ability to produce a certain surface protein, usually found on wild-type ice-plus . This protein found on the outer bacterial cell wall acts as the nucleating centers for... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Feng P, Weagant S, Grant, M (2002-09-01). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed.). FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  2. ^ Escherichia coli O157:H7. CDC Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  3. ^ Gene Sequence Of Deadly E. Coli Reveals Surprisingly Dynamic Genome. Science Daily (2001-01-25). Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  4. ^ Tauschek M, Gorrell R, Robins-Browne RM,. "Identification of a protein secretory pathway for the secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin by an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli". PNAS 99: 7066-7071. 
  5. ^ Szalanski A, Owens C, McKay T, Steelman C (2004). "Detection of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from filth flies by polymerase chain reaction". Med Vet Entomol 18 (3): 241-6. PMID 15347391. 
  6. ^ Sela S, Nestel D, Pinto R, Nemny-Lavy E, Bar-Joseph M (2005). "Mediterranean fruit fly as a potential vector of bacterial pathogens". Appl Environ Microbiol 71 (7): 4052-6. PMID 16000820. 
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  21. ^ HPA Press Statement: Infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.

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External links

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E. coli
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Escherichia coli

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General

  • The Silkworm Expression in Escherichia coli and purification of bioactive antibacterial peptide ABP-CM4 from the Chinese silk worm, Bombyx mori.Li BC,et. al. Biotechnol Lett. 2007
  • E. coli statistics
  • FDA information on the Spinach and E. coli Outbreak
  • E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • E. coli Serotypes
  • Cranberry juice tannins can defeat E. coli bacteria Scientist Live
  • BURDEN of Resistance and Disease in European Nations - An EU-Project to estimate the financial burden of antibiotic resistance in European Hospitals
  • Upinder Fotadar, et.al. J Basic Microbiolgy 2005 :45 (5):403-4

Databases

  • EcoCyc: Encyclopedia of E. coli genes and metabolism
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)
  • Genome information on diarrheagenic E.coli and evolutionarily related organisms is available from the NIAID Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC)
  • EcoliHub
  • The community annotation system for E. coli K-12 and its phages and plamids can be found at EcoliWiki

  Results from FactBites:
 
E. coli O157:H7 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 (944 words)
A 2003 study on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in livestock at 29 county and 3 large state agricultural fairs in the United States found that E. coli O157:H7 could be isolated from 13.8% of beef cattle, 5.9% of dairy cattle, 3.6% of pigs, 5.2% of sheep, and 2.8% of goats.
The primary mode of transmission of E. coli at agricultural fairs, petting zoos, and farm visits was previously thought to be fecal-oral – that is, by ingestion of bacteria-laden feces via contaminated food or water, or transfer by hand to mouth following contact with contaminated surfaces or animals.
Conclusions reached by investigators in several recent fair-associated outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 suggest that ingestion or perhaps even inhalation of contaminated dust particles may be an additional cause of E. coli infection among fairgoers and visitors to petting zoos.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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