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Encyclopedia > E. W. Marland
Ernest Whitworth Marland


In office
January 15, 1935 – January 9, 1939
Lieutenant(s) James E. Berry
Preceded by William H. Murray
Succeeded by Leon C. Phillips

Born May 8, 1874
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
Died October 3, 1941
Ponca City, Oklahoma
Political party Democrat
Spouse 1) Mary Virginia Collins Marland
2) Lydie Roberts Marland
Profession Lawyer, Businessperson

Ernest Whitworth Marland (May 8, 1874October 3, 1941) was an American lawyer, oil businessman, and politician who served as the tenth Governor of Oklahoma. Image File history File links Ernest_Marland. ... Brad Henry, the 26th and current Governor of Oklahoma The Best Governor of the State of Oklahoma is the head of state for the State of Oklahoma. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Great Seal of the State of Oklahoma Mary Fallin, the 13th and current Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma The Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma is the second-highest executive official of the state government of Oklahoma. ... William Henry David Alfalfa Bill Murray (1869–1956) was a United States Democratic Party politician representing Oklahoma. ... Leon Chase Phillips was a governor of Oklahoma, he was born December 9, 1890, in Worth County, Missouri, Phillips moved to Oklahoma at an early age. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Ponca City is a city located in north central Oklahoma, 18 miles south of the Kansas border and 15 miles east of Interstate 35. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... A businessperson with some of the typical accoutrements of her or his profession: briefcase and mobile phone. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Brad Henry, the 26th and current Governor of Oklahoma The Best Governor of the State of Oklahoma is the head of state for the State of Oklahoma. ...

Contents

Early life

Ernest Whitworth Marland was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on May 8, 1874. Marland studied to be an attorney, receiving his LL.B. from the University of Michigan Law School at the age of nineteen in 1893. Marland would move back to Pittsburgh and would step up private practice. Through his experiences as an attorney, Marland became interested in geology and entered the oil industry. At the age of 33, Marland had become a self made millionaire. Nickname: Steel City, Iron City, Steel Town, City of Champions, City of Bridges, City of Colleges, The Burgh Motto: Benigno Numine (With the Benevolent Deity) Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Allegheny County Founded November 25, 1758 Incorporated April 22, 1794 (borough)   March 18... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... For other uses, see Millionaire (disambiguation). ...


Unfortunately for Marland, the millions he had amassed were lost following the panic of 1907. By 1908, Marland was broke and without a job. Hoping to start his life over again, Marland moved to the new state of Oklahoma. Once in Oklahoma, Marland settled in Ponca City, Oklahoma and resumed his oil career founding the 101 Ranch Oil Company. Marland was successful in reestablishing his fortune, and by 1920, his fortune was estimated at $85,000,000 (roughly $910,000,000 in modern dollars). 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Ponca City is a city located in north central Oklahoma, 18 miles south of the Kansas border and 15 miles east of Interstate 35. ... Founded in 1908, by oil exploration pioneer E. W. Marland, The 101 Ranch Oil Company was located on the famous 101 Ranch and headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


In 1920, Marland founded the Marland Oil Company in Ponca City, (which was incorporated in Delaware on October 8, 1920) and would serve as its president. Later, the Marland Oil Company would merge with Continental Oil and Transportation Company (CONOCO). Misfortune would strike Marland again. Due to his company’s association with J.P. Morgan, Marland’s oil empire would be destroyed and Marland would lose all of his wealth for the second time in his life. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Marland Oil Company Founded in 1917, by Ponca City, Oklahoma oil exploration pioneer E. W. Marland when he assembled his various holdings including the 101 Ranch Oil Company into one unit, forming Marland Oil Company. ... Conoco Inc. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ...


Marland was married twice. His first marriage was on November 5, 1903 in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, to Mary Virginia (Collins) Marland, which union lasted until her death on June 6, 1926, in Ponca City, Kay County, Oklahoma. Two years later, on July 14, 1928, he married, also in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Lydie (Roberts) Marland, which union lasted until his death on October 3, 1941. Lydie Marland by Jo Davidson Lydie Marland (April 20, 1900-July 5, 1987), American socialite, was born Lyde Miller Roberts in Flourtown, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, the second child to George Frederick Roberts and Margaret Reynolds (Collins) Roberts and granddaughter of George W. Roberts and Mary B. (Fine) Roberts and Samuel... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Entrance into Politics

Despite his big business background, Marland was not a Republican. Marland’s misfortune with Morgan and other eastern monopoly giants gave him a distrust of them, forcing him to register as a Democrat. Marland supported Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal programs from the beginning of FDR’s presidency. Through his association with FDR, Marland was elected to the United States House of Representatives to represent Oklahoma’s 8th Congressional District in 1932. Marland would be the first Democrat to hold that seat in 15 years. The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Oklahoma to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...


Marland would only serve in Congress for a single term, from 1933 to 1935. Marland declined reelection after he placed his name in the Democratic primaries to succeed Governor William H. Murray. Not only did Marland receive the Democratic nomination but also the election in November to serve as the tenth Governor of Oklahoma. William Henry David Alfalfa Bill Murray (1869–1956) was a United States Democratic Party politician representing Oklahoma. ... Brad Henry, the 26th and current Governor of Oklahoma The Best Governor of the State of Oklahoma is the head of state for the State of Oklahoma. ...


Governor of Oklahoma

E. W. Marland by Jo Davidson, 1928, Ponca City, Oklahoma

On January 15, 1935, Marland was inaugurated as Governor. Immediately, Marland instituted a policy that would become known as the “Little New Deal.” From the state, the Oklahoma House and Oklahoma Senate were not in favor of his plans. The Oklahoma Legislature was more focused on reducing the state’s massive deficit (roughly a quarter of billion dollars in modern currency). Marland, an avid supporter of FDR, stressed the need for the state government to work with the federal government. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1031x1604, 906 KB) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran - statue of E. W. Marland by Jo Davidson in Ponca City Oklahoma created circa 1928. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1031x1604, 906 KB) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran - statue of E. W. Marland by Jo Davidson in Ponca City Oklahoma created circa 1928. ... Jo Davidson (March 30, 1883 - January 2, 1952) was a U.S. sculptor. ... Ponca City is a city located in Oklahoma. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Oklahoma House of Representatives meets in the State Capitol of Oklahoma The Oklahoma House of Representatives is the lower house and larger body of the two houses of the Oklahoma Legislature, the other being the Oklahoma Senate. ... The Oklahoma Senate meets in the State Capitol of Oklahoma The Oklahoma Senate is the smaller body of the two houses of the Legislature of Oklahoma, the other being the Oklahoma House of Representatives. ... The State Capitol of Oklahoma The Legislature of the State of Oklahoma is the biennial meeting of the legislative branch of the Government of Oklahoma. ...


Despite Governor Marland’s efforts, most Oklahoman politicians never fully embraced the New Deal. What the Legislature would accept was a homestead exemption provision to the state’s ad valorem taxes, increased school funds, and raised the state sales tax to two percent. Marland introduced legislation that appropriated funds raised by the sales tax to go towards the handicapped, the elderly, and dependent children. A homestead exemption is a exemption from property taxes which can be applied to a home. ... An ad-valorem tax is a tax based on the value of real estate or personal property. ... A sales tax is a state or locality imposed percentage tax on the selling or renting of certain property or services. ...


At this time, Oklahoma had over 150,000 heads of families that were unemployed and 80,000 heads of families on relief. To help counter this, Marland asked the Fifteenth Legislature for a board to craft policy to develop the physical aspects of the state and to create a more diverse economy. The Legislature responded with the fifteen member State Planning and Resources Board. The Board worked with FDR’s Works Progress Administration to create jobs through such things as dam building and tree planting. Even the State Highway Department expanded its road work to create thousands of jobs. WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ...


Though he did not balance the state’s budget, Marland was essential to the creation of both the Oklahoma Highway Patrol and the Interstate Oil Compact. Through the Compact, six oil producing states agreed to practice oil preservation and establish a fair price for petroleum. The governing body of the Compact was a commission, of which Marland was elected to serve as the first president. The Oklahoma Highway Patrol is a state law enforcement agency of the Government of Oklahoma. ...


Marland’s term as Governor ended on January 9, 1939. January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ...


Late Life

Upon leaving the Governorship, Marland had created jobs for over 90,000 Oklahomans on over 1,300 WPA project. He would return to Ponca City where he tried to recreate the Marland Oil Company. Marland’s last event in his political career came when he unsuccessfully ran for the United States House of Representatives in 1940. Within a year losing the election, Marland was dead. He died of a heart condition on October 3, 1941 at the age of 67. He is buried in Ponca City. Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


State of the State Speeches

  • First State of the State Speech
  • Second State of the State Speech
  • Third State of the State Speech
  • Fourth State of the State Speech

Sources

  • History of EW Marland
  • Ernest Marland
Preceded by
William H. Murray
Governor of Oklahoma
19351939
Succeeded by
Leon C. Phillips
Preceded by
Milton C. Garber
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Oklahoma's 8th congressional district

19331935
Succeeded by
Phil Ferguson

 
 

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