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Encyclopedia > E. H. Carr

Edward Hallett Carr (28 June 18925 November 1982) was a British historian, journalist and international relations theorist, and fierce opponent of empiricism within historiography. June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A historian is someone who writes history, and history is a written accounting of the past. ... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience. ... Historiography is the study of the practice of history. ...


Carr was born in London to a middle-class family, and was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School in London, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He joined the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (diplomatic service) in 1916, resigning in 1936. In 1919, Carr was part of the British delegation at the Paris Peace Conference and was involved in the drafting of parts of the Treaty of Versailles. In the 1920s, Carr was assigned to the branch of the British Foreign Office that dealt with the League of Nations before being sent to the British Embassy in Riga, Latvia. During his time in Riga, Carr became increasing fascinated with Russian literature and culture and wrote several works on various aspects of Russian life. London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... See also Merchant Taylors School, Crosby and Merchant Taylors Girls School. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Treaty of Versailles (3010) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ...


In 1936, Carr became the Wilson Professor of International Politics at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, and is particularly known for his contribution on international relations theory. His famous work, The Twenty Years' Crisis was published in 1939. He later served as assistant editor of The Times from 1941 to 1946, during which time he was noted for the pro-Soviet leaders he wrote. He was a tutor in Politics at Balliol College, Oxford from 1953 to 1955 when he became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Affiliations University of Wales, AMBA, ACU, Universities UK, HiPACT Website www. ... International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... This article is about the year. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... College name Balliol College Named after John de Balliol Established 1263 Sister College St Johns Master Andrew Graham JCR President Jack Hawkins Undergraduates 403 MCR President Chelsea Payne Graduates 228 Homepage Boatclub Balliol College, founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street...


Carr's writings include biographies of Fyodor Dostoevsky (1931), Karl Marx (1934), and Mikhail Bakunin (1937), as well as important studies on international relations and his History of Soviet Russia (14 vol., 1950–78). During World War II, Carr was favorably impressed with what he regarded as the extraordinary heroic performance of the Soviet people, and towards the end of 1944 Carr decided to write a complete history of the Soviet Union from 1917 until the present comprising all aspects of social, political and economic history in order to explain how the Soviet Union withstood the challenge of the German invasion. The resulting work was his History of Soviet Russia. In Carr's view, Soviet history went through three periods in the inter-war era and was personified by the change of leadership from Vladimir Lenin to Joseph Stalin. Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, Fëdor Mihajlovič Dostoevskij, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky  ) (November 11, 1821 [O.S. October 30] – February 9, 1881 [O.S. January 28]) is considered one of the greatest Russian writers. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. // In the spring of 1814, Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was born... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Political history is what most people refer to simply as history. ... Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past. ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917 in an effort to implement socialism, eventually leading to communism by Vladimir Lenin on a large scale, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when its central government was dissolved. ... Lenin redirects here. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Carr is most famous today for his examination of historiography, What is History? (1961). Historiography is the study of the practice of history. ... What is History? is a 1961 nonfiction book by historian Edward Hallet Carr on historiography. ...


Carr views both realism and idealism from a mid-standpoint and tries to persuade us that these two are unavoidable in politics. The problem is, there is a price you have to pay if you try to persist in either being an idealist or a realist. One should note that the realist-idealist dichotomy itself is created by people like Carr and Morgenthau. What they criticize is a position called idealism, and the names they mention in the passing as 'idealists' do not consider themselves as idealists. Carr states his position to overcome this duality; he first posits what he calls idealism and a counter-position called idealism, and then criticizes idealism from a realist point of view and realism from an idealist point of view. He looks at the interwar years in order to deduce his general precepts about realism and idealism. The second part of the book starts with two schematical descriptions of idealism and realism (utopia and reality). Note: utopia=u topos Utopia: the utopian believes in the possibility of transforming society by an act of will. The main problem of the utopian is his/her lack of information regarding the constraints that the reality poses upon us. Not regarding these constraints seriously, the utopian cannot assess his/her current position and thus is unable to move from the actual state of affairs to his/her desire. You want a world in peace, but you have no viable plan of action to bring peace on earth. Reality: the realist takes the society we live in as a historical consequence. The social reality is the product of a long chain of causality, a predetermined result. Thus, it cannot be changed by an act of will. (Note: does Carr view Marx as a realist? Morgenthau referred to Marx as an example of idealism in a passing example of rational philosophy. What about Marxist Utopia? Is Lenin an idealist perhaps?) The realist, taking things as they are, deprives him/herself from the possibility of changing the world.


The realists have something to say about what can be done to change the world, and the utopian has something to say about what it should look like when changed. Thus, the optimal political position is a balance btw utopianism and realism. Another distinction is that btw theory and practice. for the utopian, we derive the answer to "what should be done?" from theory. The all important question is to be able to conceive of a utopia. Once the target is constructed in mind, all we have to do is to get there. Thus, he confuses what "is" and what "ought to be". When a utopian says "men are equal", he actually means "men ought to be equal". The difference is crucial and confusing in actual politics. For the realist, theory is derived from reality, the actual state of affairs. While the utopian tries to reproduce reality with reference to theory, the realist tries to produce theory from reality. Thus, for a realist, a theory based on the equality of men is simply wrong or wishful thinking (Note: what Morgenthau refers to as opinion). The realist theory is descriptive, and you cannot derive policy from that theory; it is not prescriptive. For Carr, one has to see the interdependence of the two. Most of our reality is the product of some ideas that took shape in the form of institutions or applied rules. Every theory carries in it a part of reality and vice versa. The problems we face in reality forces us to think and imagine new ways of reality. The theory (solution) we produce changes reality and becomes part of reality. When that reality creates new problems, we come up with further theory to solve them and it goes on like this. That is a circle of causality (personal note: It's a network causality where men pain and simple, stand at each conjunction of what is to become real and what remains mere possibility). A third distinction is that btw the intellectual who derives the truth from books and the bureaucrat who derives it from actual experience. The intellectual believes in the predominance of theory and thus thinks of himself as the true guide of the so-called man of action. The bureaucrat is bound up with the existing order. He has no formula or theory that guides him. He merely tries to make the existing order within which he exists, continue to exist! A fourth distinction is that btw left and right. The left is progressive in the utopian sense while the right is conservative in the realist sense. "The left has reason(Vernunft), the right has wisdom (Verstand)!" Moeller Van Den Bruck (Nazi Philosopher) Finally, the same distinction appears btw ethics and politics. The utopian believes in the predominance of ethics as a guide to policy. The realist believes that ethics is derived from the relations of power as they stand. Thus, politics pre-dominates. For Carr, the ability to see from both angles is the right way to go about. Characteristics of Realism: History is a sequence of cause and effect, whose course can be analyzed and understood through intellectual effort, but not (as the utopian believe) directed by "imagination". Secondly, theory does not (as the utopians assumes) create practice, but practice theory. Thirdly, politics is not a function of ethics (as utopians believe), but ethics of politics. Thus, morality is the product of power. Relativity of Thought: thought has a relative and pragmatic aspect. The realists have been able to demonstrate that ethical standards of utopianism are not the results of a priori principles, but are historically conditioned. If you come across a "universal principle", Carr would advise you to pause for a second and ponder on the question "whose interest would its application serve?" Theory is pre-determined by power. OR: Might makes right. The realist idea of relativity of thought as a form of critique of ideology: The weapon of relativity of thought should be used to demolish the ideological absolutes of the utopian order, like the ethical standards of a society (which are always the product of a dominant group). Theories of international morality are, due to same reasons, products of dominant nations or groups of nations (example: the theory of harmony of interests). Limitations of Realism The exposure by realist criticism of hollowness of the utopian is the first task of the political thinker. But the realist critique is castrated in the sense of replacing what it had demolished. That power belongs to utopianism. We cannot find a resting place in pure realism. Realism lacks: a finite goal, an emotional appeal, a right of moral judgment, a ground for action. Two versions of Carr and Morgenthau: 1. the textbook version that reduces most of the complexities, caricaturising the thinkers. Since people generally read these men from secondary sources, they mistake what is said about these men to be their original thoughts. the second version rests on their actual writings. It is said of Carr that he lacks a coherent theory, but that is not the case. Carr defines himself neither a realist nor an idealist. He first uses utopianism and realism as ideal types, secondly he criticizes both from eachothers perspective, thirdly he develops a utopianism that is endowed with the conceptual tools of realism. This "sound political thinking" is not realism per se. In a nutshell: Three principles of realism according to Carr: 1. Determination 2. Practice determines theory 3. Ethics is a function of power 4. Adjustment of thought to purpose (interest?) On the last principle: according to the realist, theory is a tool in the service of its propagators. Example: harmony of interests in Carr, or the idea of peace that freezes a social organization based on slavery. If you are able to convince the slave that he is better off being a slave, you spare yourself from the bothers of a slave revolt! Another example is the recent propaganda war during the War in Iraq (liberators from a democratic country coming to save the poor people of Iraq from a terrible dictator. The whole idea is that the democratic country is always the more benevolent one). The Critique of the theory of Harmony of Interests: There is a common solution to all the conflicts of interest in a society, an equilibrium point (liberalism) or an end of conflict (Marxism). Liberalism defends the essential harmony btw individual and general interests. The same holds true for Marxism. The current conflict is unavoidable, but its result is the classless society where conflict of particular interests is gone (because conflicting class interests are gone). The reflection of the liberal mould in international arena is the well known "balance of power". Actually, the whole idea covers the interest of the prevailing groups in society. Example: the alleged common interest in peace during the interwar years. It actually veiled the interests of status quo powers. Limitations of Realism: Carr is consistently inconsistent. He does not believe in essential harmony, wherever there are human beings, there is politics. Politics brings about conflict of interests. His ideas are the polar opposite of what Morgenthau calls 'rational philosophy'. His chapter on realism introduces the reader with a five-six pages long critique of realism, of which Carr is deemed a founder. This strong critique is mostly overlooked by the IR scholars, since admitting it would recognize Carr as a much more profound thinker with considerable theoretical depth. he points at the castrated nature of realist critique: you can show the hollowness of the utopian edifice, but you cannot construct a new ideal with it. In its logical conclusion, relativism itself, and hence the realist critique itself serves an interest. Two things: sometimes the utopia veils reality. In that case, the realist critique serves the purpose of unveiling it. Sometimes, realism dims our ability to dream of alternatives. In that case, we need the utopianism to dream of such alternatives. Sound political thinking rests on both frames of mind, we use one or the other as necessity requires. politics in essence is the struggle btw the proponents of status quo and its enemies. Politics is the struggle btw change and status quo.


Bibliography

  • Dostoevsky (1821-1881): a New Biography, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1931.
  • The Romantic Exiles: a Nineteenth Century Portrait Gallery, London: Victor Gollancz, 1933.
  • Karl Marx: a Study in Fanaticism, London: Dent, 1934.
  • Michael Bakunin, London: Macmillan, 1937.
  • The Twenty Years Crisis, 1919-1939: an Introduction to the Study of International Relations, London: Macmillan, 1939, revised edition, 1946.
  • Conditions of Peace, London: Macmillan, 1942.
  • Nationalism and After, London: Macmillan, 1945.
  • A History of Soviet Russia, 14 volumes, London: Macmillan, 1950-1978.
  • What is History?, 1961, revised edition edited by R.W. Davies, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986.
  • The Russian Revolution: From Lenin to Stalin (1917-1929), London: Macmillan, 1979.
  • From Napoleon to Stalin and Other Essays, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.
  • The Twilight of the Comintern, 1930-1935, London: Macmillan, 1982.

References

  • Abramsky, C. & Williams, B.J. (editors) Essays In Honour of E.H. Carr, London: Macmillan, 1974.
  • Davies, R.W. "Edward Hallett Carr, 1892-1982" pages 473-511 from Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 69, 1983.
  • Deutscher, Tamara "E.H. Carr-a Personal Memoir" pages 78-86 from New Left Review, Issue #137, 1983.
  • Haslam, Jonathan "We Need a Faith: E.H. Carr, 1892-1982" pages 36-39 from History Today, Volume 33, August 1983.
  • Haslam, Jonathan "E.H. Carr and the History of Soviet Russia" pages 1021-1027 from Historical Journal, Volume 26, Issue #4, 1983.
  • Howe, P. "The Utopian Realism of E.H. Carr" pages 277-297 from Review of International Studies, Volume 20, Issue #3, 1994.
  • Labedz, Leopold "E.H. Carr: A Historian Overtaken by History" pages 94-111 from Survey March 1988 Volume 30 Issue # 1/2.
  • Oldfield, A. "Moral Judgments in History" pages 260-277 from History and Theory, Volume 20, Issue #3, 1981.
  • Laqueur, Walter The Fate of the Revolution : Interpretations of Soviet History from 1917 to the Present, New York : Scribner, 1987 ISBN 0-684-18903-8.
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh "E.H. Carr's Success Story" pages 69-77 from Encounter, Volume 84, Issue #104, 1962.

Leopold Labedz (January 22, 1920 Simbirsk, Russia - March 22, 1993 London) was a conservative Anglo-Polish historian of the Soviet Union. ... Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (January 15, 1914 - January 26, 2003) was a notable historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany, who became infamous for authenticating the Hitler Diaries, which were later proved to be a hoax. ...

External link

  • The Vices of Integrity: E H Carr

The Papers of E. H. Carr are held at the University of Birmingham Special Collections Website http://www. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CER | Book Review: A biography of enigmatic historian E H Carr (862 words)
The name E H Carr still provokes varied responses reflective of the many aspects of his career.
Carr would live out the remainder of his life as a Fellow of Trinity College at Cambridge, constantly quarreling and convinced of capitalism's imminent demise.
Had Carr lived long enough to see the passing of the old guard, one wonders what he would have turned to when the revolution he believed to be the true carrier of the world's future vanished without a trace just a few short years later.
Edward Hallett Carr - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (189 words)
Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist.
Carr's writings include biographies of Feodor Dostoyevsky (1931), Karl Marx (1934), and Mikhail Bakunin (1937), as well as important studies on international relations and his History of Soviet Russia (9 vol., 1950–71).
Carr is most famous today for his examination of historiography, What is History?
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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