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Encyclopedia > E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax

Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (16 April 188123 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a British Conservative politician. He is often regarded as one of the architects of appeasement prior to World War II. During the period he held several ministerial posts in the cabinet, most notably as Foreign Secretary at the time of Munich in 1938. He succeeded Lord Reading as Viceroy of India in April 1926, a post he held until 1931. The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading (10 October 1860 - 30 December 1935) was a British politician and jurist. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ...

Contents

Early career

He was born into a rather sickly west country family: Halifax's three older brothers all died in infancy leaving him the heir to his father's viscountcy. Halifax himself was born with a withered left arm with no hand, a disability that in no way affected his riding, hunting or shooting. He was nicknamed the "Holy Fox" by Winston Churchill in reference to these pursuits, his title and also his religiosity for like his father he was a devout Anglo-Catholic. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Religiosity is a comprehensive sociological term used to refer to the numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief. ... ...


He was son of the 2nd Viscount Halifax. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, subsequently becoming a Fellow of All Souls College, and served as Member of Parliament for Ripon from 1910 to 1925 when he was elevated to the peerage. As a young officer in the Yorkshire Dragoons he saw some active service in World War I but remained mostly behind the lines, being moved to a desk job in 1917. In 1918 he wrote in co operation with George Ambrose Lloyd (later The Lord Lloyd) "The Great Opportunity" aiming to set an agenda for a revived conservative party separate from the Lloyd George coalition. Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (7 January 1839–19 January 1934) married, Lady Agnes Courtenay, daughter of the 11th Earl of Devon. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is an internationally renowned public school (privately funded and independent) for male students, founded in 1440 by Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... All Souls College (in full: The College of All Souls of the Faithful Departed, of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Ripon was a constituency which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 1868, and one member thereafter. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... George Ambrose Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd (1879-February 4, 1941) was a British Conservative politician strongly associated with the Diehard wing of the party. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Turned down by South Africa for the post of governor general (the country was holding out for a cabinet minister or member of the royal family) and snubbed by Winston Churchill on his assumption of the post of Under-secretary for the Colonies, a balked Wood voted for the downfall of Lloyd George's government and became President of the Board of Education under Andrew Bonar Law in 1922. He held this position (in which he was neither interested nor particularly effective) until 1924 when he was apparently equally undistinguished as Minister for Agriculture under Stanley Baldwin. His career had seemingly become bogged down. A Governor-General (in Canada always, and frequently in India prior to the abolition of the last monarchy, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to the... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858–30 October 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was a UK cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ...


Viceroy of India

He was Viceroy of India from 1926 to 1931. In 1925 he had been proposed at the suggestion of George V, no doubt mindful of his immediate family background (his grandfather had been Secretary of State for India) and immaculate pedigree. Created Baron Irwin, he arrived in Bombay 1 April 1926 hoping to improve Anglo-Indian relations and calm interfaith tensions in the country. A deeply religious man, he was considered the right choice to deal with Mahatma Gandhi. After he was appointed he ignored Gandhi for nineteen months. The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... The title of Earl of Halifax has been created several times in British history. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ...


Irwin's rule was marked by a period of great political turmoil. The exclusion of Indians from the Simon Commission examining the country's readiness for self-government provoked serious violence and Irwin was forced into concessions which were poorly received in London as excessive and in India as half-hearted. Incidents included: the protests against the Simon Commission report; the Nehru report; the all-parties conference; the Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah's 14 points; the Civil Disobedience Movement launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi; and the Round Table Conferences. The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... Aga Khan III, one of the founders of the Muslim League Navin had a boner and put it in his mouth The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ) was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British... office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai 1892–1893, Rattanbai Petit 1918–1929 Children: daughter Dina Wadia Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place... --207. ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


As a strategy Irwin had put all the Congress leaders behind bars; and then had opened negotiations with Gandhi. Criticism of Irwin was largely unfair, but he had made an error and the consequences were serious and unrest grew. Irwin's attempts to mediate with Indian leaders were stymied by London's refusal to make concessions, or clarify the position on dominion status. This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ...


With little room for manoeuvre Irwin resorted to repression using his emergency powers to arrest Gandhi, ban public gatherings and crush rebellious opposition. Gandhi's detention, however, only made matters worse. Irwin ultimately opted to negotiate signing the Delhi Pact in January 1931 which ended civil disobedience and the boycott of British goods in exchange for a Round Table Conference which represented all interests. The fortnight-long discussions resulted in a pact called the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, after which the Civil Disobedience Movement was suspended. Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ... Gandhi-Irwin Pact refers to a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the-then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. ...


The agreement between Gandhi and Irwin was signed on March 5, 1931. The salient points were:

  • The Congress would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • The Congress would participate in the Round Table Conference.
  • The Government would withdraw all ordinances issued to curb the Congress.
  • The Government would withdraw all prosecutions relating to offenses not involving violence.
  • The Government would release all persons serving sentences of imprisonment for their activities in the civil disobedience movement.

It was also agreed that Gandhi would join the Second Round Table Conference as the sole representative of the Congress. First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


On March 20, 1931, Lord Irwin paid tributes to Gandhi's honesty, sincerity and patriotism at a dinner given by ruling Princes. A month following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Lord Irwin retired and left India. On Irwin's return to England in April 1931 the situation was calm, but within a year the conference collapsed and Gandhi was again arrested.


Halifax and appeasement

The same year Irwin turned down the position of Foreign Secretary in favour of some time at home but inexplicably followed this up with a return to Education in 1932, a position enlivened only by his continuing (now backroom) role in Indian politics and law, his attainment of the position of Master of the Middleton Hunt in 1932 and his election as Chancellor of Oxford University in 1933. In 1934 he inherited the title Viscount Halifax from his father. In the period that followed he held a succession of government posts - Secretary of State for War for five months in 1935, Lord Privy Seal (1935-1937) and Lord President of the Council (1937-1938) under Baldwin and, after 1937, Neville Chamberlain. 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The title of Earl of Halifax has been created several times in British history. ... The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ...


The appointment of Anthony Eden as foreign secretary in 1935 seemed initially to tie in well with Halifax's feelings about the direction of foreign policy over which he increasingly began to advise. The two were in agreement (and in line with prevailing opinion throughout Britain) that Germany's reoccupation of the Rhineland - its "own backyard" - constituted no serious threat and should be welcomed in so far as it continued Germany's seeming progress towards returning to normality after the tribulations of the post-World War I settlement. However, after Chamberlain succeeded Baldwin in 1937, the new prime minister began increasingly to use back channels - including Halifax himself - for foreign diplomacy. Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March, 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In November 1937 Halifax went to Germany at the invitation of Hermann Göring. The pretext was a hunting exhibition but Halifax was given strict instructions from the Foreign Office in preparation for a meeting with Adolf Hitler. According to some, on meeting the Führer, Halifax almost created an international incident by almost handing his coat to the diminutive dictator believing him to be a footman. In subsequent discussions Halifax ignored Eden's directive to pass on warnings against possible German designs on Austria and Czechoslovakia. He was also to listen politely to Hitler's advice on how he should have handled difficulties in India ("Shoot Gandhi!") and the meetings were generally uncomfortable. He was given the nickname Halalifax by Hermann Göring, after Halali!, the German equivalent of mort of hunters (Göring himself was a passionate hunter). Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


The following year Eden resigned exasperated by the continued interference of the Prime Minister in foreign affairs and his persistence - with Halifax - in appeasement, particularly that of Benito Mussolini, whom Eden regarded as an untrustworthy gangster. Halifax got his job in February 1938. Three weeks later Hitler annexed Austria; Czechoslovakia was now seriously at risk. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown from power. ...


It is Halifax's handling of this crisis that usually gains him the most criticism. British foreign policy was predicated on the notion that the dictators in Europe were essentially honourable, reasonable and were disinclined to general warfare throughout the continent. All three of these positions turned out to be false. The main result of this severe error of judgement was the loss of Czechoslovakia, its industry and military to the Reich without a shot being fired. Halifax had severe doubts during the lead up to the complete occupation in March 1939 but he made little effort to alter British policy fearing Britain's military unpreparedness to meet the Nazi threat and allowed himself to be sidelined as Chamberlain attended fruitless conferences in Germany (Berchtesgaden, Godesberg and Munich) without him. Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Godesberg (roughly gods mountain), a hill in the Eifel mountains in the Rhineland, Germany. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich: St. ...


From here things stumbled from bad to worse. Halifax failed to realise how close relations had become between Moscow and Berlin until it was too late. Italy invaded Albania and on 1 September 1939 Halifax had to watch as the international order he had sought to preserve fell to bits as Hitler invaded Poland. Chamberlain's mishandling of the peace and his equally reckless handling of what is usually called the Phony War led to his departure from 10 Downing Street. Halifax was a relatively popular candidate for the post of Prime Minister, but hurriedly ruled himself out, arguing that he would not be able to direct the war from the House of Lords. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... // Overview Number Ten Downing street is the official residence of the First Lord of Her Majesty’s Treasury and Prime Minister of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


Halifax and the Widerstand

Concerns as to Halifax's earlier appeasing stance are countered in the biography by Andrew Roberts. The 'hankering' for peace, so notable in Halifax' diplomacy, is said, by the outbreak of war, to be so conditioned by his distrust of Hitler, that he was largely immune to later peace offers. Those who cite this believe that he did his best, indeed, to thwart those which came from Pope Pius XII (the Vatican Exchanges), the Dutch and Belgian monarchs and, most importantly, from American President Roosevelt, because he realised that popular German approbation of Hitler was so overwhelming; a peace settlement, without the discrediting of Hitler, was worthless. Andrew Roberts Andrew Roberts (born on January 13, 1963) is a conservative UK historian. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, and sovereign of Vatican City State from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... FDR redirects here. ...


Nevertheless other historians of the Widerstand allude to Foreign Office enthusiasm towards the offer coming in the Vatican Exchanges of Autumn 1939, as ever in Widerstand foreign policy up until 1943, incurring suggestions for German territorial aggrandisement from the 1938 borders. On 8 January 1940, Halifax is quoted as saying, in a meeting with Lonsdale Bryans as contact for Ulrich von Hassell, the Widerstand's foreign policy expert, that "... he 'personally' would be against the Allies taking advantage of a revolution in Germany to attack the Siegfried Line... " if such were to produce a regime fit for negotiating with. Widerstand (German: resistance) is the name given to the resistance movements in Nazi Germany. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ulrich von Hassell Ulrich von Hassell (born 12 November 1881 in Anklam; died 8 September 1944 in Berlin [executed]) was a German diplomat and an opponent of the Third Reich involved in the July 20 plot. ... The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World War II defensive line, built...


This line echoes in accord with the Widerstand history of Pope Pius XII's condition for intermediaryship, which was for the implementation of an equal verhandlungsfähige Regierung. By July 1940 Halifax initialled stern Foreign Office rejection of German peace feelers from the Papal Nuncio in Berne, Dr. Salazar in Lisbon and the Finnish Prime Minister, where weeks before he had been 'hankering' for the "tentative and half-baked Papal suggestions. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... Professor António de Oliveira Salazar (pron. ...


Ambassador to the United States and later life

Winston Churchill maintained him as Foreign Secretary for about nine months to present the Conservative Party as a unified front, but the two men did not enjoy a particularly close relationship. Halifax soon found himself packed off to Washington - a common recourse of Churchill with men he suspected might be able but with whom he did not get on. Halifax did not at first appear a particularly deft diplomat and made a number of widely publicised gaffes including some poorly received jokes about baseball. To the American public he came across as the distant, out of touch British aristocrat that arguably he was. Gradually relations improved, particularly with President Roosevelt, but Halifax was always on the margins in America because of Winston Churchill's tight personal control of contact with the United States. Once again Halifax was sidelined by his own prime minister and he was often excluded from sensitive discussions. Now an old man and mourning the death of his middle son in combat in 1942, Halifax wearied of Washington and asked Anthony Eden to have him replaced, but ultimately he stuck out the position under both Harry Truman and Clement Attlee back in Britain. The appointment continued to be dogged by failure, however, as the Americans abruptly cancelled Lend-Lease, upon which the British economy depended. The subsequent loan negotiations were fraught and unsatisfying to the UK. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D) City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... A view of the playing field at Busch Stadium II St. ... FDR redirects here. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... For the victim of Mt. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, FRS, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


More successfully he took part in a plethora of international conferences over the UN and Russia (memorably describing Molotov, the Russian foreign minister, as "smiling granite") though here again he believed that Churchill's view of the Russian threat was exaggerated and urged him to be more conciliatory, perhaps indicating the reluctance to learn the lessons of the 1930's so obvious in his 1957 autobiography The Fulness of Days, a book politely dubbed "gently evasive". This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In retirement from 1946 he returned to largely honorary pursuits as Chancellor of the University of Sheffield and the Order of the Garter and Chairman of the BBC. He died at his estate at Garrowby shortly before Christmas 1959. The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield, United Kingdom. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lord Halifax features in the novel The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro and also the 1993 film of the same name in which he is portrayed by the actor Peter Eyre. Halifax also appears in the film Gandhi, where he is portrayed by Sir John Gielgud. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kazuo Ishiguro (カズオ・イシグロ Kazuo Ishiguro, originally 石黒一雄 Ishiguro Kazuo, born November 8, 1954) is a British author of Japanese origin. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Peter Eyre is a American actor, born in 11 March 1942, New York, New York. ... Gandhi (1982) is an Oscar, BAFTA and Golden Globe winning British - Indian production, directed by Richard Attenborough, about the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as Mahatma Gandhi, Great Soul), leader of the nonviolent resistance movement against British colonial rule in India during the first half of the 20th... John Gielgud as photographed in 1936 by Carl Van Vechten Sir Arthur John Gielgud OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor, regarded by many as one of the greatest British actors in history. ...


Halifax College at the University of York is named after Lord Halifax. Halifax College, York Halifax College is the largest and newest college of the University of York. ... The University of York is a campus university in York, England. ...


Further reading

Halifax is still a somewhat controversial figure, and his autobiography as well as many of the books about, or discussing, him have their own agendas.

  • Autobiography - Fullness of Days, Collins, 1957
  • Viscount Halifax: A biography by Alan Campbell-Johnson, R. Hale, 1941
  • Earl of, Halifax: the life of Lord Halifax by Earl of Birkenhead, Hamilton, 1965.
  • The Holy Fox: The Life of Lord Halifax (1997) by Andrew Roberts.

Frederick Winston Furneaux Smith, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead (7 December 1907–10 June 1975) was a British historian. ... Andrew Roberts Andrew Roberts (born on January 13, 1963) is a conservative UK historian. ...

References

  • For his service as Viceroy of India Bibliography

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
E. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax
  • Lord Irwin
  • Biography at spartacus schoolnet
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Henry Finnis Blosse Lynch
Member of Parliament for Ripon
1910–1925
Succeeded by
John Waller Hills
Political offices
Preceded by
H.A.L. Fisher
President of the Board of Education
1922–1924
Succeeded by
Charles Philips Trevelyan
Preceded by
Noel Buxton
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries
1924–1925
Succeeded by
Walter Guinness
Preceded by
The Earl of Lytton
Viceroy of India
1926–1931
Succeeded by
The Earl of Willingdon
Preceded by
Sir Donald Maclean
President of the Board of Education
1932–1935
Succeeded by
Oliver Stanley
Preceded by
The Viscount Hailsham
War Secretary
1935
Succeeded by
Duff Cooper
Preceded by
The Marquess of Londonderry
Lord Privy Seal
1935–1937
Succeeded by
The Earl De La Warr
Leader of the House of Lords
1935–1938
Succeeded by
The Earl Stanhope
Preceded by
Ramsay MacDonald
Lord President of the Council
1937–1938
Succeeded by
The Viscount Hailsham
Preceded by
Anthony Eden
Foreign Secretary
1938–1940
Succeeded by
Anthony Eden
Preceded by
The Viscount Caldecote
Leader of the House of Lords
1940
Succeeded by
The Lord Lloyd
Diplomatic Posts
Preceded by
The Marquess of Lothian
British Ambassador to the United States
1940–1946
Succeeded by
The Lord Inverchapel
Honorary Titles
Preceded by
The Duke of Portland
Chancellor of the Order of the Garter
1943–1959
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by
The Earl of Athlone
Grand Master
of the Order of St Michael and St George

1957–1959
Succeeded by
The Earl Alexander of Tunis
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Charles Wood
Viscount Halifax
1934–1959
Succeeded by
Charles Wood
New Title Earl of Halifax
1944–1959
Baron Irwin
1925–1959

 
 

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