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Encyclopedia > E. E. Smith
Edward Elmer Smith

Gray Lensman in Astounding Oct. 1939
Pseudonym: E. E. "Doc" Smith
Born May 2, 1890(1890-05-02)
Sheboygan, Wisconsin
Died August 31, 1965 (aged 75)
Seaside, Oregon
Occupation Food Engineer and Writer
Nationality American
Writing period Science Fiction 1928 - 1965
Genres Space Opera
Influenced Space Travel Fiction,
Scientific Developments

E. E. Smith, also Edward Elmer Smith, Ph.D., E.E. "Doc" Smith, Doc Smith, "Skylark" Smith, and (to family) Ted (May 2, 1890 - August 31, 1965) was a food engineer (specializing in doughnut and pastry mixes) and early science fiction author who wrote the Lensman series and the Skylark series, among others. He is sometimes referred to as the "father of Space Opera." Edward Everett Smith (May 5, 1861 – July 29, 1931) was a Minnesota legislator and the 18th Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota. ... E. E. Smith, Grey Lensman (part of the Lensman series) in Astounding, Oct 1939 This is a magazine cover. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Sheboygan is the county seat of Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Seaside is a city located in Clatsop County, Oregon. ... This article is about work. ... Food engineering refers to the engineering aspects of food production and processing. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Food engineering refers to the engineering aspects of food production and processing. ... For other uses, see Doughnut (disambiguation). ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate, or did not work in that genre. ... The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... The Skylark of Space is one of the earliest novels of interstellar travel. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ...

Contents

Biography

Family and education

Edward Elmer Smith was born in Sheboygan, Wisconsin on May 2, 1890 to Fred Jay Smith and Caroline Mills Smith, both staunch Presbyterians of British ancestry.[1] His mother was a teacher born in Michigan in February 1855; his father was a sailor, born in Maine in January 1855 to an English father.[2] They moved to Spokane, Washington the winter after Edward Elmer was born,[3] where Mr. Smith was working as a contractor in 1900.[4] In 1902 the family moved to Seneaquoteen[5], near the Pend d'Oreille River, in Kootenai County, Idaho.[6] He had four siblings, Rachel M. born September 1882, Daniel M. born January 1884, Mary Elizabeth born February 1886 (all of whom were born in Michigan), and Walter E. born July 1891 in Washington.[7] In 1910, Fred and Caroline Smith and their son Walter are living in the Markham Precinct of Bonner County, Idaho; Fred is listed as a farmer.[8] Sheboygan is the county seat of Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Nickname: Location of Spokane in Spokane County and Washington Coordinates: , Country United States State Washington County Spokane Government  - Mayor Dennis P. Hession Area  - City  58. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ...


E. E. Smith worked primarily as a manual laborer until he injured his wrist, at the age of 19, while escaping from a fire. He attended the University of Idaho, where he was installed in the 1984 Class of the University of Idaho Alumni Hall of Fame;[9] he entered its prep school in 1907, and graduated with two degrees in Chemical Engineering in 1914. He was president of the Chemistry Club, the Chess Club, and the Mandolin and Guitar Club, and captain of the Drill and Rifle Team; he also sang the bass lead in Gilbert and Sullivan operettas.[10] His undergraduate thesis was Some Clays of Idaho, co-written with classmate Chester Fowler Smith, who died in California of tuberculosis the following year, after taking a teaching fellowship at Berkeley.[11] It is not known whether the two people were related. The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ...


On October 5, 1915, in Boise, Idaho[12] he married Jeanne Craig MacDougall, the sister of his college roommate, Allen Scott (Scotty) MacDougall.[13] (Her sister was named Clarissa MacLean MacDougall; the heroine of the Lensman novels would later be named Clarissa MacDougall.) Jeanne MacDougall was born in Glasgow, Scotland; her parents were Donald Scott MacDougall, a violinist, and Jessica Craig MacLean. Her father had moved to Boise, Idaho when the children were young, and later sent for his family; he died while they were en route in 1905. Her mother worked at, and later owned, a boarding house on Ridenbaugh Street. For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Energy Peril Success Location in Ada County and the state of Idaho Coordinates: , Country State County Ada Founded 1863 Incorporated 1864 Government  - Mayor David H. Bieter Area  - Total 64 sq mi (165. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation) George Square and Glasgows City Chambers Glasgow is Scotlands largest city, located on the River Clyde in West Central Scotland. ... Nickname: Motto: Energy Peril Success Location in Ada County and the state of Idaho Coordinates: , Country State County Ada Founded 1863 Incorporated 1864 Government  - Mayor David H. Bieter Area  - Total 64 sq mi (165. ...


The Smiths had three children, Roderick N., born June 3, 1918 in the District of Columbia (employed as a design engineer at Lockheed Aircraft); Verna Jean (later Verna Smith Trestrail), born August 25, 1920 in Michigan, his literary executor until her death in 1994 (her son Kim Trestrail is now the executor[14]); and Clarissa M.(later Clarissa Wilcox), born December 13, 1921 in Michigan.[15] In 1930 the Smiths were still living in Michigan, at 33 Rippon Avenue in Hillsdale.[16] is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...


Chemical career

After graduating from college, he worked as a junior civil service chemist for the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., working on standards for butter and oysters.[17] He apparently served as a Lieutenant in the U.S. Cavalry in World War I, but in what capacity is not known.[18] As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Smith received a master's degree in Chemistry from George Washington University in 1917, studying under Charles E. Munroe.[19] He earned a doctorate in Chemical Engineering,[20] in 1918,[21] emphasizing food engineering with a thesis entitled The effect of bleaching with oxides of nitrogen upon the baking quality and commercial value of wheat flour, which was published in 1919.[22] Warner and Fleischer instead give the thesis title as The Effect of the Oxides of Nitrogen upon the Carotin Molecule --- C40H56, which is difficult to explain. Moskowitz instead gives the date of the degree as 1919,[23] which may result from confusion with the publication date. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ... Charles Edward Munroe (24 May 1849 - 1938) was a U.S. chemist, and discoverer of the Munroe effect. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Food engineering refers to the engineering aspects of food production and processing. ...


In 1919 Dr. Smith took a job as chief chemist for F.W. Stock & Sons of Hillsdale, Michigan, at one time the largest family-owned mill east of the Mississippi,[24] working on doughnut mixes.[25] Hillsdale is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


In January 1936 Dr. Smith took a job, for salary plus profit-sharing, as a food technologist (a cereal chemist) at the Dawn Doughnut Company of Jackson, Michigan.[26] This initially entailed almost a year's worth of eighteen-hour days and seven-day workweeks. Individuals who knew Dr. Smith confirmed that he had a role in developing mixes for doughnuts and other pastries, but the contention that he developed the first process for making powdered sugar adhere to doughnuts cannot be substantiated.[27] Dr. Smith was reportedly dislocated from his job at Dawn Doughnuts due to pre-war rationing in early 1940.[28] Nickname: Location of Jackson within Jackson County, Michigan Country United States State Michigan County Jackson Government  - Mayor Jerry Ludwig Area  - City  11. ...


Dr. Smith worked for the US Army between 1941 and 1945. An extended segment in the novel version of Triplanetary, set during World War II, suggests intimate familiarity with explosives and munitions manufacturing. Some biographers cite as fact that, just as Smith's protagonist in this segment lost his job over failure to approve sub-standard munitions, Smith did as well. Smith began work for the J. W. Allen Company (a manufacturer of doughnut and frosting mixes) in 1946 and worked for them until his professional retirement in 1957. [29]


Skylark series

One evening in 1915, while the Smiths were visiting his former classmate from the University of Idaho, Dr. Carl Garby, who had also moved to Washington and lived near the Smiths in the Seaton Place Apartments in Washington D.C. with his wife Lee Hawkins Garby, a long discussion about space travel ensued. Mrs. Garby suggested that Dr. Smith write a story set in outer space. Smith said that he would do so if Mrs. Garby would handle the love interest. The two had completed about a third of The Skylark of Space by the end of 1916, when they gradually abandoned work on it. The Smiths were the basis for the Seatons in the novel, and the Cranes were drawn from the Garbys.[30] Lee Hawkins Garby (1892 - 1953) was the coauthor with Edward Elmer Smith of the first version The Skylark of Space, the first science fiction story in which humans left the solar system. ... Lee Hawkins Garby (1892 - 1953) was the coauthor with Edward Elmer Smith of the first version The Skylark of Space, the first science fiction story in which humans left the solar system. ... The Skylark of Space is one of the earliest novels of interstellar travel. ...


Late in 1919, after moving to Michigan, one evening Smith was baby-sitting (presumably for Roderick) while his wife attended a movie, he resumed work on The Skylark of Space, finishing it in the spring of 1920.[31] He submitted it to many book publishers and magazines, spending more in postage than he would eventually receive for its publication. He received an encouraging rejection letter from Bob Davis, editor of Argosy, in 1922, saying that he liked the novel personally, but that it was too far out for his readers.[32] (According to Warner, but no other source, Dr. Smith began work on the sequel, Skylark III, before the first book was accepted.) Finally, upon seeing the April 1927 issue of Amazing Stories, he submitted it to the magazine; it was accepted, initially for $75, later raised to $125. [33] It was published in the August – October 1928 issues. It was such a success that managing editor T. O'Conor Sloane requested a sequel before the second installment had been published.[34] Argosy was an American pulp magazine, considered to be the first pulp magazine, published by Frank Munsey. ... Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, began in April 1926, becoming the first science fiction magazine and one of the pioneers of science fiction in the United States. ... T. OConor Sloane ( 1851- 1940) was the editor of Amazing Stories from 1929 through 1938, when publisher Ziff-Davis moved production of the magazine to Chicago and named Raymond A. Palmer as Sloanes successor. ...


Mrs. Garby wasn't interested in collaborating further, so Dr. Smith began work on Skylark Three on his own.[35] It was published in the August through October 1930 issues of Amazing. This was as far as he had planned to take the Skylark series; it was praised in Amazing's letter column,[36] and he was paid 3/4¢ per word, surpassing Amazing's previous record of half a cent.[37]


The 1930's: Between Skylark and Lensman

Dr. Smith then began work on what he intended as a new series, starting with Spacehounds of IPC,[38] which he finished in the autumn of 1930.[39] In this novel he took pains to avoid the scientific impossibilities which had bothered some readers of the Skylark novels.[40] Even in 1938, after he had written Galactic Patrol, Dr. Smith considered it his finest work;[41] he later said of it, "This was really scientific fiction; not, like the Skylarks, pseudo-science";[42] and even at the end of his career he considered it his only work of true science fiction.[43] It was published in the July through September 1931 issues of Amazing, but with unauthorized changes by Sloane.[44] Fan letters in the magazine complained about the novel's containment within the solar system, and Sloane sided with the readers. So when Harry Bates, editor of Astounding Stories, offered Smith 2¢/word—payable on publication—for his next story, he agreed; this meant that it could not be a sequel to Spacehounds.[45] T. OConor Sloane ( 1851- 1940) was the editor of Amazing Stories from 1929 through 1938, when publisher Ziff-Davis moved production of the magazine to Chicago and named Raymond A. Palmer as Sloanes successor. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Harry Bates (1900-1981) was an American science fiction editor. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ...


This book would be Triplanetary, "in which scientific detail would not be bothered about, and in which his imagination would run riot."[46] Indeed, characters within the story point out its psychological[47] and scientific[48] implausibilities, and sometimes even seem to suggest self-parody.[49] At other times they are conspicuously silent about obvious implausibilities.[50] [51] The January 1933 issue of Astounding announced that Triplanetary would appear in the March issue, and that issue's cover illustrated a scene from the story, but Astounding's financial difficulties prevented the story from appearing.[52] Dr. Smith then submitted the manuscript to Wonder Stories, whose editor, Charles D. Hornig, rejected it, later boasting about the rejection in a fanzine.[53] He finally submitted it to Amazing, which published it beginning in January 1934, but for only half a cent a word. Shortly after it was accepted, F. Orlin Tremaine, the new editor of the revived Astounding, offered one cent a word for Triplanetary; when he learned that he was too late, he suggested a third Skylark novel instead.[54] Wonder Stories was a science fiction pulp magazine which published 66 issues between 1930 and 1936, edited by Hugo Gernsback. ... A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ... F. Orlin Tremaine was an American science fiction editor. ...


In the winter of 1933-4 Dr. Smith worked on The Skylark of Valeron, but he felt that the story was getting out of control; he sent his first draft to Tremaine, with a distraught note asking for suggestions. Tremaine accepted the rough draft for $850, and announced it in the June 1934 issue, with a full-page editorial and a three-quarter page advertisement. The novel was published in the August 1934 through February 1935 issues. Astounding's circulation rose by 10,000 for the first issue, and its two main competitors, Amazing and Wonder Stories fell into financial difficulties, both skipping issues within a year. [55] Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, began in April 1926, becoming the first science fiction magazine and one of the pioneers of science fiction in the United States. ... Wonder Stories was a science fiction pulp magazine which published 66 issues between 1930 and 1936, edited by Hugo Gernsback. ...


The Lensman series

Dr. Smith had been contemplating writing a "space-police novel" since early 1927;[56] once he had "the Lensmen's universe fairly well set up," he reviewed his science fiction collection for "cops-and-robbers" stories. He cites Constantinescue's "War of the Universe" as a negative example, and Starzl and Williamson as positive ones.[57] Tremaine responded extremely positively to a brief description of the idea.[58] The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... Roman Frederick Starzl (1899 – 1976) was an American author. ... John Stewart Williamson (April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006), who wrote as Jack Williamson (and occasionally under the pseudonym Will Stewart) was a U.S. writer considered by many the Dean of Science Fiction. [1] // Williamson spent his early childhood in western Texas. ...


Once Dawn Doughnuts became profitable in late 1936, Dr. Smith wrote an eighty-five page outline for what became the four core Lensman novels; in early 1937 Tremaine committed to buying them.[59] Segmenting the story into four novels required considerable effort to avoid dangling loose ends; Dr. Smith cites Edgar Rice Burroughs as a negative example.[60] After the outline was complete, he wrote a more detailed outline of Galactic Patrol, plus a detailed graph of its structure, with "peaks of emotional intensity and the valleys of characterization and background material." He notes, however, that he was never able to follow any of his outlines at all closely, as his "characters get away from me and do exactly as they damn please."[61] After completing the rough draft of Galactic Patrol, he wrote the concluding chapter of the last book in the series, Children of the Lens.[62] Galactic Patrol was published in the September 1937 through February 1938 issues of Astounding; unlike the revised book edition, it was not set in the same universe as Triplanetary. [63] Gray Lensman, the second book in the series, appeared in Astounding's October 1939 through January 1940 issues. (Note that the frequent British spelling “grey” is simply a recurrent mistake, starting with the cover of the first installment; Moskowitz's usage, “The Grey Lensman,” is even harder to justify.[64]) Gray Lensman (and its cover illustration, above) was extremely well received. Campbell’s editorial in the December issue suggested that the October issue was the best issue of Astounding ever, and Gray Lensman was first place in the Analytical Laboratory statistics “by a lightyear,” with three runners-up in a distant tie for third place.[65] The cover was also praised by readers in Brass Tacks, and Campbell noted, “We got a letter from E.E. Smith saying he and Rogers agreed on how Kinnison looked.”[66] The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... The Galactic Patrol was an intergalactic organization in the Lensman science fiction series written by E. E. Smith. ... The Children of the Lens are characters in the fictional Lensman universe created by Doc Smith. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ...


Dr. Smith was the guest of honor at Chicon I, the second World Science Fiction Convention, held in Chicago over Labor Day weekend 1940,[67] giving a speech on the importance of science fiction fandom entitled “What Does This Convention Mean?”[68] He attended the convention’s masquerade as C.L. Moore’s Northwest Smith, and met fans living near him in Michigan, who would later form the Galactic Roamers, which previewed and advised him on his future work.[69] 2nd World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon) was Chicon I, which was held in Hotel Chicagoan in Chicago, USA 1 - 2 September, 1940. ... Worldcon, a. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Labour Day (or Labor Day) is an annual holiday that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... Worldcon, a. ... Catherine Lucile Moore (January 24, 1911 _ April 4, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ... Northwest Smith is a fictional character, and the hero of a series of stories by science fiction writer C. L. Moore. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...


Retirement and late writing

After Dr. Smith retired, he and his wife lived in Clearwater, Florida in the fall and winter, driving the smaller of their two trailers to Seaside, Oregon each April, often stopping at science fiction conventions on the way. (Dr. Smith did not like to fly.)[70] Some of his biography is captured in an essay by Robert A. Heinlein, which was reprinted in the collection Expanded Universe in 1980. There is a more detailed, although allegedly error-ridden, biography in Sam Moskowitz's Seekers of Tomorrow. Clearwater is a city located in central Pinellas County, Florida, USA, nearly due west of Tampa. ... Seaside is a city located in Clatsop County, Oregon. ... Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of speculative fiction including science fiction and fantasy. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ...


Robert A. Heinlein and Dr. Smith were friends. Heinlein reported that E.E. Smith perhaps took his "unrealistic" heroes from life, citing as an example the extreme competence of the hero of Spacehounds of IPC. He reported that E.E. Smith was a large, blond, athletic, very intelligent, very gallant man, married to a remarkably beautiful, intelligent red-haired woman named MacDougal (thus perhaps the prototypes of 'Kimball Kinnison' and 'Clarissa MacDougal'). In Heinlein's essay, he reports that he began to suspect Smith might be a sort of "superman" when he asked Dr. Smith for help in purchasing a car. Smith tested the car by driving it on a back road at illegally high speeds with their heads pressed tightly against the roof columns to listen for chassis squeaks by bone conduction—a process apparently improvised on the spot. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Bone conduction is the conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. ...


In his non-series novels written after his professional retirement, Galaxy Primes, Subspace Explorers, and Subspace Encounter, E. E. Smith explores themes of telepathy and other mental abilities collectively called "psionics," and of the conflict between libertarian and socialistic/communistic influences in the colonization of other planets.


Critical opinion

His novels are generally considered to be the original space operas, and offer almost non-stop action. However, they are, to a fair extent, still "true" science fiction, in that they use the extrapolation of known science and, often, the extrapolation of existing and historic social and political patterns of the early to mid-twentieth century. Smith himself expressed a preference for inventing fictional technologies that were not strictly impossible (so far as the science of the day was aware) but highly unlikely: "the more unlikely the better" was his phrase. Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


The Lensman novels were particularly interesting for their imaginative use of extra-terrestrial, non-human characters as major heroes, another science fiction "first."


Extending the Lensman universe

Vortex Blasters (also known as Masters of the Vortex) is set in the same universe as the Lensman novels. It is an extension to the main storyline which takes place between Second Stage Lensman and Children of the Lens, and introduces a different type of psionics from that used by the Lensmen. Spacehounds of IPC is not a part of the series, despite occasional erroneous statements to the contrary. (It is listed as a novel in the series in some paperback editions of the 1970s.)


Robert A. Heinlein reported that Doc had planned a seventh Lensman novel, set after the events described in Children of the Lens, which was unpublishable at that time (the early 1960s). Careful searches by people who knew Doc well (including Frederik Pohl, Doc's editor, and Verna Smith Trestrail, Doc's daughter) have failed to locate any material related to such a story. Doc apparently never wrote any of it down. Doc told Heinlein that the new novel proceeded inexorably from unresolved matters in Children, a statement easily supported by a careful reading of Children. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Frederik George Pohl, Jr. ...


On 14 July 1965, barely a month before his death, E. E. Smith gave written permission to William B. Ellern to continue the Lensman series, which led to the publishing of "Moon Prospector" in 1965 and New Lensman in 1976. Smith's long-time friend, Dave Kyle, wrote three authorized added novels in the Lensman series that provided background about the major non-human Lensmen. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... William B. Ellern (born November 30, 1933) is a science fiction author, who in July 1965 asked for, and received, permission from E. E. Smith to extend the Lensman series of novels. ...


Influence on Science and the Military

As well as influencing the course of popular culture, Smith was also a huge influence on modern warfare. His books were widely read by scientists and engineers from the 1930s until the 1970s. Ideas that arguably entered the military-scientific complex from Smith's work included SDI (Triplanetary), stealth (Gray Lensman) and OODA-loops/C3 based warfare and the AWACS (Gray Lensman). The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... F-117 stealth attack plane Stealth technology is a sub-discipline of electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods. ... The military science term command, control, and communications or C3 designates a telecommunications network used by the command hierarchy for the command and control of a military force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


An influence that is inarguable was described in an 11 June 1947 letter[71] to Doc from John W. Campbell (the editor of Astounding magazine, where much of the Lensman series was originally published). In it, Campbell relayed Captain Cal Lanning's acknowledgment that he had used Smith's ideas for displaying the battlespace situation (called the "tank" in the stories) in the design of the United States Navy's ships' Combat Information Centers. "The entire set-up was taken specifically, directly, and consciously from the Directrix. In your story, you reached the situation the Navy was in — more communication channels than integration techniques to handle it. You proposed such an integrating technique and proved how advantageous it could be. You, sir, were 100% right. As the Japanese Navy— not the hypothetical Boskonian fleet— learned at an appalling cost." The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... USN redirects here. ... A Combat Information Center (CIC), or Action Information Center (AIC) is the tactical center of a warship, manned and equipped to collect, present, manage, evaluate and disseminate information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and control agencies. ...


One underlying theme of the later Lensman novels was the difficulty in maintaining military secrecy—as advanced capabilities are revealed, the opposing side can often duplicate them. This point was also discussed extensively by John Campbell in his letter to Doc.[72] Also in the later Lensman novels, and particular after the "Battle of Klovia" broke the Boskonian's power base at the end of Second Stage Lensman, the Boskonian forces and particularly Kandron of Onlo reverted to terroristic tactics to attempt to demoralize Civilization, thus providing an early literary glimpse into this modern problem of both law enforcement and military response. The use of "Vee-two" gas by the pirates attacking the Hyperion in Triplanetary (in both magazine and book appearances) also suggests anticipation of the terrorist uses of poison gases.


The beginning of the story the Skylark of Space describes in relative detail the protagonists research into separation of platinum group residues, subsequent experiments involving electrolysis and the discovery of a process evocative of cold fusion (over 50 years before Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann). He describes a nuclear process yielding large amounts of energy and producing only negligible radioactive waste—which then goes on to form the basis of the adventures in the Skylark books. Smith's general description of the process of discovery is highly evocative of Röntgen's descriptions of his discovery of the X-ray. This article is about the nuclear reaction. ... Stanley Pons was a chemist at University of Utah who, while working with Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton, announced the discovery of cold fusion on March 23, 1989. ... Martin Fleischmann (1927-) is a chemist at the University of Southampton who, while working with Stanley Pons of University of Utah, announced the discovery of cold fusion on March 23, 1989. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Another theme of the Skylark novels involves precursors of modern information technology. The humanoid aliens encountered in the first novel have developed a primitive technology called the "mechanical educator," which allows direct conversion of brain waves into intelligible thought for transmission to others or for electrical storage. By the third novel in the series, Skylark of Valeron, this technology has grown into an "Electronic Brain" which is capable of computation on all "bands" of energy—electromagnetism, gravity, and "tachyonic" energy and radiation bands included. This is itself derived from a discussion of reductionist atomic theory in the second novel, Skylark Three, which brings to mind modern quark and sub-quark theories of elementary particle physics.


Literary influences on Smith's Writing

In his essay "The Epic of Space," Dr. Smith listed (by last name only) authors he enjoyed reading: John W. Campbell, L. Sprague de Camp, Robert A. Heinlein, Murray Leinster, H.P. Lovecraft, A. Merritt (specifically The Ship of Ishtar, The Moon Pool, The Snake Mother, and Dwellers in the Mirage, as well as the character John Kenton), C.L. Moore (specifically Jirel of Joiry), Roman Frederick Starzl, John Taine, A.E. van Vogt, Stanley G. Weinbaum (specifically Trweel[73]), and Jack Williamson. In a passage on his preparation for writing the Lensman novels, he notes that Constantinescu's "War of the Universe" was not a masterpiece,[74] but says that Starzl and Williamson were masters; this suggests that Starzl's Interplanetary Flying Patrol may have been an influence on Dr. Smith's Triplanetary Patrol, later the Galactic Patrol. The feeding of the Overlords of Delgon upon the life-force of their victims at the end of chapter five of Galactic Patrol seems a clear allusion to chapter twenty-nine of The Moon Pool; Merritt's account of the Taithu and the power of love in chapters twenty-nine and thirty-four also bear some resemblance to the end of Children of the Lens. Dr. Smith also mentions Edgar Rice Burroughs, complaining about loose ends at the end of one of his novels. The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Murray Leinster (June 16, 1896 in Norfolk, Virginia- June 8, 1975) was a nom de plume of William Fitzgerald Jenkins, an award-winning American writer of science fiction and alternate history. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. ... Abraham Merritt (January 20, 1884-August 21, 1943) was an American editor and author of works of fantastic fiction. ... Catherine Lucile Moore (January 24, 1911 _ April 4, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ... Catherine Lucile Moore (January 24, 1911 - April 4, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ... Roman Frederick Starzl (1899 – 1976) was an American author. ... Eric Temple Bell (1883 - 1960) was a mathematician born in Scotland who lived in the USA from 1903 until his death. ... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 - January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author. ... Stanley Grauman Weinbaum (1902-December 14, 1935) was an American science fiction author. ... John Stewart Williamson (April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006), who wrote as Jack Williamson (and occasionally under the pseudonym Will Stewart) was a U.S. writer considered by many the Dean of Science Fiction. [1] // Williamson spent his early childhood in western Texas. ... The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... The Galactic Patrol was an intergalactic organization in the Lensman science fiction series written by E. E. Smith. ... The term life force or lifeforce can refer to: The soul, spirit, or other vitalistic energy. ... The Galactic Patrol was an intergalactic organization in the Lensman science fiction series written by E. E. Smith. ... The Moon Pool is an Abraham Merritt fantasy novel. ... The Children of the Lens are characters in the fictional Lensman universe created by Doc Smith. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ...


Dr. Smith acknowledges the help of the Galactic Roamers writers' workshop, plus E. Everett Evans, Ed Counts, an unnamed aeronautical engineer, Dr. James Enright, and Dr. Richard W. Dodson. Dr. Smith's daughter, Verna, lists the following authors as visitors to the Smith household in her youth: Lloyd Eshbach, Robert A. Heinlein, Dave Kyle, Bob Tucker, Jack Williamson, Fred Pohl, A. Merritt, and the Galactic Roamers. Dr. Smith cites Bigelow's Theoretical Chemistry–Fundamentals as a justification for the possibility of the inertialess drive. There is also an extended reference to Rudyard Kipling's "Ballad of Boh Da Thon" in Gray Lensman. Edward Everett Evans (1893-1958) was an American science fiction author and fan. ... Lloyd Arthur Eshbach (Palm, Pennsylvania June 20, 1910 - Myerstown, Pennsylvania October 29, 2003) was an American science fiction author and publisher. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... David Kyle is a New York-based fan since the earliest days of organized science fiction fandom. ... Wilson Tucker (born 1914) is an American science fiction writer and fan. ... John Stewart Williamson (April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006), who wrote as Jack Williamson (and occasionally under the pseudonym Will Stewart) was a U.S. writer considered by many the Dean of Science Fiction. [1] // Williamson spent his early childhood in western Texas. ... Frederik Pohl (November 26, 1919—) is an American science fiction writer and editor. ... Abraham Merritt (January 20, 1884-August 21, 1943) was an American editor and author of works of fantastic fiction. ... The inertialess drive is a fictional means of faster-than-light travel, originally used in Triplanetary and the Lensman series by E.E. Doc Smith, and later by Robert A. Heinlein, Larry Niven, and Alastair Reynolds. ... This article is about the British author. ...


Sam Moskowitz's biographical essay on Dr. Smith in Seekers of Tomorrow states that he regularly read Argosy magazine, and everything by H.G. Wells, Jules Verne, H. Rider Haggard, Edgar Allan Poe, and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Moskowitz also notes that Dr. Smith's "reading enthusiasms included poetry, philosophy, ancient and medieval history, and all of English literature."[75] (Dr. Smith's grandson notes that he spoke, and sang, German.[76]) The influence of these is not readily apparent, except in the Roman section of Triplanetary, and in the impeccable but convoluted grammar of Dr. Smith's narration. Some influence of nineteenth century philosophy of language may be detectable in the account in Galactic Patrol of the Lens of Arisia as a universal translator, which is reminiscent of Frege's strong realism about Sinn, that is, thought or sense. Argosy (originally meaning a large cargo ship) may refer to: American pulp magazine Argosy Magazine a 1920s British airliner, the Armstrong Whitworth Argosy a 1960s British military transport aircraft, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy the Space Navy of the Systems Commonwealth from the science fiction television series Andromeda. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... This article is about the French author. ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... The Galactic Patrol was an intergalactic organization in the Lensman science fiction series written by E. E. Smith. ... Arisia is a Boston-area science fiction convention, named for a planet in series of Lensman novels by Edward Elmer Smith, also known as Doc Smith. ... The universal translator is a fictional device common to many science fiction works, especially on television. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (November 8, 1848 - July 26, 1925) was a German mathematician, logician, and philosopher who is regarded as a founder of both modern mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ...


Both Moskowitz and Smith's daughter Verna Smith Trestrail report that Dr. Smith had a troubled relationship with John Campbell, the editor of Astounding. It is noteworthy that Dr. Smith's most successful works were published under Campbell, but the degree of influence is uncertain. The original outline for the Lensman series had been accepted by F. Orlin Tremaine,[77] and Dr. Smith angered Campbell by showing loyalty to Tremaine at his new magazine, Comet, when he sold him "The Vortex Blaster" in 1941.[78] Campbell's announcement of Children of the Lens, in 1947, was less than enthusiastic.[79] Campbell later said that he published it only reluctantly,[80] though he praised it privately,[81] and bought little from Smith thereafter. The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... F. Orlin Tremaine was an American science fiction editor. ...


Derivative Works and Influence on Popular Culture

  • Steve 'Slug' Russell wrote one of the first computer games, Spacewar!, with inspiration from the space battles from the Lensman series.
  • The GURPS role-playing game includes a worldbook based on the Lensman series.
  • There is a Japanese Lensman anime, but it is more an imitation of Star Wars than a translation of the Lensman novels. Efforts to print translations of the associated manga in the United States in the early 1990s without payment of royalties to the Smith family were successfully blocked in court by Verna Smith Trestrail with the help of several California science fiction authors and fans.
  • In his biography, George Lucas reveals that the Lensman novels were a major influence on his youth. J. Michael Straczynski, creator of the science fiction television series Babylon 5, also has acknowledged the influence of the Lensman books.[82][83]
  • Superman-creator Jerry Siegel was impressed, at an early age, with the optimistic vision of the future presented in Skylark of Space.[84]

Randall Garrett (December 16, 1927 - December 31, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Backstage Lensman is short story by Randall Garrett, a parody or pastiche of the Lensman series of E.E. Doc Smith. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... Star Smashers of the Galaxy Rangers (1973) is a comic science fiction novel by Harry Harrison. ... Spacewar! is one of the earliest video games for a digital computer. ... The Generic Universal RolePlaying System, commonly known as GURPS, is a role-playing game system designed to adapt to any imaginary gaming environment. ... This article is about the series. ... The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Jerome Jerry Siegel a. ...

Fictional appearances

Doc himself appears as a character in the 2006 novel The Chinatown Death Cloud Peril by Paul Malmont. The novel describes friendship and rivalry among pulp writers of the 1930s. He also appears as "Lensman Ted Smith" in the 1980 novel "The Number Of The Beast" by Robert A. Heinlein. This article is about the literary concept. ...


Bibliography

Series

Lensman[85] The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ...

  1. Triplanetary (Amazing Stories Jan–Apr 1934, Fantasy Press 1948)[86]
  2. First Lensman (Fantasy Press 1950)
  3. Galactic Patrol (Astounding Stories Sep 1937–Feb 1938, Fantasy Press 1950)
  4. Gray Lensman (Astounding Stories Oct 1939–Jan 1940, Fantasy Press 1951)
  5. Second Stage Lensman (Astounding Stories Nov 1941–Feb 1942, Fantasy Press 1953)
  6. Children of the Lens (Astounding Stories Nov 1947–Feb 1948, Fantasy Press 1954)
  7. The Vortex Blaster, also known as Masters of the Vortex (Comet July 1941, Astonishing Stories Jun & Oct 1942, Gnome Press 1960)

Skylark The Galactic Patrol was an intergalactic organization in the Lensman science fiction series written by E. E. Smith. ... The Children of the Lens are characters in the fictional Lensman universe created by Doc Smith. ... The Skylark of Space, Amazing Stories, August 1928 The Skylark of Space is one of the earliest novels of interstellar travel. ...

  1. The Skylark of Space (written 1915–1920 with Mrs. Lee Hawkins Garby, Amazing Stories Aug–Oct 1928, Buffalo Book Co. 1946. Paperback edition, heavily revised and without the co-author credit, Pyramid Books 1958)
  2. Skylark Three (Amazing Stories Aug–Oct 1930, Fantasy Press 1948)
  3. Skylark of Valeron (Astounding Stories Aug 1934–Feb 1935, Fantasy Press 1949)
  4. Skylark DuQuesne (Worlds of If Jun–Oct 1965, Pyramid Books 1966)

Subspace The Skylark of Space is one of the earliest novels of interstellar travel. ... The Skylark of Space is one of the earliest novels of interstellar travel. ... Skylark DuQuesne was the final novel in the epic Skylark series by E. E. Smith. ...

  1. Subspace Explorers (Canaveral Press 1965, Ace 1968; the first 30 pages of the book appeared in Astounding Jul 1960)
  2. Subspace Encounter (1983)
The Clockwork Traitor (1976), 1977 Panther paperback edition. 160 pages

Family d'Alembert (with Stephen Goldin - in fact only parts of the first book are by Smith, the rest is by Goldin based on Smith's novella) Subspace Encounter is a 1983 science fiction novel by E. E. Smith, a posthumously published sequel to his Subspace Explorers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (427x606, 35 KB) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who drew the cover or the publisher of the book. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (427x606, 35 KB) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who drew the cover or the publisher of the book. ... The Last Ghost and Other Stories by Stephen Goldin, 1999 Stephen Charles Goldin, born February 28, 1947 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ...

  1. Imperial Stars (1976)
  2. Stranglers' Moon (1976)
  3. The Clockwork Traitor (1976)
  4. Getaway World (1977)
  5. Appointment at Bloodstar, also known as The Bloodstar Conspiracy (1978)
  6. The Purity Plot (1978)
  7. Planet of Treachery (1981)
  8. Eclipsing Binaries (1983)
  9. The Omicron Invasion (1984)
  10. Revolt of the Galaxy (1985)

Lord Tedric (with Gordon Eklund) Gordon Eklund (born July 24, 1945, Seattle, Washington) is a Nebula Award-winning, American science fiction author whose works include the Lord Tedric series and two of the earliest original novels based on the 1960s Star Trek TV series. ...

  1. Lord Tedric (1978)
  2. The Space Pirates (1979)
  3. Black Knight of the Iron Sphere (1979)
  4. Alien Realms (1980)

Non-Series Novels and Collections

  • Spacehounds of IPC (Amazing Stories Jul–Sep 1931, Fantasy Press 1947, Ace 1966)
  • The Galaxy Primes (Amazing Stories Mar–May 1959, Ace 1965. Dr. Smith expressed extreme dissatisfaction with the editing of this novel.)
  • Masters of Space (1976) (with E. Everett Evans)
  • Edward E. Smith (2001). Have Trenchcoat — Will Travel, and Others. Advent. ISBN 0-911682-33-3. 

Non-fiction

  • Some Clays of Idaho, (with Chester Fowler Smith) undergraduate thesis, University of Idaho, 1914. [87]
  • The effect of bleaching with oxides of nitrogen upon the baking quality and commercial value of wheat flour, Ph.D. thesis, George Washington University, 1919, approximately 100 pp.[88]
  • "A study of some of the chemical changes which occur in oysters during their preparation for market," Bureau of Chemistry, U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 740, 1919, 24 pp.[89]
  • "Viscosity and Baking Quality," Cereal Chemistry 2, 178-89, 1925.[90]
  • "Report of the Subcommittee on Hydrogen-Ion Concentration with Special Reference to the Effect of Flour Bleach," Cereal Chemistry 9, 424–8, 1932.[91]
  • "Catastrophe" (Astounding Science Fiction May 1938).
  • Worldcon Guest of Honor Speech, originally presented at Chicon I on September 1, 1940. To be published in Worldcon Guest of Honor Speeches, edited by Mike Resnick and Joe Siclari, ISFiC Press, August 23, 2006.
  • "The Epic of Space" in Of Worlds Beyond: The Science of Science Fiction Writing, edited by Lloyd Arthur Eshbach (Fantasy Press 1947; includes a biographical sketch).
  • Introduction to Man of Many Minds by E. Everett Evans (Fantasy Press 1953).

Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... 2nd World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon) was Chicon I, which was held in Hotel Chicagoan in Chicago, USA 1 - 2 September, 1940. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Diamond Resnick (born Chicago, March 5, 1942), better known by his published name Mike Resnick, is a popular and prolific American science fiction author. ... ISFiC Press is the small press publishing arm of ISFiC. Although the press officially released its first book, Robert J. Sawyers Relativity, on November 12, 2004, the people responsible for the press issued a filk CD two years earlier, entitled A Walk on the Windy Side. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lloyd Arthur Eshbach (Palm, Pennsylvania June 20, 1910 - Myerstown, Pennsylvania October 29, 2003) was an American science fiction author and publisher. ... Fantasy Press was an American publishing house specialising in fantasy and science fiction titles. ...

Secondary sources

  • Sean Barrett (1994, revised 2002). GURPS Lensman. Steve Jackson Games. ISBN 1-55634-527-5.  Contains a biographical sketch on p. 4, which is included in the excerpt at Steve Jackson Games.
  • Ron Ellik, Bill Evans, and Al Lewis (1966). The Universes of E.E. Smith. Advent. ISBN 0-911682-03-1. 
  • Ethan Fleischer Selectively Annotated English Primary Source Bibliography.
  • Ethan Fleischer Z9M9Z: A Lensman Website
  • Gharlane of Eddore (1998). Lensman FAQ http://www.chronology.org/noframes/lens/.
  • Robert A. Heinlein (1979). "Larger Than Life," written for MosCon I, published in Robert A. Heinlein (1980). Expanded Universe. Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 0-448-11916-1. 
  • Edward E. Smith at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database.
  • Stephen C. Lucchetti (2004). "Doc"—First Galactic Roamer: A Complete Bibliography…. NESFA Press. ISBN 1-886778-58-2. 
  • Sam Moskowitz (1966). Seekers of Tomorrow. World Publishing. ISBN 0-88355-129-2.  [92]
  • Frederik Pohl (1964). "Ode to a Skylark," If, May 1964. Reprinted in Lucchetti, pp. 11-15.
  • Alva Rogers (1964). A Requiem for Astounding. Advent. ISBN 0-911682-16-3. 
  • Joseph Sanders (1986). E.E. "Doc" Smith. Starmont House. ISBN 0-916732-73-8. 
  • Thomas Sheridan (1977). E.E. "Doc" Smith, Father of Star Wars. Necronomicon Press.  8pp. Reprint of an article in Fantasy Review, 1948. Describes itself as an interview, but is mostly an essay with some extended quotations.
  • Verna Smith Trestrail (presumably 1979). MosCon I Keynote Speech, unpublished typewritten notes.
  • Harry Warner (1938). Brief biography in Spaceways Volume 1, #1.

Sean Barrett (born 1959) is writer, nucleonicist,[1] member of the Wikipedia Arbitration Committee, and the grandson of Linton Lomas Barrett. ... David G. Potter (1947-2001) was a Sacramento, California-based science fiction writer and critic in the late 20th century who was widely known for acerbic, scathingly humorous and knowledgeable postings to Usenet science fiction newsgroups. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Internet Speculative Fiction Database is a database of bibliographic information on science fiction and related genres such as fantasy fiction and horror fiction. ... Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ... Frederik George Pohl, Jr. ... if, subtitled Worlds of Science Fiction, was launched in March 1952, the creation, apparently, of James L. Quinn of the Quinn Publishing Company, not to be confused with Robert Guinn, who later published both If and its sister magazine Galaxy. ... This article is about the series. ...

References

  1. ^ Moskowitz p. 11. For this and all following dates, see also the timelines in Lucchetti pp. 31–5 and 113–147 and, to a lesser extent, Sanders pp. 1–2.
  2. ^ 1900 Census, House 1515, Residence 438, Family 371, 3rd Ward of Spokane County, Washington, recorded June 13, 1900, accessed via online census images at heritagequest.com
  3. ^ Sanders p. 1 & 7. Trestrail p. 2 instead says that the family moved that year to Idaho, but Moskowitz p. 11–12 and Eshbach p. 85 both seem to agree with Sanders.
  4. ^ 1900 Census, ibid.
  5. ^ Sanders p. 1.
  6. ^ Moskowitz p. 11–12.
  7. ^ 1900 Census, ibid.
  8. ^ 1910 Census, Residence 37, Family 37, Markham Precinct, Bonner County, Idaho, recorded 25 April 1910, accessed via heritagequest.com.
  9. ^ Letter from Flip Kleffner, Director of Alumni Relations, University of Idaho Alumni Association, to Verna Smith Trestrail, dated 27 February 1984.
  10. ^ Sanders p. 8
  11. ^ Latah County, Idaho Star-Mirror, March 25 1915.
  12. ^ Western States Marriage Index Entry 84846, http://abish.byui.edu/specialCollections/westernStates/westernStatesRecordDetail.cfm?recordID=84846 accessed 2007 April 5
  13. ^ Trestrail pp. 3 & 4, Sanders p. 8, Moskowitz p. 13. Trestrail spells the name "Allen."
  14. ^ Z9M9Z: "Noreascon 4".
  15. ^ Lucchetti p. 32, Warner, Moskowitz p. 22.
  16. ^ 1930 Census of Ward 3, Household 288, Family 314, Hillsdale, Michigan, recorded by Mark C. Hanselman on 11 April 1930. Copy courtesy www.ancestry.com.
  17. ^ Moskowitz p. 13.
  18. ^ See the photo at Lens FAQ p. 0. According to Warner, he applied unsuccessfully to serve as an aviator. The other biographies on silent on his wartime service.
  19. ^ Sanders p. 1
  20. ^ Moskowitz p. 13.
  21. ^ Sanders p. 1, Lucchetti p. 32, Barrett p. 4 following Sanders.
  22. ^ See bibliography, below.
  23. ^ Moskowitz p. 13.
  24. ^ http://www.hillsdalecounty.info/history0118.asp accessed 5 April 2007
  25. ^ Sanders p. 1
  26. ^ Moskowitz p. 19, Warner.
  27. ^ The earliest web source for this claim seems to be Computer games: 40 years of fun, ZDNet UK, November 23, 2001 by Graeme Wearden; the article does not provide a source, and the claim may have been added by a colleague. (Private correspondence, July 4, 2006.) Searches at Google patent (www.google.com/patent) on various combinations of Dr. Smith's name have not uncovered any patents which relate to his professional biography and supposed accomplishments in the pastry field.
  28. ^ The Dictionary of Literary Biography,[citation needed] quoted at http://www.bookrags.com/Edward_Elgar accessed 8 May 2007.
  29. ^ The Dictionary of Literary Biography, ibid.
  30. ^ Sanders pp. 8-9, Moskowitz p. 14.
  31. ^ Sanders p.1, Moskowitz p. 14. Warner says 1921.
  32. ^ Sanders p. 9, Moskowitz p. 15.
  33. ^ Sanders pp. 1 & 9, Moskowitz p. 15. Both Moskowitz and Sanders (p. 1 but not p. 9) say that T. O'Conor Sloane was the editor who accepted it, but according to the Wikipedia article on T. O'Conor Sloane, he was managing editor until 1929, when he became editor, replacing Hugo Gernsback.
  34. ^ Moskowitz p. 15.
  35. ^ Moskowitz p. 15. As noted above, Warner instead says that Dr. Smith had already begun work.
  36. ^ e.g., a letter from John W. Campbell on pages 567–8 of the September issue, which ends by stating that Skylark of Space had been "the best story of scientifiction ever printed," but which consists mainly of devastating criticism of the stories' science.
  37. ^ Moskowitz p. 16
  38. ^ Moskowitz p. 16, Sanders p. 65.
  39. ^ Warner.
  40. ^ Sanders p. 65. The book does however have significant scientific implausibilities, for example the breathable atmosphere on Saturn and some of its and Jupiter's satellites.
  41. ^ Warner.
  42. ^ Sheridan p. 3
  43. ^ Rogers p. 26.
  44. ^ Moskowitz p. 16, Rogers p. 14.
  45. ^ Moskowitz p. 16.
  46. ^ Warner.
  47. ^ Lyman Cleveland's comment on the easy availability of "solid asteroids of iron," Amazing March 1934, p. 16, first edition p.196, as proving the pointlessness of the Nevians' attack.
  48. ^ Cleveland's expectation, correct according to Special Relativity, that inertialess travel would not be faster than light in the home reference frame, p. 223.
  49. ^ Nerado's comment, "Destruction, always destruction… they are a useless race," February p. 81, p. 160.
  50. ^ Costigan & Bradley's lack of comment when they discover that the ship they are on has passed the speed of light, February p. 84, p. 168. This is the first mention in the story of faster-than-light travel.
  51. ^ Costigan & Bradley's failure to object, when told of the Nevians' impending second raid on Tellus, that they could easily obtain iron without further destruction, February p. 88, p. 175.
  52. ^ Moskowitz p. 17, Rogers p. 14.
  53. ^ Moskowitz p. 17, citing "Stories We Reject" in Fantasy Magazine December 1934.
  54. ^ Moskowitz p. 17
  55. ^ Moskowitz p. 17–8, Rogers pp. 24–30. Rogers agrees with Moskowitz that Astounding became the leading science fiction magazine during this period, but does not attribute this solely to Dr. Smith.
  56. ^ "The Epic of Space" p. 83.
  57. ^ "The Epic of Space" p. 84. 'Canstantinescu's "War of the Universes"' is apparently an error for "The War of the Universe" by Clinton Constantinescu, Amazing Stories Quarterly, Fall 1931.
  58. ^ "The Epic of Space" p. 85.
  59. ^ Gharlane LensFaq section 1, Moskowitz p. 19, "The Epic of Space" p. 85. Note that Dr. Smith's account in "The Epic of Space" does not mention Tremaine's commitment. Moskowitz says that the outline was eighty pages; Dr. Smith only mentions that the section on Galactic Patrol was "only a few pages long."
  60. ^ "The Epic of Space" p. 85.
  61. ^ "The Epic of Space" p. 86.
  62. ^ Moskowitz p. 19
  63. ^ The Commandant’s account of the Patrol’s early history at the beginning of the magazine version of Galactic Patrol does not describe what happened in the magazine version of Triplanetary; the reference to Virgil Samms and the Triplanetary Patrol is a later interpolation. (Astounding September 1937 pp. 12–13; cp. Fantasy Press edition pp. 8–9.) The reference to "the days of the semi-inert drive" and the Third Galactic Survey on page 34 of the same issue is not consistent with the history of partial inertialessness in either version of Triplanetary, and is omitted from page 42 of the Fantasy Press edition. (Amazing March 1934 pp. 28 & 33; cp. Fantasy Press edition pp. 223 & 231.) See also Gharlane's Lens FAQ Question 1. The Arisians’ near-omniscience about the future is also interpolated, e.g., Astounding January 1938 p. 127 vs. first edition p. 205.
  64. ^ Gharlane Lens FAQ Question 1 and footnote to rec.arts.sf.written posting; Moskowitz p. 20.
  65. ^ Astounding December 1939 pp. 6, 91.
  66. ^ Astounding December 1939 pp. 104.
  67. ^ Sanders p. 10, Moskowitz p. 12.
  68. ^ Resnick & Siclari.
  69. ^ Sanders p. 10, afterword to Second Stage Lensman.
  70. ^ Pohl in Lucchetti p. 15, Al Trestrail in Lucchetti p. 19. Al Trestrail (p. 20) and Pohl (p. 14) also mention church attendance (Pohl in a fictional context), which none of the other sources seem to.
  71. ^ Letter from John W. Campbell to E. E. Smith, page 1-2, Dated 11 June 1947.
  72. ^ Letter from John W. Campbell to E. E. Smith, page 2-3, Dated 11 June 1947.
  73. ^ "The Epic of Space" p. 80. The conventional spelling is "Tweel", though the most accurate spelling is "Trrrweerrlll." ("A Martian Odyssey", The Best of Stanley G. Weinbaum p. 5.)
  74. ^ Both Constantinescu's name and title are misspelled in the essay: ‘Canstantinescu’s “War of the Universes”, p. 84.
  75. ^ Moskowitz p. 14.
  76. ^ Al Trestrail, in Lucchetti p. 20.
  77. ^ Moskowitz p. 19
  78. ^ Moskowitz p. 21
  79. ^ Moskowitz p. 23.
  80. ^ Sanders p. 15.
  81. ^ Letter to Clifford Simak June 18, 1953, The John W. Campbell Letters Volume 1, p. 177.
  82. ^ http://movies.ign.com/articles/035/035904p1.html
  83. ^ http://www.fsl.cs.sunysb.edu/pipermail/b5jms/1997-April/001838.html
  84. ^ Gerard Jones, Men of Tomorrow, 2004, p. 29-31
  85. ^ In "The Epic of Space," Dr. Smith reveals that the core books of the Lensman series, Galactic Patrol, Gray Lensman, Second Stage Lensman, and Children of the Lens, were conceived as a unified whole. Some recommend reading the books in this order, followed by the revised Triplanetary, First Lensman, and The Vortex Blaster. The original versions of the core books are not consistent with the original version of Triplanetary; the connections between them are later interpolations.
  86. ^ The magazine version of Triplanetary was not part of the original Lensman series. For the book versions, passages were interpolated into the original Triplanetary, and earlier, pre-space-flight sections were added, forming the first third of the book. Some passages were added to or removed from the core books, to make them consistent with the new version of Triplanetary.
  87. ^ University of Idaho Libraries University of Idaho Libraries
  88. ^ Lucchetti, p. 113, worldcatlibraries.org
  89. ^ Lucchetti p. 113, Library of Congress
  90. ^ Lucchetti p. 113
  91. ^ Lucchetti p. 114
  92. ^ According to Gharlane, this is error-ridden: LensFaq section 7. Gharlane provides no details, but Moskowitz does get as basic a fact as the editorship of Amazing wrong, on page 15.

Latah County is a county located in the state of Idaho. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... T. OConor Sloane ( 1851- 1940) was the editor of Amazing Stories from 1929 through 1938, when publisher Ziff-Davis moved production of the magazine to Chicago and named Raymond A. Palmer as Sloanes successor. ... Hugo Gernsback (August 16, 1884 - August 19, 1967) was an inventor and magazine publisher who also wrote science fiction and whose publication included the first science fiction magazine. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... A frame of reference in physics is a set of axes which enable an observer to measure the aspect, position and motion of all points in a system relative to the reference frame. ... Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communications and travel are staples of the science fiction genre. ... Terra or Tellus was a primeval Roman goddess, mother of Fama. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... The Galactic Patrol was an intergalactic organization in the Lensman science fiction series written by E. E. Smith. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... Fantasy Press was an American publishing house specialising in fantasy and science fiction titles. ... Fantasy Press was an American publishing house specialising in fantasy and science fiction titles. ... Look up amazing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Martian Odyssey is a science fiction short story by Stanley G. Weinbaum originally published in the July 1934 issue of Wonder Stories. ... Clifford Donald Simak (August 3, 1904 _ April 25, 1988) was an American science fiction author. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Gharlane of Eddore was a character in Doc Smiths Lensman novels, Master Number Two of the Innermost Circle of the All-Highest of Eddore. ... Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, began in April 1926, becoming the first science fiction magazine and one of the pioneers of science fiction in the United States. ...

External links

  • Works by E. E. Smith at Project Gutenberg
  • Skylark Three (original magazine version)
  • Spacehounds of IPC (original magazine version)

 
 

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