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Encyclopedia > Dysplasia

Dysplasia (from Greek, roughly: "bad form") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue. This generally consists of an expansion of immature cells, with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells. Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process. The term dysplasia is typically used when the cellular abnormality is restricted to the originating tissue, as in the case of an early, in-situ neoplasm. For example, epithelial dysplasia of the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - a disorder commonly detected by an abnormal pap smear) consists of an increased population of immature (basal-like) cells which are restricted to the mucosal surface, and have not invaded through the basement membrane to the deeper soft tissues. Myelodysplastic syndromes, or dysplasia of blood-forming cells, show increased numbers of immature cells in the bone marrow, and a decrease in mature, functional cells in the blood. Image File history File linksMetadata Squamous_cells. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Squamous_cells. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dysplastic_cells. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dysplastic_cells. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ... Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN, is the abnormal growth of precancerous cells in the cervix. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Dysplasia, in which cell maturation and differentiation are delayed, can be contrasted with metaplasia, in which cells of one mature, differentiated type are replaced by cells of another mature, differentiated type. Metaplasia is the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type. ... Differentiation can mean the following: In biology: cellular differentiation; evolutionary differentiation; In mathematics: see: derivative In cosmogony: planetary differentiation Differentiation (geology); Differentiation (logic); Differentiation (marketing). ...


Dysplasia vs. carcinoma in situ vs. invasive carcinoma

These terms are related since they represent the three steps in the progression of many malignant neoplasms (cancers) of epithelial tissues. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ...

  • Dysplasia is the earliest form of pre-cancerous lesion recognizable in a pap smear or in a biopsy by a pathologist. Dysplasia can be low grade or high grade (see "Carcinoma in situ", below). The risk of low grade dysplasia transforming into high grade dysplasia and, eventually, cancer is low. Treatment is usually straightforward. High grade dysplasia represents a more advanced progression towards malignant transformation.
  • Carcinoma in situ , meaning 'cancer in place', represents the transformation of a neoplastic lesion to one in which cells undergo essentially no maturation, and thus may be considered cancer-like. In this state, cells have lost their tissue identity and have reverted back to a primitive cell form that grows rapidly and without regulation. However, this form of cancer remains localized, and has not invaded into tissues below the surface.
  • Invasive carcinoma is the final step in this sequence. It is a cancer which has invaded beyond the original tissue layer and may be able to spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Invasive cancer can usually be treated, but not always successfully. However, if left untreated it is almost always fatal, just like your face.

Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In medicine, carcinoma apanting dog named rufis It is malignant by definition: carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs, and may spread to lymph nodes and distal sites (metastasis). ...

References

  • Richard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor). Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set). London: W B Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-7253-1. 
  • Ramzi S. Cotran, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins (Editor) (1999). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, sixth edition. London: W B Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-7335-X. 
  • Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1985, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cervical Dysplasia - womenshealthchannel (0 words)
Cervical dysplasia is a term used to describe the appearance of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix, the lowest part of the uterus.
Left untreated, dysplasia sometimes progresses to an early form of cancer known as cervical carcinoma in situ, and eventually to invasive cervical cancer.
Mild dysplasia is the most common form, and up to 70% of these cases regress on their own (i.e., the cervical tissue returns to normal without treatment).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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