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Encyclopedia > Dyscalculia
Part of a series on
Dyslexia

and related disorders
Education · Neuropsychology This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ...

RELATED CONDITIONS

Alexia
Auditory Processing Disorder
Dyscalculia · Dysgraphia
Dyslexia · Dyspraxia
Alexia (from the Greek , privative, expressing negation, and = word) is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. ... Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) (previously known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) is a disorder in how auditory information is processed in the brain. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Developmental Dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of psychological development disorders affecting the initiation, organization and performance of action[1]. It entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures in the absence of motor or sensory impairments. ...

THEORIES

Double deficit · Magnocellular
Perceptual noise exclusion
Phonological deficit
The ability to read is believed to depend on two skills. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The concept of a perceptual noise exclusion deficit is an emerging hypothesis as to the origins and nature of dyslexia. ... The phonological deficit hypothesis is a prevalent neurological explanation for the cause of reading difficulties and dyslexia. ...

RELATED TOPICS

IDEA · Literacy
Reading acquisition · Spelling
Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic
// The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agences provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. ... Children reading. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Developmental Stages of Reading. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic (RFB&D) is a non-profit nationwide volunteer organization. ...

LISTS

Assessments · Fields
People · Publications
Topics · Treatments
The following is a list of notable people who have been diagnosed with dyslexia. ... Note: This page is intended as a list to provide a system of categorization and links to articles on the topics which are the subject of the lists, as part of the Dyslexia series. ...

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Dyscalculia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F81.2, R48.8
ICD-9 315.1, 784.69

Dyscalculia (difficulty in learning or comprehending mathematics) was originally identified in case studies of patients who suffered specific arithmetic disabilities as a result of damage to specific regions of the brain. Recent research suggests that dyscalculia can also occur developmentally, as a genetically-linked learning disability which affects a person's ability to understand, remember, and/or manipulate numbers and/or number facts (e.g. the multiplication tables). The term is often used to refer specifically to the inability to perform arithmetic operations, but is defined by some educational professionals and cognitive psychologists as a more fundamental inability to conceptualize numbers as abstract concepts of comparative quantities (a deficit in "number sense"[1]). Those who argue for this more constrained definition of dyscalculia sometimes prefer to use the technical term Arithmetic Difficulties (AD) to refer to calculation and number memory deficits. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ...


Dyscalculia is a lesser known disability, similar and potentially related to dyslexia and Developmental Dyspraxia. Dyscalculia occurs in people across the whole IQ range, and sufferers often, but not always, also have difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning. Current estimates suggest it may affect about 5% of the population. Although some researchers believe that dyscalculia necessarily implies mathematical reasoning difficulties as well as difficulties with arithmetic operations, there is evidence (especially from brain damaged patients) that arithmetic (e.g. calculation and number fact memory) and mathematical (abstract reasoning with numbers) abilities can be dissociated. That is (some researchers argue), an individual might suffer arithmetic difficulties (or dyscalculia), with no impairment of, or even giftedness in, abstract mathematical reasoning abilities. This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Developmental Dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of psychological development disorders affecting the initiation, organization and performance of action[1]. It entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures in the absence of motor or sensory impairments. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ...


The word dyscalculia comes from Greek and Latin which means: "counting badly". The prefix "dys" comes from Greek and means "badly". "Calculia" comes from the Latin "calculare", which means "to count". That word "calculare" again comes from "calculus", which means "pebble" or one of the counters on an abacus. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... A Chinese abacus Calculating-Table by Gregor Reisch: Margarita Philosophica, 1508 For other uses, see Abacus (disambiguation). ...


Dyscalculia can be detected at a young age and measures can be taken to ease the problems faced by younger students. The main problem is understanding the way mathematics is taught to children. In the way that dyslexia can be dealt with by using a slightly different approach to teaching, so can dyscalculia. However, dyscalculia is the lesser known of these learning disorders and so is often not recognized. This article is about developmental dyslexia. ...


Another common manifestation of the condition emerges when the individual is faced with equation type of problems which contain both integers and letters (3A + 4C). It can be difficult for the person to differentiate between the integers and the letters. Confusion such as reading a '5' for an 'S' or not being able to distinguish between a zero '0' for the letter 'O' can keep algebra from being mastered. This particular form of dyscalculia is often not diagnosed until middle or high school is entered.

Contents

Potential symptoms

  • Frequent difficulties with arithmetic, confusing the signs: +, , ÷ and ×.
  • Inability to tell which of two numbers is the larger.
  • Reliance on 'counting-on' strategies, e.g., using fingers, rather than any more efficient mental arithmetic strategies.
  • Difficulty with everyday tasks like checking change and reading analog clocks.
  • Inability to comprehend financial planning or budgeting, sometimes even at a basic level; for example, estimating the cost of the items in a shopping basket or balancing a checkbook.
  • Difficulty with times-tables, mental arithmetic, etc.
  • May do fairly well in subjects such as science and geometry, which require logic rather than formulas, until a higher level requiring calculations is obtained.
  • Difficulty with conceptualizing time and judging the passing of time.
  • Problems differentiating between left and right.
  • Having a poor sense of direction (i.e., north, south, east, and west), potentially even with a compass.
  • Difficulty navigating or mentally "turning" the map to face the current direction rather than the common North=Top usage.
  • Having difficulty mentally estimating the measurement of an object or distance (e.g., whether something is 10 or 20 feet away).
  • Inability to grasp and remember mathematical concepts, rules, formulae, and sequences.
  • An inability to read a sequence of numbers, or rotating them when repeated such turning 56 into 65.
  • Difficulty keeping score during games.
  • Difficulty with games such as poker with more flexible rules for scoring.
  • Difficulty in activities requiring sequential processing, from the physical (such as dance steps) to the abstract (reading, writing and signaling things in the right order). May have trouble even with a calculator due to difficulties in the process of feeding in variables.
  • The condition may lead in extreme cases to a phobia of mathematics and mathematical devices.

The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. ... The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. ... A dagger (†, †, U+2020) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... The symbol ×, pronounced times or multiplication sign, is primarily used in mathematics, to denote the multiplication of two numbers cross product of two vectors Cartesian product of two sets. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... A formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically (as in a mathematical or chemical formula) or a general relationship between quantities. ... For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ...

Potential causes

Scientists have yet to understand the causes of dyscalculia. They have been investigating in several domains.

  • Neurological: Dyscalculia has been associated with lesions to the supramarginal and angular gyri at the junction between the temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex.[2][3]
  • Deficits in working memory: Adams and Hitch[4] argue that working memory is a major factor in mental addition. From this base, Geary[5] conducted a study that suggested there was a working memory deficit for those who suffered from dyscalculia. However, working memory problems are confounded with general learning difficulties, thus Geary's findings may not be specific to dyscalculia but rather may reflect a greater learning deficit.

Studies of mathematically gifted students have shown increased EEG activity in the right hemisphere during algorithmic computational processing. There is some evidence of right hemisphere deficits in dyscalculia. Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Working memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ...


Other causes may be:

  • Short term memory being disturbed or reduced, making it difficult to remember calculations.
  • Congenital or hereditary disorders. Studies show indications of this, but the evidence is not yet concrete.[citation needed]
  • A combination of these factors.

A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ...

See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Gerstmann syndrome is a neurological disorder. ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Numerical cognition is a subdisipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics. ...

External links

Further reading

  • Abeel, Samantha, 2003. My Thirteenth Winter. Orchard Books. ISBN 0-439-33904-9
  • Attwood, Tony, 2002. Dyscalculia in Schools: What It Is and What You Can Do. First and Best in Education Ltd. ISBN 1-86083-614-3
  • Butterworth, Brian, 2004. Dyscalculia Guidance: Helping Pupils With Specific Learning Difficulties in Maths. David Fulton Publications. ISBN 0-7087-1152-9
  • Chinn, Steve, 2004. The Trouble with Maths: A Practical Guide to Helping Learners with Numeracy Difficulties. RoutledgeFalmer. ISBN 0-415-32498-X
  • Henderson, Anne, Came, Fil, and Brough, Mel, 2003, Working with Dyscalculia. Learning Works International Ltd. ISBN 0-9531055-2-0
  • Kosc, Ladislav, 1974, "Developmental dyscalculia," Journal of Learning Disabilities 7" 159-62. First systematic study.
  • Sharma, Mahesh. Dyscalculia.
  • --------, 1989. Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and other Mathematics Problems. The Math Notebook, CT/LM.
  • --------, "Berkshire mathematics."
  • -------- and Loveless, Eugene, 1988. Dyscalculia. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, CT/LM.

References

  1. ^ Dehaene, S. 1997 The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics New York, Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Levy LM, Reis IL, Grafman J. Metabolic abnormalities detected by 1H-MRS in dyscalculia and dysgraphia. Neurology. 1999;53(3):639—41. PMID 10449137
  3. ^ Mayer E, Martory MD, Pegna AJ, Landis T, Delavelle J, Annoni JM. Free Full Text A pure case of Gerstmann syndrome with a subangular lesion. Brain. 1999;122(6):1107—20. PMID 10356063
  4. ^ Adams JW, Hitch GJ. Working memory and children's mental addition. J Exp Child Psychol. 1997;67(1),21—38. PMID 9344485
  5. ^ Geary DC. Mathematical disabilities: cognition, neuropsychological and genetic components. Psychol Bull. 1993;114(2) 345—62. PMID 8416036

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dyscalculia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1044 words)
Dyscalculia was originally identified in case studies of patients who suffered specific arithmetic disabilities as a result of damage to specific regions of the brain.
Dyscalculia is a lesser known disability, much like and potentially related to dyslexia and dyspraxia.
Gerstmann syndrome: dyscalculia is one of a constellation of symptoms acquired after damage to the angular gyrus.
The British Dyslexia Association - Dyscalculia, Dyslexia and Maths. (726 words)
The strategies for dealing with dyscalculia will be fundamentally the same whether or not the learner is also dyslexic.
Dyscalculia is a special need and requires diagnosis and appropriate counselling as well as support away from whole class teaching.
There are, however, a few very useful publications designed particularly to help teachers: firstly, so that they can recognise dyscalculia, and then so they can adapt their teaching to meet the needs of dyscalculic children.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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