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Encyclopedia > Dynamite

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Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth (kieselgur: US Spelling; kieselguhr: UK Spelling) as an adsorbent. It was invented by Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in 1866 in Krümmel (Geesthacht, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany); and patented in 1867. Look up dynamite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... A sample of diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth (IPA: , also known as DE, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur and Celite) is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... In chemistry, adsorption of a substance is its concentration on a particular surface. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... , Geesthacht (IPA: ) is the largest city in the District of the Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg) in Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany, 10 km southeast of Hamburg on the banks of the River Elbe. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


It is usually sold in the form of a stick 20 centimetres (roughly 8 in) long and 2.5 centimetres (1 in) in diameter, but other sizes also exist. Dynamite is considered a high explosive, which means it detonates rather than deflagrates. cm redirects here, alternate uses: cm (disambiguation) A centimetre (symbol cm; American spelling: centimeter) is an SI unit of length. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... A log in a fire place. ...


Another form of dynamite consists of nitroglycerin dissolved in nitrocellulose and a small amount of ketone. This form of dynamite is similar to cordite. This form of dynamite is much safer than the simple mix of nitroglycerin and diatomaceous earth/kieselgur.[citation needed] Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ...


Uses

Dynamite is predominately used in the mining, quarrying, and construction industries and has had historical use in warfare, but its unstable nature, especially if subjected to freezing, has rendered it obsolete for modern military use. Dynamite has been replaced for combat purposes by military dynamite, a mixture of TNT, RDX, inert binders and anti-freeze agents. Military dynamite has approximately 60% of the strength of nitroglycerin-based, commercial dynamite.[1] R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... RDX redirects here. ...


History

Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder. Nobel obtained patents for his invention: in England on 7 May 1867; and in Sweden on 19 October 1867.[2] He originally sold dynamite as "Nobel's Blasting Powder". After its introduction, dynamite rapidly gained popularity as a safe alternative to gunpowder and nitroglycerin. Nobel tightly controlled the patent, and unlicensed duplicators were quickly shut down. However, a few United States businessmen got around the patent by using a slightly different formula.[citation needed] Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...


Manufacture

Dynamite consists of three parts nitroglycerin, one part diatomaceous earth and a small admixture of sodium carbonate. This mixture is formed into short sticks and wrapped in paper. Nitroglycerin by itself is a very strong explosive, and in its pure form it is shock-sensitive (physical shock can cause it to explode), degrading over time to even more unstable forms. This makes it highly dangerous to transport or use in its pure form. Adsorbed onto diatomaceous earth, nitroglycerin is less shock-sensitive. Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...


Over time, the dynamite will "weep" or "sweat" its nitroglycerin, which can then pool in the bottom of the box or storage area. Crystals will form on the outside of the sticks. This creates a very dangerous situation. While the actual possibility of explosion without a blasting cap is minimal, old dynamite is still dangerous. Class B blasting caps A blasting cap is a small explosive device generally used to detonate a larger, more powerful explosive such as dynamite. ...


South Africa

For several decades from the 1940s, the biggest producer of dynamite in the world was the Republic of South Africa, where De Beers established a factory in 1902 at Somerset West. The explosives factory was later operated by AECI (African Explosives and Chemical Industries). The demand for the product came mainly from the country's vast gold mines, centered on the Witwatersrand. The factory at Somerset West was in operation in 1903 and by 1907 was already producing 340,000 cases (22 kilograms (50 lb) each) annually. In addition, a rival factory at Modderfontein was producing another 200,000 cases per year.[3] The Republic of South Africa is a large republic located at the southern tip of the continent. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Somerset West is a town in the Western Cape province in the Republic of South Africa. ... AECI Limited is a South African chemicals group and is listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. ... Witwatersrand is a low mountain range which runs through Gauteng in South Africa. ...


One of the drawbacks of dynamite was that it was dangerous to manufacture. There were two massive explosions at the Somerset West plant in the 1960s. Some workers died, but loss of life was limited by the modular design of the factory and earth works and plantations of trees that directed the blasts upwards. After 1985, production of dynamite at the factory was phased out.[4]


USA

In the United States, in 1885, chemist Russell S. Penniman invented ammonia dynamite, a form which utilized ammonium nitrate in addition to the more costly nitroglycerin. These dynamites were marketed with the trade name, "Extra." Ammonium nitrate has 85% of the energy of "straight" nitroglycerin. Dynamite was manufactured by the E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. until the mid-1970s. Other US dynamite makers of the era included Hercules, Atlas, Trojan-US Powder, Austin, and several other smaller firms. Dynamite was eventually phased out in favor of Water gel explosives, which is cheaper to manufacture and in many ways safer to handle. [5] Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... Tovex is a water gel explosive that has several advantages over traditional dynamite. ...


Difference from TNT

It is a common misconception that TNT and dynamite are the same thing. Though both are high explosives, there is no other similarity between them. Where dynamite is an absorbent mixture soaked in nitroglycerin, then compacted into a cylindrical shape and wrapped in paper, TNT is a specific chemical compound called trinitrotoluene A misconception happens when a person believes in a concept that is objectively false. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ...


Popular culture

  • The familiar thin reddish cylinder, equipped with a fuse or blasting cap, is a stock movie prop. In comedies and cartoons, dynamite commonly explodes with the only effect being a blackened face and wild hair. In dramas, the impending explosion of lit dynamite parcels provides movie tension. In action films, dynamite is often used as a weapon.
  • The explosiveness of dynamite has caused expressions such as saying that such and such an issue "is dynamite" or "political dynamite" (e.g. [2]).

Theatrical properties, or props, are items used in stage plays and similar entertainments to further the action. ...

See also

Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Titadyn 30 AG (often referred to as Titadine) is a type of compressed dynamite used in mining and manufactured in southern France by Titanite S.A. The explosive comes in the form of salmon-coloured tubes of a range of diameters, from 50 to 120mm. ... Tovex is a water gel explosive that has several advantages over traditonal dynamite. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...

Patent

  • U.S. Patent 0,078,317 , Improved explosive compound
  • U.S. Patent 3,931,763 , Explosive priming device

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Army TM 9-1300-214, p. 8-135.
  2. ^ Schück & Sohlman (1929), page 101.
  3. ^ An MBendi Profile: South Africa - History of the Chemical Industry
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ DuPont Heritage: Explosives
  6. ^ Alfred Nobel

Sources

  • Cartwright, A. P. (1964). The Dynamite Company: The Story of African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited. Cape Town: Purnell & Sons (S.A.) (Pty) Ltd.
  • Schück, H. and Sohlman, R.(1929). The Life of Alfred Nobel. London: William Heinemann Ltd.

External links


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Dynamite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1094 words)
Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorbent.
Dynamite consists of three parts nitroglycerin, one part diatomaceous earth and a small admixture of sodium carbonate.
Dynamite was eventually eclipsed by Water gel explosives, which are safer to handle.
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