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Encyclopedia > Dynamic range compression

Dynamic range compression also called DRC (often seen in DVD player settings), audio level compression, volume compression, compression, or limiting, is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. Compression is used during sound recording, live sound reinforcement, and broadcasting to alter the perceived volume of audio. A compressor is the device used to create compression. This article is about a process which reduces the data rate or file size of digital audio signals. ... The inside of a DVD player A DVD player is a device not only playing discs produced under the DVD Video standard but also playing discs under the standard of DVD Audio. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... A sound reinforcement system is an electromechanical system for accurately amplifying, reproducing, and sometimes recording audio, so that persons not near the original source may experience the sound as if they were. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...



The relationship between input level, output level, and gain reduction in a compressor
The relationship between input level, output level, and gain reduction in a compressor

In simple terms, a compressor is an automatic volume control. Loud sounds over a certain threshold are reduced in level; quiet sounds are not reduced. In this way it reduces the dynamic range of an audio signal. This may be done for aesthetic reasons, to deal with technical limitations of audio equipment, or to improve audibility of audio in noisy environments. Image File history File links Audio-level-compresion-diagram-01. ... Image File history File links Audio-level-compresion-diagram-01. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ...

In a noisy environment background noise can overpower quiet sounds (such as listening to a car stereo while driving). A comfortable listening level for loud sounds makes the quiet sounds inaudible below the noise: A comfortable listening level for quiet sounds makes the loud sounds too loud. To make both the soft and loud parts of a sound audible at the same time, compression is used. Compression reduces the level of the loud sounds, but not the quiet sounds, thus, the level can be raised to a point where the quiet sounds are audible, but without the loud sounds being too loud. Contrast this with the complementary process of an expander, which increases the dynamic range of a signal.[1]

Different compression ratios
Different compression ratios

A compressor reduces the gain (level) of an audio signal if its amplitude exceeds a threshold. The amount of gain reduction is determined by a ratio. For example, with a ratio of 4:1, when the (time averaged) input level is 4 dB over the threshold, the output signal level will be 1 dB over the threshold. The gain (level) has been reduced by 3 dB. When the input level is 8 dB above the threshold, the output level will be 2 dB; a 6 dB gain reduction. In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ...

A more specific example for a 4:1 ratio:

Threshold = −10 dB
Input = −6 dB (4 dB above the threshold)
Output = −9 dB (1 dB above the threshold)

A compressor uses a variable-gain amplifier to reduce the gain of the signal. There are a number of technologies used for this purpose, each having different advantages and disadvantages. Vacuum tubes are used in configuration called 'variable-µ' where the grid-to-cathode voltage changes to alter the gain.[2] Also used is a voltage controlled amplifier which has its gain reduced as the power of the input signal increases. Optical compressors use a light sensitive resistor (LDR) and a small lamp (LED or Electroluminescent panel) to create changes in signal gain. This technique is believed by some to add smoother characteristics to the signal, because the response times of the light and the resistor soften the attack and release. Other Technologies used include Field Effect Transistors and a Diode Bridge.[3] A voltage-controlled amplifier is an electronic amplifier that varies its gain depending on a control voltage (often abbreviated CV). ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... A voltage-controlled amplifier is an electronic amplifier that varies its gain depending on a control voltage (often abbreviated CV). ... LDR The internal components of a photoelectric control for a typical American streetlight. ... LED redirects here. ... Animation of LCD, both unlit and with electroluminiscent backlight switched on Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon where a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field. ... Large power N-channel field effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ... Three bridge rectifiers. ...

When working with digital audio, digital signal processing techniques are commonly used to implement compression via digital audio editors, or dedicated workstations. Often the algorithms used emulate the above analog technologies. Compression in the digital arena is essential, as digital recording levels are very intolerant to clipping (over-modulation); they much more sensitive than recording tape used previously in analog recordings. Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... A digital audio editor is a computer application for audio editing, i. ... A digital audio workstation (DAW) is a system designed to record, edit and play back digital audio. ...

Compressor features and usage

The attack and release times in a compressor
The attack and release times in a compressor

The time it takes for the compressor to respond to changes in input level is known as attack, and how quickly the compressor returns to no gain reduction once the input level falls below the threshold is known as release. In many compressors the attack and release times are adjustable by the user. Some compressors, however, have the attack and release times determined by the circuit design and they cannot be adjusted by the user. Sometimes the attack and release times are 'automatic' or 'program dependent', meaning that the times change depending on the input signal. Because the loudness pattern of the source material is modified by the compressor it may change the character of the signal in subtle to quite noticeable ways depending on the settings used.

Hard Knee and Soft Knee compression
Hard Knee and Soft Knee compression

A second control on a compressor is hard/soft knee. This controls whether the bend in the response curve is a sharp angle or has a rounded edge. A soft knee slowly increases the compression ratio as the level increases and eventually reaches the compression ratio set by the user. A soft knee reduces the audible change from uncompressed to compressed, especially for higher ratios where the changeover is more noticeable. [4]

An audio engineer might use a compressor subtly in order to reduce the dynamic range of source material in order to allow it to be recorded optimally on a medium with a more limited dynamic range than the source signal, or they might use a compressor in order to deliberately change the character of an instrument being processed.

Engineers wishing to achieve dynamic range reduction with few obvious effects might choose a relatively low threshold and low compression ratio so that the source material is being compressed very slightly most of the time. To deliberately soften the attack of a snare drum, they might choose a fast attack time and a moderately fast release time combined with a higher threshold. To accentuate the attack of the snare, they might choose a slower attack time to avoid affecting the initial transient. It is easier to successfully apply these controls if the user has a basic knowledge of musical instrument acoustics.

Because the compressor is reducing the gain (or level) of the signal, the ability to add a fixed amount of make-up gain at the output is provided so that an optimum level can be used.

It should be noted that compression can also be used to lift the soft passages of a selection, pulling the sound toward a compressed "middle". Hence, loud sounds are pulled back and soft passages are boosted.


Main article: Limiting

Compression and limiting are no different in process, just in degree and in the perceived effect. A limiter is a compressor with a higher ratio, and generally a fast attack time. Most engineers consider a ratio of 10:1 or more as limiting, although there are no set rules.[5] Engineers sometimes refer to soft and hard limiting which are differences of degree. The "harder" a limiter, the higher its ratio and the faster its attack and release times. For limiting related to the Law of the Minimum, see limiting factor. ... In electronics, a limiter is a circuit that allows signals below a set value to pass unaffected, as in a Class A amplifier, and clips off the peaks of stronger signals that exceed this set value, as in a Class C amplifier. ...

Brick wall limiting has a very high ratio and a very fast attack time. Ideally, this ensures that an audio signal never exceeds the amplitude of the threshold. Ratios of 20:1 all the way up to ∞:1 are considered to be 'brick wall'.[6] The sonic results of more than momentary and infrequent hard/brick-wall limiting are usually characterized as harsh and unpleasant; thus it is more appropriate as a safety device in live sound and broadcast applications than as a sound-sculpting tool.

Some modern consumer electronics devices incorporate limiters. Sony uses the Automatic Volume Limiter System (AVLS), on some audio products and the PlayStation Portable. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The PlayStation Portable , officially abbreviated as PSP) is a handheld game console released and currently manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment. ...

See also: Clipping (audio)
Limiting and Clipping compared. Note that clipping introduces a large amount of distortion whereas Limiting only introduces a small amount while keeping the signal within the threshold.
Limiting and Clipping compared. Note that clipping introduces a large amount of distortion whereas Limiting only introduces a small amount while keeping the signal within the threshold.

The altered peaks and troughs of the sinusoidal waveform displayed on this oscilloscope indicate the signal has been clipped. ...


The sidechain of a feed-forward compressor
The sidechain of a feed-forward compressor

Side-chaining uses the signal level of another input or an equalized version of the original input to control the compression level of the original signal. For sidechains that key off of external inputs, when the external signal is stronger, the compressor acts more strongly to reduce output gain. This is used by disc jockeys to lower the music volume automatically when speaking; in this example, the DJ's microphone signal is converted to line level signal and routed to a stereo compressor's sidechain input. The music level is routed through the stereo compressor so that whenever the DJ speaks, the compressor reduces the volume of the music, a process called ducking. The sidechain of a compressor that has EQ controls can be used to reduce the volume of signals that have a strong spectral content within the frequency range of interest. Such a compressor can be used as a de-esser, reducing the level of annoying vocal sibilance in the range of 6-9 kHz. A frequency-specific compressor can be assembled from a standard compressor and an equalizer by feeding a 6-9 kHz-boosted copy of the original signal into the side-chain input of the compressor. A de-esser helps reduce high frequencies that tend to overdrive preemphasized media (such as phonograph records and FM radio). Another use of the side-chain in music production serves to maintain a loud bass track, while still keeping the bass out of the way of the drum when the drum hits. A side chain in sound dynamics processing is a feature of compressors that allows for the processor to be triggered by an external signal as opposed to the signal that it processes. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Ducking is an effect commonly used in pop music and espicially dance music. ... In processing electronic audio signals preemphasis refers to a system process designed to increase, within a band of frequencies, the magnitude of some (usually higher) frequencies with respect to the magnitude of other (usually lower) frequencies in order to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio by minimizing the adverse...

A stereo compressor without a sidechain can be used as a mono compressor with a sidechain. The key or sidechain signal is sent to the first (main) input of the stereo compressor while the signal that is to be compressed is routed into and out of the second channel of the compressor.

Parallel compression

One technique is to insert the compressor in a parallel signal path. This is known as parallel compression or upward compression, and can give a measure of dynamic control without significant audible side effects, if the ratio is relatively low and the compressor's sound is relatively neutral. On the other hand, a high compression ratio with significant audible artifacts can be chosen in one of the two parallel signal paths — this is used by some concert mixers as an artistic effect called New York compression. Combining a linear signal with a compressor and then reducing the output gain of the compression chain results in low-level detail enhancement without any peak reduction (since the compressor will significantly add to the combined gain at low levels only). This will often be beneficial when compressing transient content, since high-level dynamic liveliness is still maintained, despite the overall dynamic range reduction. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Audio level compression. ...

Multiband compression

Multiband compressors are compressors that can act differently on different frequency bands. It is as if each bandpass has its own compressor with its own threshold, ratio, attack, and release. They are primarily an audio mastering tool, but their inclusion in digital audio workstation plug-in sets is increasing their use among mix engineers. Hardware multiband compressors are also commonly used in the on-air signal chain of a radio station, either AM or FM, in order to increase the station's apparent loudness without fear of overmodulation. Having a louder sound is often considered an advantage in commercial competition. However, adjusting a multiband output compressor of a radio station also requires some artistic sense of style, plenty of time and a good pair of ears. This is because the constantly changing spectral balance between audio bands may have an equalizing effect on the output, by dynamically modifying the on-air frequency response. A further deveploment of this approach is programmable radio output processing, where the parameters of the multiband compressor automatically change between different settings according to the current programme block style or the time of day. Mastering, a form of audio post-production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master); the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication). ... A digital audio workstation (DAW) is a system designed to record, edit and play back digital audio. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... Overmodulation is the condition that prevails in telecommunication when the instantaneous level of the modulating signal exceeds the value necessary to produce 100% modulation of the carrier. ...

Serial compression

Serial compression is a technique used in sound recording and mixing. Serial compression is achieved by using two fairly different compressors in a signal chain. One compressor will generally stabilize the dynamic range while the other will more aggressively compress stronger peaks. This is the normal internal signal routing in common combination devices marketed as "compressor-limiters", where an RMS compressor (for general gain control) would be directly followed by a fast peak sensing limiter (for overload protection). Done properly, even heavy serial compression can sound very natural in a way not possible with a single compressor. It is most often used to even out erratic vocals and guitars. “Sound recorder” redirects here. ... Audio mixing is used in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems to balance the relative volume and frequency content of a number of sound sources. ... Audio level compression, also called dynamic range compression, volume compression, compression, limiting, or DRC (often seen in DVD player settings) is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ...

Common uses

Public spaces

Compression is often used to make music sound louder without increasing its peak amplitude. By compressing the peak (or loudest) signals, it becomes possible to increase the overall gain (or volume) of a signal without exceeding the dynamic limits of a reproduction device or medium. The net effect, when compression is applied along with a gain boost, is that relatively quiet sounds become louder, while louder sounds remain unchanged.

Compression is often applied in this manner in audio systems for restaurants, retail, and similar public environments, where background music is played at a relatively low volume and needs to be compressed not just to keep the volume fairly constant, but also in order for relatively quiet parts of the music to be audible over ambient noise, or audible at all.

Compression can be used to increase the average output gain of a power amplifier by 50 to 100% with a reduced dynamic range. For paging and evacuation systems, this adds clarity under noisy circumstances and saves on the number of amplifiers required. For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ...

Music production

See also: Loudness war

Compression is often used in music production to make performances more consistent in dynamic range so that they "sit" in the mix of other instruments better and maintain consistent attention from the listener. Vocal performances in rock music or pop music are usually compressed in order to make them stand out from the surrounding instruments and to add to the clarity of the vocal performance. The phrase loudness war (or loudness race) refers to the music industrys tendency to record, produce and broadcast music at progressively increasing levels of loudness each year to create a sound that stands out from others and the previous year. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ...

Compression can also be used on instrument sounds to create effects not primarily focused on boosting loudness. For instance, drum and cymbal sounds tend to decay quickly, but a compressor can make the sound appear to have a more sustained tail. Guitar sounds are often compressed in order to obtain a fuller, more sustained sound. The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ...

Most devices capable of compressing audio dynamics can also be used to reduce the volume of one audio source when another audio source reaches a certain level; see Side-Chaining above.


A compressor can be used to reduce sibilance ('ess' sounds) in vocals by feeding the compressor with an EQ set to the relevant frequencies, so that only those frequencies activate the compressor. If unchecked, sibilance could cause distortion even if sound levels are not very high. This usage is called 'de-essing'. [1] The presence of strongly emphasized s, sh, ch, z, j sounds in speech called sibilants. ...

Compression is used in voice communications in amateur radio that employ SSB modulation. Often it is used to make a particular station's signal more readable to a distant station, or to make one's station's transmitted signal stand out against others. This occurs especially in pileups where amateur radio stations are competing for the opportunity to talk to a DX station. Since an SSB signal's amplitude depends on the level of modulation, the net result is that the average amplitude of the signal and hence average transmitted power would be stronger than it would be had compression not been used.[7] Most modern amateur radio SSB transceivers have speech compressors built in. Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is a refinement of the technique of amplitude modulation designed to be more efficient in its use of electrical power and bandwidth. ... DX communication is communication over great distances using the ionosphere to refract the transmitted radio beam. ... It has been suggested that pulse amplitude be merged into this article or section. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ...

Compression is also used in land mobile radio, especially in transmit audio of professional walkie-talkies and in remote control dispatch consoles. Motorola HT1000 hand-held two-way radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content one way. ... A walkie-talkie is a portable, bi-directional radio transceiver, first developed for military use. ... A Motorola T-1300 series remote control is built in a telephone housing. ...


Compression is used extensively in broadcasting to boost the perceived volume of sound while reducing the dynamic range of source audio (typically CDs) to a range that can be accommodated by the narrower-range broadcast signal. Broadcasters in most countries have legal limits on instantaneous peak volume they may broadcast. Normally these limits are met by permanently inserted hardware in the on-air chain (see multiband compression above). Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...

As was alluded to above, the use of compressors to boost perceived volume is a favorite trick of broadcasters who want their station to sound "louder" at the same volume than comparable stations on the dial. The effect is to make the more heavily compressed station "jump out" at the listener at a given volume setting. This technique was begun with competitive AM rock stations of the 1960s. AM broadcasters had no qualms about heavy compression since AM radio had such poor dynamic range anyway. The Gates Sta-level was an often used compressor that would reduce "highs" and boost "lows" to yield a very "punchy" sound with the perceived increased volume energy mentioned above.

Heavy compression also complimented the style of 60s DJs who talked/shouted over the music. With the proper setting, a DJ could be "mixed" into the music, rather than being heard over it. This demanded that DJs deliver their patter with a very loud voice to be heard over the music, which added to the energy of the broadcased sound (and which led to the much-parodied style of DJs who spoke with seeming over-emphasis on their words (called "pukers" in the business). This allowed DJs to talk "in" rather than over the music without being as intrusive.

As rock became prevalent on FM in the mid-60s, the CBS Volumax/Audimax was one legendary compression rig used, favored because it only "expanded" (lifting soft volume) if any existed. Consequently, it wouldn't expand an unmodulated signal, avoiding the boosting of the noise floor (hiss) as many previous units did. However, it could create an annoying "sucking and pumping" effect (compression and expansion) if driven too severely.

In its effort to deliver a constant modulation (volume level) to the listener, compression works against the wider dynamic range of FM (as compared to AM) which was traditonally one of FM's obvious strong points. Consequently, the so-called "album rock" stations of the 70s and classical music and "easy listening" stations of that era in particular, avoided heavy compression. Classical stations hardly use any, which explains why a classical listener, particularly in the car, must keep turning the volume up and down, constantly fighting the ambient noise prevalent in car listening.

The same recording can have very different dynamics when heard via AM, FM, CD, or other media (although frequency response and noise are large factors as well). AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Frequency response is the measure of any systems response to frequency, but is usually used in connection with electronic amplifiers and similar systems, particularly in relation to audio signals. ... Noise in audio, recording, and broadcast sytems refers to the residual low level sound (usually hiss and hum) that is heard in quiet periods of programme. ...


With the advent of the CD and digital music, record companies, mixing engineers and mastering engineers have been gradually increasing the overall volume of commercial albums. Originally they would just push the volume up so that the single loudest point was at full volume, but more recently by using higher degrees of compression and limiting during mixing and mastering, compression algorithms have been engineered specifically to accomplish the task of maximizing audio level in the digital stream. Hard limiting or hard clipping can result, affecting the tone and timbre of the music in a way that one critic describes as "dogshit". [8] The effort to increase loudness has been referred to as the "loudness wars". CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Audio mixing is used in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems to balance the relative volume and frequency content of a number of sound sources. ... Audio mastering is the process of preparing and transfering recorded audio to a medium for future duplication. ... The altered peaks and troughs of the sinusoidal waveform displayed on this oscilloscope indicate the signal has been clipped. ...

Most television commercials are compressed heavily (typically to a dynamic range of no more than 3dB) in order to achieve near-maximum perceived loudness while staying within permissible limits. This is the explanation for the chronic problem that TV viewers and listeners have noticed for years. While commercials receive heavy compression for the same reason that radio broadcasters have traditionally used it (to achieve a "loud" audio image), TV program material, particularly old movies with soft dialog, are comparatively uncompressed by TV station. This results in commercials which blow the viewer out of his/her seat, since the volume has been turned up to hear soft program audio. This problem is a difficult one to solve, because much TV program audio, particularly the aforementioned old movies, has very little audio energy in it. Consequently, there isn't much that can be electronically "expanded" with a compressor, in an attempt to even out the volume. Even across the cable TV dial with a myriad of audio program volume sources, there a wild disparity of audio volume levels.

Other uses

A compressor is sometimes used to reduce the dynamic range of a signal for transmission, to be expanded afterwards. This reduces the effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. See Companding. A waveform before and after the compression stage of non-linear companding In telecommunication, signal processing, and thermodynamics, companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of reducing the effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. ...

Gain pumping, where a regular amplitude peak (such as a kick drum) causes the rest of the mix to change in volume due to the compressor, is generally avoided in music production. However, many dance musicians purposefully use this phenomenon, causing the mix to alter in volume rhythmically in time with the beat. Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ...

A compressor is used in hearing aids to bring the audio volume in the range of the ears of the patient. To allow the patient to still hear the direction from which the sound is coming, binaural compression may be required.

Compressors for software audio players

Some software audio players support plugins which implement compression. These can be used to increase the perceived volume of audio tracks, or to even out the volume of highly-variable music (such as classical music, or a playlist spanning many music types). This improves the listenability of audio when played through poor-quality speakers, or when played in noisy environments (such as in a car or during a party). Such software may also be used in micro-broadcasting or home-based audio mastering. An audio player is a kind of media player for playing back digital audio, including optical discs such as CDs, SACDs, DVD-Audio, HDCD, and audio files. ... For other uses, see Plug in. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ...

Available software includes:

To achieve volume-compressed playback on devices other than computer-based audio players, files may need to be processed via the above software then output as wavs, mp3s, or other audio formats. Winamp is a proprietary media player written by Nullsoft, now a subsidiary of Time Warner. ... ffdshow is an open source decoder (and encoder) mainly used for the fast and high-quality decoding of video in the MPEG-4 ASP (e. ... A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ... Windows Media Player (WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. ... Quintessential Player version 4. ... Winamp is a proprietary media player written by Nullsoft, now a subsidiary of Time Warner. ... XMMSs default appearance The X Multimedia System (XMMS) is a free audio player very similar to Winamp, that runs on many Unix-like operating systems. ... Audacious is a free software media player for POSIX standards compliant based systems. ... Audiograbber is a CD ripper created for the operating system Microsoft Windows, and originally created by Jackie Franck. ... Audio normalization is the process of increasing (or decreasing) the amplitude (volume) of a digital audio recording. ... foobar2000 is a freeware audio player for Windows developed by Peter Pawlowski, a former freelance contractor for Nullsoft. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ...

See also

In telecommunications, squelch is a circuit function that acts to suppress the audio (or video) output of a receiver in the absence of a sufficiently strong desired input signal. ... Automatic gain control (AGC) is an electronic system found in many types of devices. ... Voltage transfer curve for a 20 μm digital inverter constructed at North Carolina State University. ...

External links


  1. ^ Dynamic Range Processing and Digital Effects
  2. ^ Gain Control Devices, Side Chains, Audio Amplifiers
  3. ^ Universal Audio
  4. ^ Search
  5. ^ www.tcelectronic.com/media/droney_massey_2001_compres.pdf
  6. ^ www.tcelectronic.com/media/droney_massey_2001_compres.pdf
  7. ^ "HF Radio Systems & Circuits", Sabin & Schoenike, editors. Noble, 1998, pp. 13-25, 271-290
  8. ^ Rip Rowan. Over The Limit (2002)

  Results from FactBites:
hearing technology article written by Leonard Zehr about the hearing aid. (1946 words)
The microprocessor in the hearing aid drives 14 separate compression bands, compared with an industry standard of four.
Noise management: By breaking down sound waves into 14 compression bands, the microprocessor separates incoming signals into speech and noise patterns, and eliminates noise without affecting speech.
Wide dynamic range compression: The 14-band system also allows the hearing aid to sense incoming soft sounds, amplifying them to audible levels without adding a similar amount of amplification to loud sounds.
  More results at FactBites »



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