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Encyclopedia > Dynamic equilibrium

A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two reversible processes occur at the same rate. Many processes (such as some chemical reactions) are reversible. In thermodynamics, a reversible process (or reversible cycle if the process is cyclic) is a process that can be reversed by means of infinitesimal changes in some property of the system (Sears and Salinger, 1986). ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved...

An example of the process can be imagined if a bucket is filled with water and placed in a small room. The water from the bucket will evaporate, and the air in the room will start to become saturated with water vapor. Eventually, the air will be completely saturated with water, and the level of water in the bucket will stop falling. However, water from the bucket is still evaporating. What is happening is that molecules of water in the air will occasionally hit the surface of the water and condense back into the liquid water, and this occurs at the same rate at which water evaporates from the bucket. This is an example of dynamic equilibrium, because the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with steam. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Chemical substances are not infinitely divisible into smaller fractions of the same substance: a molecule is generally considered the smallest particle of a pure...

The concept of dynamic equilibrium is not limited to simple changes of state such as that described above. It is often applied to the analysis of chemical reaction kinetics, to obtain useful information about the ratios of reactants and products which will form at equilibrium. It should be noted that at equilibrium the concentrations of the reactants and the concentrations of the products are constant. Chemical substances in a system may increase or decrease in concentration with time due to chemical reactions. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...

The term also has applications across a wide range of disciplines. While it may be applied to less physical systems in these fields, it still relates to a stable situation maintained by balancing processes. For example: in economics it may be used to refer to the constant flux of capital in otherwise stable markets; in ecology, an unchanging population of organisms results from the balancing of birth rate against death rate. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

This term can also be used to refer to a steady state (i.e., a state which isn't a true equilibrium, but does not change with time). This can only happen if the system is in contact with an environment which is not in equilibrium. For alternative meanings see steady state (disambiguation). ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Exploratory Activity: Dynamic Equilibrium (462 words)
The concept of equilibrium is a very important one to scientists in all fields.
Static equilibrium refers to a condition in which the parts of a system have stopped moving, and is rare in nature.
Dynamic equilibrium refers to a condition in which the parts of a system are in continuous motion, but they move in opposing directions at equal rates so that the system as a whole does not change.
  More results at FactBites »



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