FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Dye" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum.
Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum.

A dye can generally be described as a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1797, 1348 KB) Summary Yarn drying after being dyed in early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum in Fishers, Indiana. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1797, 1348 KB) Summary Yarn drying after being dyed in early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum in Fishers, Indiana. ... 1886 base ball demonstration at Liberty Corner. ... The old town (Den gamle by) — an open air museum in the town of Aarhus, Denmark An open air museum is a distinct type of museum exhibiting its collections out-of-doors. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Chemical affinity results from electronic properties by which dissimilar substances are capable of forming chemical compounds. ... The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Both dyes and pigments appear to be colored because they absorb some wavelengths of light preferentially. In contrast with a dye, a pigment generally is insoluble, and has no affinity for the substrate. Some dyes can be precipitated with an inert salt to produce a lake pigment. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... A Lake pigment is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, usually a metallic salt. ...


Archaeological evidence shows that, particularly in India and the Middle East, dyeing has been carried out for over 5000 years. The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin, with no or very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a commercial scale. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Organic dyes

The first human-made (synthetic) organic dye, mauveine, was discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856. Many thousands of synthetic dyes have since been prepared. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Mauveine, also known as aniline purple, was the first synthetic organic dye. ... William Perkin (1838-1907) Sir William Henry Perkin FRS (March 12, 1838 – July 14, 1907) was an English chemist best known for his discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine. ...


Synthetic dyes quickly replaced the traditional natural dyes. They cost less, they offered a vast range of new colors, and they imparted better properties upon the dyed materials.[1] Dyes are now classified according to how they are used in the dyeing process.


Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dyebaths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least partly, to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Acid dye is a member of a class of dye that is applied from an acidic solution. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... In chemistry, an anionic species is one that contains a full negative charge. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Look up acrylic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry, a cationic species is one that contains a full positive charge. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are mainly applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Usually acetic acid is added to the dyebath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are also used in the coloration of paper. Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer with a weight average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


Direct or substantive dyeing is normally carried out in a neutral or slightly alkaline dyebath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride (NaCl) or sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather, wool, silk and nylon. They are also used as pH indicators and as biological stains. Dye molecules are attracted by physical forces at the molecular level to the textile. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A... Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ...


Mordant dyes require a mordant, which improves the fastness of the dye against water, light and perspiration. The choice of mordant is very important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques. The most important mordant dyes are the synthetic mordant dyes, or chrome dyes, used for wool; these comprise some 30% of dyes used for wool, and are especially useful for black and navy shades. The mordant, potassium dichromate, is applied as an after-treatment. It is important to note that many mordants, particularly those in the hard metal category, can be hazardous to health and extreme care must be taken in using them. Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7 is used in oxidation reactions. ...

Look up leuco form in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Vat dyes are essentially insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water soluble alkali metal salt of the dye, which, in this leuco form, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye. The indigo color of blue jeans is a vat dye. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... ♣Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically. ... Lye is a caustic solution, rich in potassium carbonate (potash), used for glass and soap making. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore containing a substituent that is capable of directly reacting with the fibre substrate. The covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make it among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes, such as Procion MX, Cibacron F, and Drimarene K, are very easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibers at home or in the art studio. In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that is activated and allowed to directly react to the surface of the substrate. ... A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. ... In organic chemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Procion is a brand of fibre reactive dyes. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Disperse dyes were originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, and are substantially water insoluble. The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and then sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. They can also be used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, polyester and acrylic fibres. In some cases, a dyeing temperature of 130 °C is required, and a pressurised dyebath is used. The very fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fibre. The dyeing rate can be significantly influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding. Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... Cellulose triacetate, also known simply as triacetate, is manufactured from cellulose and acetate. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Azo dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble azoic dye is produced directly onto or within the fibre. This is achieved by treating a fibre with both diazoic and coupling components. With suitable adjustment of dyebath conditions the two components react to produce the required insoluble azo dye. This technique of dyeing is unique, in that the final color is controlled by the choice of the diazoic and coupling components. In chemistry, azo compounds generally have a molecular formula of the form R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aromatic or aliphatic. ... In general, a things components are its parts; the things that compose it. ...


Sulfur dyes are two part "developed" dyes used to dye cotton with dark colors. The initial bath imparts a yellow or pale chartreuse color. This is oxidized in place to produce the dark black we are familiar with in socks. Sulfur dyes are the biggest volume dyes manufactured for cotton. ... Chartreuse may refer to: The Chartreuse Mountains north of Grenoble, France. ...


Food dyes

One other class which describes the role of dyes, rather than their mode of use, is the food dye. Because food dyes are classed as food additives, they are manufactured to a higher standard than some industrial dyes. Food dyes can be direct, mordant and vat dyes, and their use is strictly controlled by legislation. Many are azoic dyes, although anthraquinone and triphenylmethane compounds are used for colors such as green and blue. Some naturally-occurring dyes are also used. Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Azoic redirects here. ... Anthraquinone (9,10-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic organic compound whose structure is shown to the right. ... french: triphényl méthane english: triphenyl methane other: methane triphenyl Boiling point: 78,2 C (from CRC Handbook) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ...


Other important dyes

A number of other classes have also been established, including:

  • Oxidation bases, for mainly hair and fur
  • Leather dyes, for leather
  • Fluorescent brighteners, for textile fibres and paper
  • Solvent dyes, for wood staining and producing colored lacquers, solvent inks, coloring oils, waxes.
  • Carbene dyes, a recently developed method for coloring multiple substrates

Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Fluorescent brightening agents or optical brightening agents or fluorescent whitening agents are dyes that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region. ... A solvent dye is a dye soluble in organic solvents. ... A carbene dye is a reactive dye based on carbene chemistry. ...

Chemical classification

By the nature of their chromophore, dyes are divided into: [1] A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. ...

  • Category:Acridine dyes, derivates of acridine
  • Category:Anthraquinone dyes, derivates of anthraquinone
  • Arylmethane dyes
    • Category:Diarylmethane dyes, based on diphenyl methane
    • Category:Triarylmethane dyes, derivates of triphenyl methane
  • Category:Azo dyes, based on -N=N- azo structure
  • Cyanine dyes, derivates of phthalocyanine
  • Diazonium dyes, based on diazonium salts
  • Nitro dyes, based on a -NO2 nitro functional group
  • Nitroso dyes, based on a -N=O nitroso functional group
  • Phthalocyanine dyes, derivates of phthalocyanine
  • Quinone-imine dyes, derivates of quinone
    • Category:Azin dyes
      • Category:Eurhodin dyes
      • Category:Safranin dyes, derivates of safranin
    • Indamins
    • Category:Indophenol dyes, derivates of indophenol
    • Category:Oxazin dyes, derivates of oxazin
    • Oxazone dyes, derivates of oxazone
    • Category:Thiazin dyes, derivates of thiazin
  • Category:Thiazole dyes, derivates of thiazole
  • Xanthene dyes, derived from xanthene
    • Fluorene dyes, derivates of fluorene
      • Pyronin dyes
      • Category:Rhodamine dyes, derivates of rhodamine
    • Category:Fluorone dyes, based on fluorone

Acridine, C13H9N, is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle. ... Anthraquinone (9,10-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic organic compound whose structure is shown to the right. ... Biphenyl (or diphenyl or 1,1-biphenyl or lemonene) is a solid organic compound that forms colorless to yellowish crystals. ... Triphenylmethane Triphenylmethane, or triphenyl methane, is a hydrocarbon. ... Azo compounds refer to chemical compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aryl or alkyl. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Phenyldiazonium cation Diazonium compounds or diazonium salts are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the characteristic structure of R-N2+ X- where R can be any organic residue such alkyl or aryl and X is an inorganic or organic anion such as a halogen. ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (NO2). ... Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the general formula R-NO. Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A quinone (or benzoquinone) is either one of the two isomers of cyclohexadienedione or a derivative thereof. ... Safranin (also Safranin O or basic red 2) is a biological stain used in histology and cytology. ... Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a clear to pale yellow flammable liquid and pyridine-like odor with the molecular formula C3H3NS. It is a 5-membered ring, in which two of the vertices of the ring are nitrogen and sulfur, and the other three are carbons [1]. Thiazole is... Xanthene (9H-xanthene, 10H-9-oxaanthracene) is a yellow organic heterocyclic compound. ... Fluorene, or 9H-fluorene, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. ... Rhodamine B Rhodamine 6G Rhodamine (IPA: []) is a family of related chemical compounds, fluorone dyes. ... Fluorone Fluorone is the basic skeleton for various chemicals, most notably fluorone dyes (see dyes). ...

See also

  • Hair coloring
  • Phototendering
  • Stain
  • Category:Natural dyes
  • Category:Pigments
    • Category:Inorganic pigments

Hair coloring products generally fall into four categories: temporary, semipermanent, deposit only/demi, and permanent. ... The process by which organic fibres and textiles lose strength and flexibility as a result of exposure to sunlight. ... For other uses, see Stain (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Simon Garfield (2000). Mauve: How One Man Invented a Color That Changed the World. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-393-02005-3. 

Faber and Faber is a celebrated publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing the poetry of T. S. Eliot. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NPR : David Dye (434 words)
Dye launched his distinguished broadcasting career as host of a progressive music show on WMMR 93.3FM, a pioneering progressive rock station in Philadelphia.
Based on the findings, Dye went to work to create a unique program of musical discovery where listeners would be introduced to an eclectic blend of contemporary sounds from legendary and up-and-coming artists.
Dye is a resident of Philadelphia, Penn., where he lives with his wife, a newspaper columnist, and their two children.
Dye Summary (1806 words)
Dyes from plants included blue dye from the indigo plant; blue dye from woad; red and brown dyes from the madder plant; yellow, orange, brown, and fl dyes from various trees; orange or red dye from henna; and yellow from safflower and weld.
Dyes were dissolved and applied to the cloth and the color change would take place either because the dye molecules became bonded to the fiber molecules or because the dye was unable to pass out of the fibers' fine capillaries once it is inside of them.
The dye is usually used as an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m