FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower

In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Vice President(s) Richard Nixon
Preceded by Harry S. Truman
Succeeded by John F. Kennedy

In office
April 2, 1951 – May 30, 1952
Succeeded by Gen. Matthew Ridgway

Born October 14, 1890(1890-10-14)
Denison, Texas
Died March 28, 1969 (aged 78)
Washington, D.C.
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Mamie Doud Eisenhower
Alma mater U.S. Military Academy, West Point
Occupation Soldier (General of the Army)
Religion Presbyterian
Signature Dwight D. Eisenhower's signature

Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890March 28, 1969), nicknamed "Ike", was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,798 × 3,484 pixels, file size: 1. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The NATO structure is divided into two commands, one for operations and one for transformation. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Motto: A jewel at the crossing of a great river! Location of Denison, Texas Coordinates: Country United States of America State Texas County Grayson Founded 1872  - Mayor Robert Brady Area    - City  22. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... GOP redirects here. ... Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979) was the wife of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961. ... USMA redirects here. ... This article is about a military rank. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary force was a title held by Dwight D. Eisenhower during the Second World War. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Eisenhower was elected the 34th President as a Republican, serving for two terms. As President, he oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System. The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ...

Contents

Early life and family

Eisenhower family home, Abilene, Kansas (Robert E. Nylund)

Eisenhower (historically "Eisenhauer") was born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas.[2] He was the first U.S. President born in Texas. Eisenhower was the third of seven sons born to David Jacob Eisenhower and Ida Elizabeth Stover. He was named David Dwight and was called Dwight. Later, the order of his given names was switched (according to the staff at the Eisenhower Library and Museum, the name switch occurred upon Eisenhower's matriculation at West Point). Hans Nicolas Eisenhauer and his family emigrated from Karlsbrunn (Saarland), Germany to Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1741. The family settled in Abilene, Kansas in 1892. Eisenhower's father was a college-educated engineer.[3] Eisenhower graduated from Abilene High School in 1909.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 386 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author:Robert E. Nylund Source:Personal Photos I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 386 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author:Robert E. Nylund Source:Personal Photos I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Motto: A jewel at the crossing of a great river! Location of Denison, Texas Coordinates: Country United States of America State Texas County Grayson Founded 1872  - Mayor Robert Brady Area    - City  22. ... David Jacob Eisenhower (September 23, 1863–March 10, 1942) was an American engineer, the father or U.S. President Dwight David Eisenhower. ... Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower (May 1, 1862–September 11, 1946) was a lifelong pacificist, and the mother of U.S. President Dwight David Eisenhower. ... USMA redirects here. ... Großrosseln is a village and a municipality in the district of Saarbrücken, in Saarland, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Nickname: Location of Lancaster County in Pennsylvania Location of Lancaster in Lancaster County Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lancaster Founded 1730 Incorporated March 10, 1818 Government  - Mayor Rick Gray (D) Area  - City  7. ... Abilene is a city in Dickinson County, Kansas, United States, 163 miles (262 km) west of Kansas City. ... Abilene High School is located in the town of Abilene, Kansas. ...

Eisenhower with his wife Mamie on the steps of St. Mary's University of San Antonio, Texas in 1916
Eisenhower with his wife Mamie on the steps of St. Mary's University of San Antonio, Texas in 1916

Eisenhower married Mamie Geneva Doud (1896–1979) of Denver, Colorado on July 1, 1916. The couple had two sons. Doud Dwight Eisenhower was born September 24, 1917, and was nicknamed "Icky" by his parents, but died of scarlet fever on January 2, 1921, at the age of three.[5] John Sheldon David Doud Eisenhower was born the following year on August 3, 1922; John grew up to serve in the United States Army (retiring as a brigadier general from the Army reserve), became an author, and served as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971. John's son, David Eisenhower, after whom Camp David is named, married Richard Nixon's daughter Julie in 1968. Download high resolution version (1260x2248, 1120 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Dwight D. Eisenhower Mamie Eisenhower Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1260x2248, 1120 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Dwight D. Eisenhower Mamie Eisenhower Categories: U.S. history images ... St. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979) was the wife of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Dwight David Eisenhower II (born 1948) is the grandson of the supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II and the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower was born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C. the second daughter of Richard and Pat Nixon. ...


Religion

David Jacob Eisenhower's family arrived in the United States in 1741 when Hans Nicholas Eisenhauer emigrated from Odenwald, Germany. Eisenhower's mother, Ida E. Eisenhower, previously a member of the River Brethren, joined the Watchtower Society (now more commonly known as Jehovah's Witnesses) in 1895, when Eisenhower was 4 or 5 years old.[citation needed] The Eisenhower home served as the local meeting hall from 1896 to 1915. A number of corporations are in use by Jehovahs Witnesses. ...


Jehovah’s Witnesses are opposed to killing or any doctrines such as militarism; Eisenhower's ties to the group were weakened when he joined the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1911. By 1915, the home no longer served as the meeting hall. All the men in the household abandoned the Witnesses as adults, and some even hid their previous affiliation.[6][7] However, on his death in 1942, Eisenhower's father was given his funeral rites as though he remained a Jehovah's Witness, and Eisenhower's mother continued as an active Jehovah's Witness until her death. Despite their differences in religious beliefs, Eisenhower enjoyed a close relationship with his mother throughout her lifetime. Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... USMA redirects here. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ...


Eisenhower was baptized, confirmed, and became a communicant in the Presbyterian church in a single ceremony on February 1, 1953, just 12 days after his first inauguration.[8] He is the only president known to have pursued these rites while in office. Eisenhower was instrumental in the addition of the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance in 1954, and the 1956 adoption of "In God We Trust" as the motto of the US, and its 1957 introduction on paper currency. In his retirement years, he was a member of the Gettysburg Presbyterian Church.[9] The chapel at his presidential library is intentionally inter-denominational. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States and the its national flag. ... For other uses, see In God We Trust (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ...


Education

Dwight D. Eisenhower (and his six brothers) attended Abilene High School in Abilene, Kansas; Dwight graduated with the class of 1909.[4] He then took a job as a night foreman at the Belle Springs Creamery.[10]


After Dwight worked for two years to support his brother Edgar's college education, a friend urged him to apply to the Naval Academy. Though Eisenhower passed the entrance exam, he was beyond the age of eligibility for admission to the Naval Academy.[11] The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ...


Kansas Senator Joseph L. Bristow recommended Dwight for an appointment to the Military Academy in 1911, which he received.[11] Eisenhower graduated in the upper half[12] of the class of 1915.[13] Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Joseph Little Bristow (July 22, 1861-July 14, 1944) was an American politician from Kansas. ...


Early military career

See also: Military career of Dwight D. Eisenhower

Eisenhower enrolled at the United States Military Academy at West Point in June 1911. His parents were against militarism, but did not object to his entering West Point because they supported his education. Eisenhower was a strong athlete. In 1912, a spectacular Eisenhower touchdown won praise from the sports reporter of the New York Herald, and he even managed, with the help of a linebacker partner, to tackle the legendary Jim Thorpe. In the very next week, however, his promising sports career came to a quick and painful end — he injured his knee quite severely when he was tackled around the ankles.[14] Dwight Eisenhower in 1947 The military career of Dwight D. Eisenhower encompassed over forty years of active service to include the following assignments, dates of rank, and awards. ... Texas Longhorn quarterback Vince Young (center top of picture), now with the Tennessee Titans, rushing for a touchdown vs. ... The New York Herald was a large distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between May 6, 1835 and 1924. ... This article relates to sports. ... For other uses, see Jim Thorpe (disambiguation). ...


Eisenhower graduated in 1915. He served with the infantry until 1918 at various camps in Texas and Georgia. During World War I, Eisenhower became the #3 leader of the new tank corps and rose to temporary Lieutenant Colonel in the National Army. He spent the war training tank crews in Pennsylvania and never saw combat. After the war, Eisenhower reverted to his regular rank of captain (and was promoted to major a few days later) before assuming duties at Camp Meade, Maryland, where he remained until 1922. His interest in tank warfare was strengthened by many conversations with George S. Patton and other senior tank leaders; however their ideas on tank warfare were strongly discouraged by superiors.[15] Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States National Guard. ... The National Army was the combined conscript and volunteer force that was formed by the United States War Department in 1917 to fight in World War I. The National Army was formed from the old corps of the United States Army, augmented by units of the United States National Guard... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Fort George G. Meade, 5 miles (8 km) northeast of the town of Laurel, Maryland, is a semi_active US Army installation. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... George Patton redirects here. ...


Eisenhower became executive officer to General Fox Conner in the Panama Canal Zone, where he served until 1924. Under Conner's tutelage, he studied military history and theory (including Karl von Clausewitz's On War), and later cited Conner's enormous influence on his military thinking. In 1925-26, he attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and then served as a battalion commander at Fort Benning, Georgia until 1927. Fox Conner (November 2, 1874-October 13, 1951) was a major general of the United States Army. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Carl Phillip Gottlieb von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 - November 16, 1831) was a Prussian general and influential military thinker. ... The Command and General Staff College (C&GSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a United States Army facility that functions as a graduate school for U.S. military leaders. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Fort Benning is a United States Army base, located southwest of Columbus in Muscogee and Chattahoochee counties in Georgia and Russell County, Alabama It is part of the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...

The Eisenhowers by the Malecón in Manila, Philippines

During the late 1920s and early 1930s Eisenhower's career in the peacetime Army stagnated; many of his friends resigned for high paying business jobs. He was assigned to the American Battle Monuments Commission, directed by General John J. Pershing, then to the Army War College, and then served as executive officer to General George V. Mosely, Assistant Secretary of War, from 1929 to 1933. He then served as chief military aide to General Douglas MacArthur, Army Chief of Staff, until 1935, when he accompanied MacArthur to the Philippines, where he served as assistant military adviser to the Philippine government. It is sometimes said that this assignment provided valuable preparation for handling the egos of Winston Churchill, George S. Patton and Bernard Law Montgomery during World War II. Eisenhower was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1936 after sixteen years as a major. He also learned to fly, although he was never rated as a military pilot. He made a solo flight over the Philippines in 1937. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1891x1260, 1506 KB)The Eisenhower Family by the Malecón in Manila. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1891x1260, 1506 KB)The Eisenhower Family by the Malecón in Manila. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is a small independent agency of the Executive Branch of the United States federal government. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... The United States Army War College is a U. S. Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, specifically in the historic Carlisle Barracks. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and...


Eisenhower returned to the U.S. in 1939 and held a series of staff positions in Washington, D.C., California and Texas. In June 1941, he was appointed Chief of Staff to General Walter Krueger, Commander of the 3rd Army, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas. He was promoted to brigadier general in September 1941. Although his administrative abilities had been noticed, on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II he had never held an active command and was far from being considered as a potential commander of major operations. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Walter Krueger (26 January 1881-20 August 1967) was a German-American soldier and general in the first half of the 20th century. ... Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


World War II

Eisenhower (seated, middle) with other American military officials, 1945. General Patton is seated second from the left.
Eisenhower (seated, middle) with other American military officials, 1945. General Patton is seated second from the left.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington, where he served until June 1942 with responsibility for creating the major war plans to defeat Japan and Germany. He was appointed Deputy Chief in charge of Pacific Defenses under the Chief of War Plans Division, General Leonard T. Gerow, and then succeeded Gerow as Chief of the War Plans Division. Then he was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff in charge of Operations Division under Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall. It was his close association with Marshall which finally brought Eisenhower to senior command positions. Marshall recognized his great organizational and administrative abilities. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2837x2264, 1239 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dwight D. Eisenhower George S. Patton European Theater of Operations Leonard T. Gerow Military history of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2837x2264, 1239 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dwight D. Eisenhower George S. Patton European Theater of Operations Leonard T. Gerow Military history of... This article is about the actual attack. ... Leonard Townsend Gerow (July 13, 1888 - October 12, 1972) was born in Petersburg, Virginia. ... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ...


In 1942, Eisenhower was appointed Commanding General, European Theater of Operations (ETOUSA) and was based in London. In November, he was also appointed Supreme Commander Allied (Expeditionary) Force of the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA) through the new operational Headquarters A(E)FHQ. The word "expeditionary" was dropped soon after his appointment for security reasons. In February 1943, his authority was extended as commander of AFHQ across the Mediterranean basin to include the British 8th Army, commanded by General Bernard Law Montgomery. The 8th Army had advanced across the Western Desert from the east and was ready for the start of the Tunisia Campaign. Eisenhower gained his fourth star and gave up command of ETOUSA to be commander of NATOUSA. After the capitulation of Axis forces in North Africa, Eisenhower remained in command of the renamed Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO), keeping the operational title and continued in command of NATOUSA redesignated MTOUSA. In this position he oversaw the invasion of Sicily and the invasion of the Italian mainland. The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to most United States military activity in Europe north of the Mediterranean coast. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF), was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. General Dwight Eisenhower was in command of SHAEF throughout its existence. ... The Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) was originally called North African Theater of Operations (NATO) and is an American term for the conflict that took place between the Allies and Axis powers in North Africa and Italy during World War II. It begins with American troops, part of the Allied... Allied Forces Headquarters was the headquarters that controlled all Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre from late 1943 to the end of the war. ... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... The Western Desert Campaign was the primary early theatre of the North African Campaign of World War II. It is sometimes referred to as the Egypt-Libya Campaign. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States France Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Keneth Anderson Bernard Montgomery Albert Kesselring Erwin Rommel Hans-Jürgen von Arnim Giovanni Messe The Tunisia Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia), was a series of World War II battles that took place... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This pages deals with the United States militarys Mediterranean Theater of Operations. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Eisenhower speaks with U.S. paratroopers of the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944.
Eisenhower speaks with U.S. paratroopers of the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944.

In December 1943, it was announced that Eisenhower would be Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. In January 1944, he resumed command of ETOUSA and the following month was officially designated as the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), serving in a dual role until the end of hostilities in Europe in May 1945. In these positions he was charged with planning and carrying out the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy in June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord, the liberation of western Europe and the invasion of Germany. A month after the Normandy D-Day landings on June 6, 1944, the invasion of southern France took place, and control of the forces which took part in the southern invasion passed from the AFHQ to the SHAEF. From then until the end of the War in Europe on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower through SHAEF had supreme command of all operational Allied forces2, and through his command of ETOUSA, administrative command of all U.S. forces, on the Western Front north of the Alps. General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses American paratroopers on D-Day. ... General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses American paratroopers on D-Day. ... During World War II, the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment (502d PIR) was a regiment of the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Badge of SHAEF Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF, pronounced shāf), was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. General Dwight Eisenhower was in command of SHAEF throughout its existence. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... This article chronicles the end of the European Theatre of World War II. On April 25, 1945 United States and Soviet troops linked-up, cutting Germany in two. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


As recognition of his senior position in the Allied command, on December 20, 1944, he was promoted to General of the Army equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal in most European armies. In this and the previous high commands he held, Eisenhower showed his great talents for leadership and diplomacy. Although he had never seen action himself, he won the respect of front-line commanders. He dealt skillfully with difficult subordinates such as Omar Bradley and Patton, and allies such as Winston Churchill, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and General Charles de Gaulle. He had fundamental disagreements with Churchill and Montgomery over questions of strategy, but these rarely upset his relationships with them. He negotiated with Soviet Marshal Zhukov, and such was the confidence that President Franklin D. Roosevelt had in him, he sometimes worked directly with Stalin, much to the chagrin of the British High Command who disliked being bypassed. During the advance towards Berlin, he came to the conclusion that Allied forces would suffer an estimated of 100,000 casualties before taking the city.[citation needed] The Soviet Army sustained 80,000 casualties during the fighting in and around Berlin, the last large number of casualties suffered in the war against Nazism.[16] is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... George Patton redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... FDR redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


It was never certain that Operation Overlord would succeed. The seriousness surrounding the entire decision, including the timing and the location of the Normandy invasion, might be summarized by a second shorter speech that Eisenhower wrote in advance, in case he needed it. In it, he states he would take full responsibility for catastrophic failure, should that be the final result. Long after the successful landings on D-Day and the BBC broadcast of Eisenhower's brief speech concerning them, the never-used second speech was found in a shirt pocket by an aide. It read: The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ...

Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone.

Aftermath of World War II

Following the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone, based in Frankfurt am Main. Germany was divided into four Occupation Zones, one each for the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Upon full discovery of the death camps that were part of the Final Solution (Holocaust), he ordered camera crews to comprehensively document evidence of the atrocity so as to prevent any doubt of its occurrence. He made the decision to reclassify German prisoners of war (POWs) in U.S. custody as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEFs), thus depriving them of the protection of the Geneva convention. As DEFs, their food rations could be lowered and they could be compelled to serve as unfree labor (see Eisenhower and German POWs). Eisenhower was an early supporter of the Morgenthau Plan to permanently remove Germany's industrial capacity to wage future wars. In November 1945 he approved the distribution of 1000 free copies of Morgenthau's book Germany is Our Problem, which promoted and described the plan in detail, to American military officials in occupied Germany. Historian Stephen Ambrose draws the conclusion that, despite Eisenhower's later claims that the act was not an endorsement of the Morgenthau plan, Eisenhower both approved of the plan and had previously given Morgenthau at least some of his ideas on how Germany should be treated.[17] He also incorporated officials from Morgenthau's Treasury into the army of occupation. These were commonly called "Morgenthau boys" for their zeal in interpreting the occupation directive JCS 1067, which had been heavily influenced by Morgenthau and his plan, as strictly as possible.[18] Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Disarmed Enemy Forces is a designation for captive enemy soldiers. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Allegations made by Canadian novelist James Bacque were that nearly one million German prisoners of war, that Dwight Eisenhower redesignated as Disarmed Enemy Forces in order to avoid having to obey the third Geneva Convention, died of starvation or exposure while held in post-war Western internment camps. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Henry Morgenthau Jr. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ...

Official Chief of Staff portrait

Eisenhower served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from 1945-48. In December 1950, he was named Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and given operational command of NATO forces in Europe. Eisenhower retired from active service on May 31, 1952, upon entering politics. He wrote Crusade in Europe, widely regarded as one of the finest U.S. military memoirs. During this period Eisenhower served as President of Columbia University from 1948 until 1953, though he was on leave from the university while he served as NATO commander. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1250x1517, 690 KB) Summary Nicodemus Hufford (1915–1986) was no stranger to the military subject area, for he served in the Army during World War II and spent two years in the art section at Fort Knox, Kentucky, applying his special... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1250x1517, 690 KB) Summary Nicodemus Hufford (1915–1986) was no stranger to the military subject area, for he served in the Army during World War II and spent two years in the art section at Fort Knox, Kentucky, applying his special... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crusade in Europe is a book by Dwight David Eisenhower, published in 1948, and concerning his work in the European Theater of Operations as Supreme Allied Commander. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


After his many wartime successes, General Eisenhower returned to the U.S. a great hero. He was unusual for a military hero in that he never saw the front line in his life. The nearest that he came to being under enemy fire was in 1944 when a German fighter strafed the ground while he was inspecting troops in Normandy. Eisenhower dove for cover like everyone else and after the plane flew off, a British brigadier helped him up and seemed very relieved that he was not hurt. When Eisenhower thanked him for his solicitude, the brigadier deflated him by explaining that "my concern was that you should not be injured in my sector". This incident formed part of Eisenhower's fund of funny stories that he would tell now and again.


Not long after his return, a "Draft Eisenhower" movement in the Republican party persuaded him to declare his candidacy in the 1952 presidential election to counter the candidacy of isolationist Senator Robert Taft. (Eisenhower had been courted by both parties in 1948 and had declined to run then.) Eisenhower defeated Taft for the nomination but came to an agreement that Taft would stay out of foreign affairs while Eisenhower followed a conservative domestic policy. Eisenhower's campaign was a crusade against the Truman administration's policies regarding "Korea, Communism and Corruption" and was also noted for the simple but effective phrase "I Like Ike." Eisenhower promised to go to Korea himself and end the war and maintain both a strong NATO abroad against Communism and a corruption-free frugal administration at home. He and his running mate Richard Nixon, whose daughter later married Eisenhower's grandson David, defeated Democrats Adlai Stevenson and John Sparkman in a landslide, marking the first Republican return to the White House in 20 years. Eisenhower was the only general to serve as President in the 20th century. The famous I Like Ike button, donned by supporters of the Draft Eisenhower movement in 1952 The Draft Eisenhower movement was the first successful political draft of the 20th century to take a private citizen to the Oval Office. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... credited to the United States Senate Historical Office John Jackson Sparkman (December 20, 1899 – November 16, 1985) was a United States politician from Alabama. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Presidency 1953-1961

From left to right: Nina Kukharchuk, Mamie Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower at a state dinner in 1959
From left to right: Nina Kukharchuk, Mamie Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower at a state dinner in 1959
Francisco Franco and President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959
Francisco Franco and President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959
Wernher von Braun briefs President Eisenhower in front of a Saturn 1 vehicle at the Marshall Space Flight Center dedication on September 8, 1960.
Wernher von Braun briefs President Eisenhower in front of a Saturn 1 vehicle at the Marshall Space Flight Center dedication on September 8, 1960.

// Dwight D. Eisenhower had been a favorite of the New Dealers during the war, especially Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1006, 910 KB) From left to right: Nina Kukharchuk (Khrushchevs wife), Mamie Eisenhower (Eisenhowers wife), Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower at a state dinner in 1959. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1006, 910 KB) From left to right: Nina Kukharchuk (Khrushchevs wife), Mamie Eisenhower (Eisenhowers wife), Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower at a state dinner in 1959. ... Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979) was the wife of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Image File history File links Franco_eisenhower_1959_madrid. ... Image File history File links Franco_eisenhower_1959_madrid. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (553 × 720 pixel, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dr. von Braun briefs President Eisenhower at the front of the S1 Stage (first Stage) of the Saturn 1 vehicle at the Marshall Space Flight Center... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (553 × 720 pixel, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dr. von Braun briefs President Eisenhower at the front of the S1 Stage (first Stage) of the Saturn 1 vehicle at the Marshall Space Flight Center... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Interstate Highway System

One of Eisenhower's most enduring achievements as President was championing and signing the bill that authorized the Interstate Highway System in 1956. He justified the project through the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible future war, and the highways were designed to evacuate them and allow the military to move in. Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. ...


Eisenhower's goal to create improved highways was influenced by his involvement in the U.S. Army's 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy. He was assigned as an observer for the mission, which involved sending a convoy of U.S. Army vehicles coast to coast.[19] His subsequent experience with German autobahns during World War II convinced him of the benefits of an Interstate Highway System.[20] This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ...


Dynamic Conservatism

Throughout his presidency, Eisenhower preached a doctrine of Dynamic Conservatism. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ...


Although he maintained a conservative economic policy, he continued all the major New Deal programs still in operation, especially Social Security. He expanded its programs and rolled them into a new cabinet-level agency, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional 10 million workers. His cabinet, consisting of several corporate executives and one labor leader, was dubbed by one journalist, "Eight millionaires and a plumber." The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Bold text Seal of the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare The United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet-level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ...


Eisenhower was extremely popular, winning his second term in 1956 with 457 of 531 votes in the Electoral College, and 57.6% of the popular vote. This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Eisenhower Doctrine

After the Suez Crisis, the United States became the protector of most Western interests in the Middle East. As a result, Eisenhower proclaimed the "Eisenhower Doctrine" in January 1957. In relation to the Middle East, the U.S. would be "prepared to use armed force...[to counter] aggression from any country controlled by international communism." On July 15, 1958, he sent just under 15,000 soldiers to Lebanon (a combined force of Army and Marine Corps) as part of Operation Blue Bat, a non-combat peace keeping mission to stabilize the pro-Western government. They left in the following October. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Combatants United States Insurgency Strength 8,509 U.S. Army soldiers 5,670 USMC marines U.S. Sixth Fleet Casualties Four dead (Three by accident, one from hostile fire) Operation Blue Bat was the name given to the 1958 operation in which the United States intervened in the Lebanon crisis. ...


In addition, Eisenhower explored the option of supporting the French colonial forces in Vietnam who were fighting an independence insurrection there. However, Chief of Staff Matthew Ridgway dissuaded the President from intervening by presenting a comprehensive estimate of the massive military deployment that would be necessary. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ...


Civil Rights

Eisenhower supported the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka U.S. Supreme Court decision, in which segregated ("separate but equal") schools were ruled to be unconstitutional. The very next day he told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children.[21] He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 and signed those acts into law. Although both Acts were weaker than subsequent civil rights legislation, they constituted the first significant civil rights acts since the 1870s. George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit, congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision declaring segregation unconstitutional Brown v. ... “Plessy” redirects here. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someones attempt to register to vote or actually vote. ...


The "Little Rock Nine" incident of 1957 involved state refusal to honor a federal court order to integrate the schools. Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and sent Army troops to escort nine black students into an all-white public school; this integration did not occur without violence, and Eisenhower and Arkansas governor Orval Faubus engaged in tense arguments. Bottom row, left to right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top row, left to right: Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy Bates (NAACP President), Ernest Green The Little Rock Nine were a group of African-American students who enrolled in Little Rock Central High... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Eisenhower appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: A Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States is nominated by the President of the United States and approved by the U.S. Senate, with at least half of that body approving in the affirmative. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...

For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... John Marshall Harlan II (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist. ... William J. Brennan, official portrait, 1976. ... Charles Evans Whittaker (February 22, 1901 – November 26, 1973) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1957 to 1962. ... Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915 – December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ...

States admitted to the Union

For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Post-presidency

Eisenhower with President Kennedy on retreat in 1962
Eisenhower with President Kennedy on retreat in 1962
Official White House portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Official White House portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

In 1961, Eisenhower became the first U.S. president to be "constitutionally forced" from office, having served the maximum two terms allowed by the 22nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (amendment was ratified in 1951---before Eisenhower took office--but the amendment stipulated that the president at that time, Harry Truman, would not be held to the amendment). Eisenhower Library Photo No. ... Eisenhower Library Photo No. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,345 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,345 × 3,000 pixels, file size: 1. ...


In the 1960 election to choose his successor, Eisenhower endorsed his own Vice President, Republican Richard Nixon against Democrat John F. Kennedy. However, he only campaigned for Nixon in the campaign's final days and even did Nixon some harm when asked by reporters on TV to list one of Nixon's policy ideas he had adopted, replying "give me a week, I might think of one, I don't remember". Kennedy's campaign used the quote in one of their campaign commercials. Nixon lost narrowly to Kennedy.


On January 17, 1961, Eisenhower gave his final televised Address to the Nation from the Oval Office. In his farewell speech to the nation, Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War and role of the U.S. armed forces. He described the Cold War saying: "We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose and insidious in method..." and warned about what he saw as unjustified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex... Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together." is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ...


After Eisenhower left office, his reputation declined and he was seen as having been a "do-nothing" President. This was partly because of the contrast between Eisenhower and his young activist successor, John F. Kennedy, but also because of his reluctance not only to support the civil rights movement to the degree that more liberal individuals would have preferred, but also to stop McCarthyism, even though he opposed McCarthy's tactics and claims.[22] Such omissions were held against him during the liberal climate of the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, however, Eisenhower's reputation has risen because of his non-partisan nature, his wartime leadership, his action in Arkansas and an increasing appreciation of how difficult it is today to maintain a prolonged peace. In recent surveys of historians, Eisenhower often is ranked in the top 10 among all US Presidents. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... The Little Rock Nine is the common term applied to the nine African-American students who were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas during 1957. ... Many surveys have been conducted in order to construct rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States. ...

Eisenhower leaving the White House after a visit with President Johnson in 1967
Eisenhower leaving the White House after a visit with President Johnson in 1967

Eisenhower retired to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time, a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg farm is a National Historic Site [1]. In retirement, he did not completely retreat from political life; he spoke at the 1964 Republican National Convention and appeared with Barry Goldwater in a Republican campaign commercial from Gettysburg.[23] Eisenhower Library Photo No. ... Eisenhower Library Photo No. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... The Eisenhower National Historic Site is the home and farm of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The 1964 Republican National Convention took place in Cow Palace, San Francisco, California, July 13 - 16 1964. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ...


Because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office, Eisenhower resigned his permanent commission as General of the Army before entering the office of President of the United States. Upon completion of his Presidential term, his commission on the retired list was reactivated and Eisenhower again was commissioned a five-star general in the United States Army. This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ...


Eisenhower died at 12:25 p.m. on March 28, 1969, at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington D.C., of congestive heart failure. He lies alongside his wife and their first child, who died in childhood, in a small chapel called the Place of Meditation, at the Eisenhower Presidential Library, located in Abilene. His state funeral was unique because it was presided over by Richard Nixon, who was Vice President under Eisenhower and was serving as President of the United States.[24] is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Walter Reed Army Medical Center is the U.S. Armys premier medical center on the east coast of the United States. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... The Eisenhower Presidential Center includes the Eisenhower presidential library, President Dwight David Eisenhowers boyhood home, Museum, and gravesite. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Tributes and memorials

The bronze statue of Eisenhower that stands in the rotunda
The bronze statue of Eisenhower that stands in the rotunda

Eisenhower's picture was on the dollar coin from 1971 to 1978. Nearly 700 million of the copper-nickel clad coins were minted for general circulation, and far smaller numbers of uncirculated and proof issues (in both copper-nickel and 40% silver varieties) were produced for collectors. He reappeared on a commemorative silver dollar issued in 1990, celebrating the 100th anniversary of his birth, which with a double image of him showed his two roles, as both a soldier and a statesman. As part of the Presidential $1 Coin Program, Eisenhower will be featured on a gold dollar coin in 2015. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... Bicentennial Eisenhower Dollar Reverse Apollo 11 Insignia The Eisenhower Dollar is a dollar coin issued by the United States government from 1971–1978 (not to be confused with the Eisenhower commemorative dollar of 1990. ... A beautiful example of a proof coin. ... See: Commemorative coin United States Commemorative Coin Commemorative stamp This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Reverse of Presidential dollar coin The Presidential $1 Coin Program is part of an Act of Congress, Pub. ...


He is remembered for ending the Korean War. USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, the second Nimitz-class supercarrier, was named in his honor. Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... USS (CVAN-69/CVN-69), nicknamed Ike, is the second of 10 Nimitz-class supercarriers in the United States Navy, named after the thirty-fourth President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Nimitz class supercarriers are the largest warships in the world. ... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle USS A supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier, and generally has a displacement greater than 75,000 tons. ...


The Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290), a 30-mile (48 km) long expressway in the Chicago area, was renamed after him. Interstate 290 (abbreviated I-290) is the main Interstate highway due westward from the Chicago Loop. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ...


The British A4 class steam locomotive No. 4496 (renumbered 60008) Golden Shuttle was renamed Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1946. It is preserved at the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Chinese-built 2-8-0 on display at the National Railroad Museum on April 26, 2004. ... Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ...


Eisenhower College was a small, liberal arts college chartered in Seneca Falls, New York in 1965, with classes beginning in 1968. Financial problems forced the school to fall under the management of the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1979. Its last class graduated in 1982. Eisenhower College was a small college named after US President Dwight Eisenhower, located in Seneca Falls, New York. ... Seneca Falls refers to a town and a village in Seneca County, New York: Seneca Falls (town) Seneca Falls (village) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the state. ... RIT redirects here. ...


The Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California was named after the President in 1971. The Eisenhower Medical Center of Rancho Mirage, California, USA is the Coachella Valleys only not-for-profit hospital, one of the top one hundred hospitals in the United States and the location of the world-famous Betty Ford Center. ... Rancho Mirage is a city located in Riverside County, California. ...


The Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, located at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia, was named in his honor.[25] The Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center , a 300-bed hospital, is based at Fort Gordon, located near Augusta, Georgia and serves as the headquarters of the Armys Southeast Regional Medical Command, or SERMC. SERMC oversees the Armys hospitals and clinics within the southeastern United States and Puerto... Fort Gordon (formerly known as Camp Gordon) is a United States Army Installation and the current home of the United States Army Signal Corps and Signal Center and was once the home of The Provost Marshal General School (Military Police). ... Augusta is a city in the state of Georgia in the United States of America. ...


In February 1971, Dwight D. Eisenhower School of Freehold Township, New Jersey was officially opened.[26] Map of Freehold Township in Monmouth County Freehold Township is a Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ...


The Eisenhower Tunnel was completed in 1979; it conveys westbound traffic on I-70 through the Continental Divide, 60 miles (97 km) west of Denver, Colorado. Categories: Stub | Tunnels | Transportation in Colorado ... I-70 looking westbound near Mile 326, Wabaunsee County, Kansas Interstate 70 is a long interstate highway in the United States. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ...


In 1983, The Eisenhower Institute was founded in Washington, D.C., as a policy institute to advance Eisenhower's intellectual and leadership legacies. The Eisenhower Institute is a policy institute founded in 1983 to advance Dwight D. Eisenhowers intellectual and leadership legacies. ...


In 1999, the United States Congress created the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, which is in the planning stages of creating an enduring national memorial in Washington, D.C., across the street from the National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial is a proposed United States presidential memorial to be constructed for United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ...


A county park in East Meadow, New York (Long Island) is named in his honor.[27] In addition, Eisenhower State Park on Lake Texoma near his birthplace of Denison is named in his honor; his actual birthplace is currently operated by the State of Texas as Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site. East Meadow is a hamlet (and census-designated place or CDP) in Nassau County (Long Island), New York, United States. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Graphic map of Lake Texoma. ... Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site, located at 208 East Day Street in Denison, Texas, is the birthplace of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was born in the house on October 14, 1890, the first United States President to be born in Texas. ...


Many public high schools and middle schools in the U.S. are named after Eisenhower. Eisenhower High School can refer to: Eisenhower High School (Houston) Eisenhower High School (Lawton, Oklahoma) Eisenhower High School (Rialto, California) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Eisenhower Middle School may refer to: Eisenhower Middle School (Wyckoff, New Jersey) Eisenhower Middle School (Succasunna, New Jersey) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


There is a Mount Eisenhower in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. Mount Eisenhower. ... The Presidential Range of mountains is located in the White Mountains of the state of New Hampshire, almost entirely in Coos County. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


Awards and decorations

United States awards

Stamp issued by the USPS in 1969 commemorating Dwight D. Eisenhower
Stamp issued by the USPS in 1969 commemorating Dwight D. Eisenhower

In Order of Precedence Image File history File links Download high resolution version (398x608, 61 KB) Summary Stamp owned by Swollib Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (398x608, 61 KB) Summary Stamp owned by Swollib Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ...

He was also an honorary member of the Boy Scouts of America's Tom Kita Chara Lodge #96. This article concerns the United States Army Distinguished Service Medal. ... Bronze and Silver oak leaf clusters An Oak leaf cluster is a common device which is placed on military awards and decorations to denote those who have received more than one bestowal of a particular decoration. ... The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... Mexican Border Service Medal The Mexican Border Service Medal was a decoration of the United States military which was established by an act of the United States Congress on July 9, 1918. ... The World War I Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was first created in 1919. ... The American Defense Service Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created in 1941 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... American Campaign Medal The American Campaign Medal was a decoration of the United States military which was first created in 1942 by order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... The European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a miliary decoration of the United States armed forces which was first created in 1942 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... Bronze and Silver Service Stars A Service star is an attachment to a military decoration which denotes participation in military campaigns or multiple bestowals of the same award. ... WWII Victory Medal The World War II Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of Congress in July 1945. ... Army of Occupation Medal with Germany Clasp The Army of Occupation Medal is a military decoration of the United States military which was established by the United States War Department in 1946. ... Ribbon for the National Defense Service Medal The National Defense Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States military originally commissioned by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... Samoset Council is headquartered in Weston (near Wausau), and serves the north central part of Wisconsin. ...


International awards

List of citations bestowed by other countries.[28]

Order of Leopold The Order of Leopold is the highest military order of Belgium and is named in honor of King Leopold I. The decoration was established in 1832 and is awarded for extreme bravery in combat or for meritorious service of immense benefit to the Belgian nation. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Order of the Southern Cross was originally known as the Imperial Order of the Southern Cross and awarded to officers, NCOs and men of the Brazilian Imperial Army and Navy during the war against Paraguay (1865-1870), called War of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against Paraguay). ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... Africa Star Medal The Africa Star was a decoration of the British Empire that was issued between 1939 and 1945 for service in the North African theater of the Second World War. ... 4th Class Medal of the Order of the White Lion, Military Division The Order of the White Lion is the highest order of the Czech Republic, which continues a Czechoslovak order of the same name created in 1922 as an award for foreigners ( Czechoslovakia had no decoration for its citizens... Coat of arms of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway surrounded by the collars of the Order of the Elephant and the Order of the Dannebrog. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Ordre de la Libération (Order of the Liberation) is a French Order (decoration) awarded to heroes of the Liberation of France during the Second World War. ... French Military Medal The Médaille militaire (Military Medal) is a decoration of the French Republic which was first instituted in 1852. ... The Military Order of Italy (Ordine Militare dItalia) is the highest military order of Italy, originally established as the Military Order of Savoy on August 14, 1815 by King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. ... The Order of George I was formally a Order of Greece named after King George I of Greece. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Luxembourg Croix de guerre The Luxembourg War Cross is a military decoration of Luxembourg which was first created in 1945 by the Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. ... Medal of the Order The Order of the Aztec Eagle (Spanish: Orden del Águila Azteca) is the highest decoration awarded to foreigners in Mexico. ... Order of Ouissam Alaouite in the grade of Officer The Order of Ouissam Alaouite is a military decoration of Morocco which is bestowed upon those civilians and military officers who have displayed heroism in combat or have contributed meritorious service to the Moroccan state. ... The Order of the Dutch Lion (De Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw) is an order (decoration) of the Netherlands which was first created in 1815 by the first King of the Netherlands, King William I. The Order of the Dutch Lion was until recently awarded upon eminent individuals from all... Order of St. ... This is awarded by the Chief of Staff, AFP to officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines for eminently meritorious and valuable service rendered in a position of major responsibility. ... The Order of Sikatuna is the national order of diplomatic merit of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Order Krzyża Grunwaldu kl. ... The Order of Polonia Restituta is a Polish Order (decoration), established on February 4, 1921. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) was created in 1792 and is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy and one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use . ... The Order of Suvorov (Russian Орден Суворова) is a Soviet award, named after Aleksandr Suvorov, was established on July 29, 1942 (during World War II) by a Decision of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The medal was created to award army personnel for exceptional duty in combat operations. ... The Order of Victory The Order of Victory (Russian: Орден Победы) was the highest military decoration in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. ...

Other honors

  • Eisenhower's name was given to a variety of streets, avenues, etc., in cities around the world, including Paris, France.
  • In December 1999, Eisenhower was listed on Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.

This article is about the capital of France. ... Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ...

See also

Find more information on Dwight D. Eisenhower by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... // Dwight D. Eisenhower had been a favorite of the New Dealers during the war, especially Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins. ... Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979) was the wife of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... The Eisenhower National Historic Site is the home and farm of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Eisenhower Presidential Center includes the Eisenhower presidential library, President Dwight David Eisenhowers boyhood home, Museum, and gravesite. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... // Era Overview The period of U.S. history 1945-1964 is seen as a period of foreign and domestic stalemate. ... Kay Summersby or Kay Summersby Morgan (1908–1975) was born in County Cork, Ireland. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... Mount Eisenhower. ... People to People Logo The People to People Student Ambassador Program is an organization based in Spokane, Washington, that offers international travel opportunities to elementary, middle, and high school students. ... German-Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Supreme commander", Encyclopædia Britannica, Dwight D. Eisenhower article, p. 3 of 6. URL retrieved on January 21, 2007.
  2. ^ "Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower", Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Center, accessed August 7, 2007
  3. ^ Growing up, Ike and his brothers were all very competitive and loved sports. When he was fourteen, Ike received an infection in his leg that threatened to spread to his stomach. It kept him bedridden for months and the doctor recommended amputation more than once—Ike, barely conscious at times, steadfastly refused to have his leg amputated and his family respected his wishes. Ambrose (1983), p.as -14
  4. ^ a b Eisenhower Genealogy. Eisenhower Presidential Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  5. ^ Lawrence Berger-Knorr, The Pennsylvania Relations of Dwight D. Eisenhower, p8
  6. ^ Bergman, Jerry, Ph.D. Northwest State Community College. "Why President Eisenhower Hid His Jehovah's Witness Upbringing". edited version of a paper published in the JW Research Journal, vol. 6, #2, July-Dec., 1999. URL retrieved on April 29, 2007.
  7. ^ Eisenhower Library holdings re Jehovah's Witnesses.
  8. ^ Eisenhower Became Communicant. Eisenhower Presidential Trivia. Eisenhower Presidential Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  9. ^ www.gettysburg.com Gettysburg Presbyterian Church. URL retrieved on April 29, 2007.
  10. ^ "Eisenhower: Soldier of Peace", Time. April 4, 1969. Page 3 of 10. URL retrieved on January 5, 2007.
  11. ^ a b "Biography: DDE", Dwight D. Eisenhower Foundation. URL retrieved on December 21, 2006.
  12. ^ "Timeline Biography". Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. URL retrieved on December 21, 2006.
  13. ^ "Dwight David Eisenhower". Presidents of the United States. Internet Public Library. URL retrieved on December 21, 2006.
  14. ^ © Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, Washington, D.C., 2005
  15. ^ Sixsmith, ibid, p.6
  16. ^ D'Este (2002) pp 694-96; Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower and Berlin, 1945: The Decision to Halt at the Elbe (2000)
  17. ^ Stephen Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893-1952), New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983, p. 422.
  18. ^ Vladimir Petrov, Money and conquest; allied occupation currencies in World War II. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press (1967) pp. 228-229
  19. ^ Lippman, David H. The Last Week - The Road to War World War II Plus 55. Chapter 8, Part 1. URL retrieved on January 9, 2007.
  20. ^ "Interstate Highway System", The Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
  21. ^ Eisenhower (1963) p. 230; Parmet 438; Eisenhower is purported to have regretted his 1953 appointment of California Governor Earl Warren as Chief Justice of the United States, but no reliable evidence exists. Ibid. 439
  22. ^ The Presidents - pbs.org
  23. ^ Web reference
  24. ^ US Army website
  25. ^ History of Eisenhower Army Medical Center. URL retrieved on February 20, 2007.
  26. ^ "Eisenhower Middle School History". URL retrieved on January 21, 2007.
  27. ^ "Eisenhower Park". Nassau County Department of Parks, Recreation and Museums. URL retrieved on January 22, 2007.
  28. ^ Eisenhower Decorations & Awards - Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Center

is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Northwest Sate Community College is a two-year public college in Archbold, Ohio. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Bibliography

Military career

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952 (1983);
  • D'Este, Carlo. Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life (2002), military biography to 1945
  • Eisenhower, David. Eisenhower at War 1943-1945 (1986), detailed study by his grandson
  • Irish, Kerry E. "Apt Pupil: Dwight Eisenhower and the 1930 Industrial Mobilization Plan," The Journal of Military History 70.1 (2006) 31-61 online in Project Muse.
  • Pogue, Forrest C. The Supreme Command (1996) official Army history of SHAEF
  • Sixsmith, E.K.G. Eisenhower, His Life and Campaigns (1973), military
  • Russell Weigley. Eisenhower's Lieutenants. Indiana University Press, 1981. Ike's dealings with his key generals in WW2

Civilian career

  • Albertson, Dean, ed. Eisenhower as President (1963).
  • Alexander, Charles C. Holding the Line: The Eisenhower Era, 1952-1961 (1975).
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952 (1983); Eisenhower. The President (1984); one volume edition titled Eisenhower: Soldier and President (2003). Standard biography.
  • Bowie, Robert R. and Richard H. Immerman; Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Damms, Richard V. The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961 (2002).
  • David Paul T. (ed.), Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952. 5 vols., Johns Hopkins Press, 1954.
  • Divine, Robert A. Eisenhower and the Cold War (1981).
  • Greenstein, Fred I. The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (1991).
  • Harris, Douglas B. "Dwight Eisenhower and the New Deal: The Politics of Preemption" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997.
  • Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962).
  • Krieg, Joann P. ed. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Soldier, President, Statesman (1987). 24 essays by scholars.
  • McAuliffe, Mary S. "Eisenhower, the President", Journal of American History 68 (1981), pp. 625-632.
  • Medhurst, Martin J. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator Greenwood Press, 1993.
  • Pach, Chester J. and Elmo Richardson. Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1991). Standard scholarly survey.
  • Parmet, Herbert S. Eisenhower and the American Crusades (1972). Scholarly biography of post 1945 years.

Primary sources

  • Boyle, Peter G., ed. The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953-1955 University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe (1948), his war memoirs.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. Mandate for Change, 1953-1956 (1963).
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. Waging Peace (1965), presidency 1956-1960.
  • Eisenhower Papers 21 volume scholarly edition; complete for 1940-1961.
  • Summersby, Kay. Eisenhower was my boss (1948) New York: Prentice Hall; (1949) Dell paperback.

Media

  • Eisenhower video montage

    Collection of video clips of the President. (7.5 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Eisenhower video montage. ... Eisenhower video montage. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Extensive essay on Dwight D. Eisenhower (with shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs)
  • Full audio of Eisenhower speeches via the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
  • Eisenhower's Secret White House Recordings via the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
  • Audio clips of Eisenhower's speeches
  • Dwight David Eisenhower biography
  • Eisenhower Chronology World History Database
  • Eisenhower Home and Tomb
  • Essay: Why the Eisenhower administration embraced nuclear weapons (PDF)
  • Farewell Address (Wikisource)
  • Guardians of Freedom - 50th Anniversary of Operation Arkansas, by ARMY.MIL
  • First Inaugural Address
  • Original Document: D-Day Statement from Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Second Inaugural Address
  • Spartacus Educational Biography
  • The Arms of Dwight David Eisenhower
  • The Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission
  • The Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum
  • The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921-1969, CHAPTER XXIX, Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, State Funeral, 28 March-2 April 1969 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark
  • The Presidential Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower (searchable online)
  • White House biography
  • Works by Dwight D. Eisenhower at Project Gutenberg
Political offices
Preceded by
Harry S. Truman
President of the United States
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Succeeded by
John F. Kennedy
Party political offices
Preceded by
Thomas Dewey
Republican Party presidential candidate
1952, 1956
Succeeded by
Richard Nixon
Military offices
Preceded by
Maj. Gen. James E. Chaney
Commanding General of U.S. Army Europe
1942 – 1943
Succeeded by
Lt. Gen. Frank M. Andrews
Preceded by
Gen. Jacob L. Devers
Commanding General of U.S. Army Europe
1944 – 1945
Succeeded by
Gen. Joseph T. McNarney
New title Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone in Germany
1945
Succeeded by
Gen. George S. Patton
Preceded by
Gen. George Marshall
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1945 – 1948
Succeeded by
Gen. Omar Bradley
New title Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO)
1949 – 1952
Succeeded by
Gen. Matthew Ridgway
Academic offices
Preceded by
Frank D. Fackenthal¹
President of Columbia University
1948 – 1953
Succeeded by
Grayson L. Kirk
Honorary titles
Preceded by
George Marshall
Time's Man of the Year
1944
Succeeded by
Harry Truman
Preceded by
Charles De Gaulle
Time's Man of the Year
1959
Succeeded by
U.S. Scientists (represented by Linus Pauling, Isidor Rabi, Edward Teller, Joshua Lederberg, Donald A. Glaser, Willard Libby, Robert Woodward, Charles Draper, William Shockley, Emilio Segrè, John Enders, Charles Townes, George Beadle, James Van Allen and Edward Purcell)
Preceded by
Herbert Hoover
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

March 30, 1969 – March 31, 1969
Succeeded by
Everett Dirksen
Notes & References
1. www.encyclopedia.com
Persondata
NAME Eisenhower, Dwight David
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ike (common referent)
SHORT DESCRIPTION United States general and President
DATE OF BIRTH October 14, 1890(1890-10-14)
PLACE OF BIRTH Denison, Texas
DATE OF DEATH March 28, 1969
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (b. ... [1] Died in office. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Lt. ... General Jacob Jake Loucks Devers (September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979), who is best remembered for his command of the 6th Army Group in Europe during World War II, graduated from the US Military Academy in 1909. ... Joseph T. McNarney was a Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone in Germany. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969, popularly known as Ike) was an American soldier and politician. ... George Patton redirects here. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... The NATO structure is divided into two commands, one for operations and one for transformation. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... Frank Diehl Fackenthal , 1883-1968, American educator, b. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Grayson Louis Kirk (October 12, 1903 - November 21, 1997) was president of Columbia University during the campus unrest that culminated in the student occupation of several buildings. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... For the victim of Mt. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... This article is about the profession. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Isidor Isaac Rabi (July 29, 1898 - January 11, 1988) was an American physicist of Austro-Hungarian origin. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... Joshua Lederberg speaking at a conference in 1997 Joshua Lederberg (born May 23, 1925) is an American molecular biologist who is known for his work in genetics, artificial intelligence, and space exploration. ... Donald Arthur Glaser (b. ... Willard Frank Libby (December 17, 1908 – September 8, 1980) was an American chemist, famous for his role in the development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology. ... This article or section should be merged with Robert B. Woodward You may be looking for journalist Bob Woodward, who is noted for his work in uncovering the Watergate scandal. ... Charles Stark Draper (October 2, 1901 – July 25, 1987) is often referred to as the father of inertial navigation. ... William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor. ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... John Franklin Enders was born in West Hartford, Connecticut February 10, 1887. ... Charles Hard Townes (born July 28, 1915) is an American Nobel Prize-winning physicist and educator. ... Beadle won a Nobel Prize in 1958 George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 - June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics. ... James Van Allen at National Air & Space Museum (NASM), 1981, Photo courtesy of NASM. Explorer I model and Pioneer H probe in background James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914 – August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. ... Edward Mills Purcell (August 30, 1912 - March 7, 1997) was an American physicist who shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for his independent discovery (1946) of nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and in solids. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... Everett McKinley Dirksen Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was a Republican U.S. Congressman and Senator from Illinois. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... Samuel Baldwin Marks Young (1840 - 1924) was a U.S. general. ... General Adna R. Chaffee Adna Romanza Chaffee (April 14, 1842—November 1, 1914) was a General in the United States Army. ... John C. Bates (1842-1919) served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from January to April 1906. ... J. Franklin Bell (1856- January 1919) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1906 to 1910. ... Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the US Army Chief of Staff and Governor General of the Philippines. ... William Wallace Wotherspoon (1850 - 1921) was a U.S. general. ... Hugh L. Scott (1853-1934) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1914 to 1917, including the first few months of American involvement in World War I. Categories: Military biographical stubs | U.S. Army generals ... Gen. ... Peyton Conway March (December 27, 1864 - April 13, 1955) was an American soldier and Army Chief of Staff. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... General John L. Hines John Leonard Hines (May 21, 1868-October 13, 1968) was an American soldier, who served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from 1924 to 1926. ... General Charles Pelot Summerall Charles Pelot Summerall (1867 - 1954) was a U.S. general who fought in World War I and served as Army Chief of Staff between 1926 and 1930. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Malin Craig (1875 - 1945) was a significant U.S. general. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 - April 8, 1981) was one of the main US Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II. Bradley was born to a poor family near Clark, Missouri, the son of a schoolteacher. ... Joseph Lawton Collins Joseph Lightning Joe Lawton Collins (1 May 1896 – 12 September 1987) was a general of the United States Army. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... General Maxwell Davenport Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was an American soldier and diplomat of the mid-20th century. ... Lyman Lemnitzer Lyman Louis Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 – November 12, 1988) was an American general. ... George H. Decker (1902-1980) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1960 to 1962. ... Gen. ... Joseph Richards Essigs portrait of General Johnson Harold Keith Johnson (February 22, 1912 - September 24, 1983) was a U.S. general. ... William C. Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was an American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968 and who served as US Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972. ... Bruce Palmer, Jr. ... Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. ... GEN Frederick C. Weyand Frederick Carlton Weyand was born in Arbuckle, California, on (September 15, 1916). ... Bernard Rodgers is a retired American general who served as NATOs Supreme Allied Commander, Europe and Commander in Chief, United States European Command from July 1, 1979 to June 26, 1987. ... Edward Charles Shy Meyer (born December 11, 1928) was a U.S. Army general and Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. ... GEN John A. Wickham General John Adams Wickham (born June 25, 1928 in Dobbs Ferry, New York) was United States Army Chief of Staff from 1983 to 1987. ... GEN Carl E. Vuono Carl Edward Vuono, General, US Army, Ret. ... General Gordon R. Sullivan General Gordon R. Sullivan (born September 25, 1937 in Boston, Massachusetts) was a U.S. Army general. ... Dennis J. Remier Dennis J. Reamer was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from June 20, 1995 to June 21, 1999. ... Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) is a retired General in the United States Army and served as the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1999 - 2003). ... General Peter Schoomaker (b. ... George William Casey, Jr. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... [1] Died in office. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logotype of the DDRs Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Motto: A jewel at the crossing of a great river! Location of Denison, Texas Coordinates: Country United States of America State Texas County Grayson Founded 1872  - Mayor Robert Brady Area    - City  22. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m