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Encyclopedia > Dvaita
Part of a series on
Hindu philosophy
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Schools
Samkhya · Yoga
Nyaya · Vaisheshika
Purva Mimamsa · Vedanta
Schools of Vedanta
Advaita · Vishishtadvaita
Dvaita · Shuddhadvaita
Dvaitadvaita · Achintya Bheda Abheda
Ancient figures
Kapila · Patañjali
Gotama · Kanada
Jaimini · Vyasa
Medieval figures
Adi Shankara · Ramanuja
Madhva · Madhusudana
Tukaram · Namadeva
Vedanta Desika · Jayatirtha
Vallabha · Nimbarka
Chaitanya
Modern figures
Ramakrishna · Ramana Maharshi
Vivekananda · Narayana Guru
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
N.C. Yati · Coomaraswamy
Aurobindo ·Sivananda
Satyananda · Chinmayananda
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Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). According to Madhvacharya, souls are not 'created' by God but do nonetheless depend on him for their existence. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a Sanskrit word that has a wide range of different meanings. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th Century Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the philosophical aspects of mind and consciousness, and also the author of a major commentary on Paninis Ashtadhyayi, although many scholars do not consider... Maharishi GAUTAM, one of the seven sages “Sapt Rishi” was creator of “Nyaya Shsatra”. “Nyaya Shastra” is oldest known book on judicial system. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... MadhusÅ«dana SarasvatÄ« (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Namdev, Nam Dev, or Saint Namdev (1270-1350) born to a low-caste tailor named Damasheti and his wife, Gonabi in the village of Naras-Vamani, in the district of Maharashtra, India. ... Swamy Vedanta Desika, Sri Vaishnava Philosopher Vedanta Desika (1269 – 1370) is the second great name in Vaishnavism. ... Seer Jayateertharu (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Vallabhacharya. ... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... 59. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Sri Ramana Maharshi (December 30, 1879 – April 14, 1950) was an Indian Sage. ... Swami Vivekananda( स्वामी विवेकानंद )(Bengali: স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: নরেন্দ্রনাথ দত্ত Nôrendronath Dhat-tha), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism and... Narayana Guru It has been suggested that the section Sri Narayana Guru from the article Ezhava be merged into this article or section. ... Srila Prabhupada under a painting of Krishna A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was born Abhay Charan De, in Calcutta, West Bengal. ... Nitya Chaitanya Yati (Nithya Chaithanya Yati) (2 November 1923 - May 14, 1999) was an Indian philosopher. ... Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy // Life of Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (22 August 1877 Colombo - 9 September 1947 Needham, Massachusetts) was the son of the famous Sri Lankan legislator and philosopher Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy and his English wife Elizabeth Beeby. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द SrÄ« Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from... Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963), as he is known under his monastic name, was born Kuppuswamy in Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Swami Satyananda (born in Almorah, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1923), a disciple of Swami Sivananda, is a modern yoga master and guru. ... Image:Swami Chinmayananda. ... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa from Nepal and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ ) is one of the major Dravidian languages of southern India and one of the oldest languages in India. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... This page is about the core essence of a being. ...

Contents

Dvaita philosophy

Madhvacharya espoused a Vaishnava theology that understands Brahman to be endowed with attributes and a personal God, Vishnu. By Brahman, he referred to Vishnu, as per his statement "brahmashabdashcha vishhnaveva" that Brahman can only refer to Vishnu. Madhvacharya states that Vishnu is not just any other deity, but is rather the singular, all-important and supreme one. Vishnu is always the primary object of worship, and all others are regarded as subordinate to Him. The deities and other sentient beings are graded among themselves, with Vayu, the god of life, being the highest, and Vishnu is eternally above them. Vaishnava Theology is the theological discourse concerning the Hindu deity Vishnu and/or one of His avatar. ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In Hinduism, Vayu (Sanskrit वायु (properly transliterated as Vāyu), also known as Vāta वात, Pavana पवन, or Pr...


Dvaita asserts that the difference between the individual soul or jîva, and God, (Îshvara or Vishnu), is eternal and real. Actually, this is just one of the five differences that are so stated -- all five differences that constitute the universe are eternal. Ishvara (ईश्वर in devanagari script, pronunciation Ä«:shvÉ™rÉ™), also variously transliterated (romanized) as Īshvara, Īshwara, Īshwar, Īśvara, etc. ... Eternal can refer to: The British R&B group Eternal Eternals, the Marvel Comics characters created by Jack Kirby The eternity puzzle The concept of eternity The philosophical notion of the incorporeal, or immaterial realm. ...


The Dvaita doctrine was summarized by Vyasa Tirtha as comprising nine tenets or prameyas.


Taratamya - Spiritual hierarchy

In this regard Dvaita is distinct from other Hindu movements.


Vishnu is accorded supreme status and Lakshmi is his consort. Brahma and Vayu come the next level with both on the same level. Their wives (Saraswati and Bharati) occupy the next level. Garuda, Sesha, Shiva, Indra, Kama, Surya, Chandra, Varuna, Nala, Vignesh and others occupy the succeedingly lower hierarchy.


Madhvacharya taught that the life in the world can be divided into two groups Kshara and Akshara. Kshara refers to life with destructible bodies while Akshara have indestructible body. Laxmi is Akshara while others from Brahma and so on are Ksharas or Jeevas. Vishnu doesn't have a body that is made up of Prakriti. So he is exempted from this classification.


Impact of Dvaita movement

  • Madhvacharya is considered to be one of the influential theologians in Hindu history. He revitalized an Hindu monotheism in light of attacks, theological and physical, by foreign invasion. Great leaders of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement, in Karnataka, for example, Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa were strong proponents of the Dvaita tradition. Also, the famous Hindu saint, Raghavendra Swami, was a leading figure in the Dvaita tradition.
  • Madhvacharya's theology heavily influenced those of later scholars such as Nimbarka, Vallabha, and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. B. N. K. Sharma notes that Nimbarka's theology is a loose re-write of Madhvacharya's in its most essential aspects. Vallabha even "borrowed without acknowledgement" a verse from Madhvacharya's `sarva-shAstrArtha-sangraha'. The followers of Caitanya claim a link to Madhvacharya, though such a link is not historically tenable or theologically plausible.
  • Madhvacharya's singular contribution was to offer a new insight and analysis of the classical Vedantic texts -- the Vedas, Upanishads, Brahma Sutra, Mahabharata, Pancharatra, and Puranas -- and place uncompromising duality, which had been ravaged by attacks from Advaita, on a firm footing. Before Madhvacharya, Nondualism was rejected by others such as the Mimamsa tradition of Vedic exegesis, and by the Nyaya tradition of classical logic. However, it was only he who could build a cogent alternative system of Vedanta that could take on Advaita in full measure.

It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Nondualism is the belief that dualism or dichotomy are illusory phenomena. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Nondualism is the belief that dualism or dichotomy are illusory phenomena. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Reality in everyday usage means the state of things as they actually exist. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Purandara Dasa Purandara Dasa (1484-1564)(ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ) is one of the most prominient composer in carnatic music. ... Kanaka Dasa was one of the devotees of Krishna and an influential person in the Vaishnava bhakti movement in Karnataka. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) called his system of thought Shuddhadvaita (pure monism). ... 59. ... Nondualism is the belief that dualism or dichotomy are illusory phenomena. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ...

Comparison to Mainstream Hinduism

Some teachings of Madhvacharya look different from mainstream Hinduism. One example is his doctrine of eternal damnation. Generally Hindus believe in the eventual salvation of every soul. Many of the doctrines in the Dvaita traditions resemble those of strict monotheism that is predominant amongst followers of Semitic religions. Dvaita provides a greater role to Bhakti than other schools of Vedanta. Followers of Dvaita believe in the supremacy of Vishnu over other deities including Shiva and do not believe in the Hindu concept of Trinity, Trimurti of Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva. Shiva is worshipped as a subordinate god (deva). Though this appears intolerant, it is because of the strong monotheistic belief in a non-Impersonal God unlike Advaita for which the identity of God does not matter as it is Nirguna. Historically, Dvaita scholars have been involved in vigorous debates against other schools of thought, especially Advaita. Whereas Adviata preaches that Atman and Brahman are one and the same, which is not evident to the atman till he comes out of a so-called illusion, Madhvacharya puts forward the truth as Brahman (Vishnu) and Atman (soul) to be eternally different, with God always the most superior one. It is the same point that Madhvacharya reinforces in one of his doctrines: From left, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) is a concept that holds that God has three aspects, which are only different forms of the same one God. ... This article is about the deity Shiva. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... Nirguna Brahman, stresses the Ultimate Truth which exists and pervades through the Universe. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ...


"If you feel there is no God, how do you explain as to why you cannot free yourself from the limitations on Earth? If you feel YOU are the one in control of everything (as Advaita preaches that Soul and God are one and the same), then how come you don't enjoy happiness always and are also subject to sorrow and pain (as God is supposed to be an eternity of happiness)? "


See also

Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th Century Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

References

  • Deepak Sarma, "An Introduction to Madhva Vedanta," Ashgate, 2003.
  • B.N.K. Sharma, `The History of the Dvaita School of Vedanta and Its Literature', 3rd ed., Motilal Banarsidass, 2000.
  • B.N.K. Sharma, `The Philosophy of Madhvacharya', Motilal Banarsidass, 1986.
  • B.N.K. Sharma, `The Brahma Sutras and Their Principal Commentaries', 3 vols., Munshiram Manoharlal, 1986.
  • http://www.dvaita.org -- see especially section on Madhva at http://www.dvaita.org/madhva/ and on the nine tenets of his doctrine, at http://www.dvaita.org/shaastra/prameya.html .
  • http://www.dvaita.net
  • * Bhakti Schools of Vedanta, by Swami Tapasyananda, available at Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai. available at India web site: http://www.sriramakrishnamath.org and US site: http://www.vedanta.com

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dvaita - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (907 words)
Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God and souls.
Dvaita, or Dualistic philosophy, also known as Bheda-vâda, Tattva-vâda, and Bimba-pratibimba-vâda, is the doctrine propounded by Ananda Tîrtha (also known as Madhvacharya) that asserts that the difference between the individual soul or jîva, and God,(Îshvara or Vishnu), is eternal and real.
The Dvaita doctrine was summarized by Vyasa Tirtha as comprising nine tenets or prameyas.
Madhvacharya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1500 words)
Dvaita school belongs to the Realist school of Indian philosophy, in the same category as Samkhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika and Purva mimamsa schools.
Dvaita, or Dualistic philosophy (known severally as Bheda-vâda, Tattva-vâda, and Bimba-pratibimba-vâda), asserts that the difference between the individual soul or jîva, and God,(Îshvara or Vishnu), is eternal and real.
Madhvacharaya during his time not only established dvaita philosophy, but also displayed extraordinary strength and skills to show that he is the third avatara of Vayu, who came down to earth to help people suffering from delusional philosophies and guide them in the right path.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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