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Encyclopedia > Dutch language
Dutch
Nederlands 
Pronunciation: [ˈneːdərlɑnts]
Spoken in: as native language in the Netherlands, Flanders and Brussels (Belgium), Suriname, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, French Flanders (France), Lower Rhine (Germany).

as colonial language, or as Afrikaans, in South Africa, Namibia. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... Low Franconian language area with West Meuse-Rhenish: ([5] and [6]) Low Rhenish is the German name for the regional Low Franconian language varieties of the Low Germanic language spoken alongside the so-called Lower Rhine in the west of Germany and the adjacent regions in the Netherlands. ...


notable immigrant minorities in Australia, Brazil, Canada, New Zealand and the United States.

Total speakers: Native: 23 million: 23 million speakers of Dutch as first language, plus 4 million with Dutch as second language, there are also 7 million speakers of Afrikaans as first language, plus 10 million with Afrikaans as second language [1]

Total: 27 million (Dutch: 23/27 mill., Afrikaans: 7/17 mill.) 

Ranking: 40 of 6,000 languages on world list.[2] Other estimates:
48 (depending on counting method); 37 (according to the Nederlandse Taalunie[1])
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   Low Franconian
    Dutch 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Dutch variant
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Aruba Aruba
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Europe European Union
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles
Union of South American Nations
Flag of Suriname Suriname
Regulated by: Nederlandse Taalunie
(Dutch Language Union)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: nl
ISO 639-2: dut (B)  nld (T)
ISO 639-3: nld 

Dutch-speaking world

Dutch (Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. Sometimes called the smallest world language,[3] it is closely related to other West Germanic languages (e.g., English, West Frisian and German) and somewhat more remotely to the North Germanic languages. Dutch is a descendant of Old Frankish and the parent language of several Dutch-based creole languages as well as of Afrikaans, one of the official languages of South Africa and the most widely understood in Namibia. Dutch and Afrikaans are to a very large extent mutually intelligible, although they have separate spelling standards and dictionaries and have separate language regulators. Standard Dutch (Standaardnederlands) is the standard language of the major Dutch-speaking areas and is regulated by the Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union). Dutch is also an official language of the European Union and the Union of South American Nations. This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Dutch alphabet in 1560. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... The Unions member states Where Dutch is spoken The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an international institution for discussing issues relating to the Dutch language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x625, 48 KB) New map for the Dutch-speaking world English: Legend: Dark blue: native language Blue: administrative language Light blue: secondary, non-official language Green square: minority Deutsch: Legende: Dunkelblau: amtliche und Muttersprache Blau: administrative Sprache Hellblau: Sekundärofficial/non... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Nl-Nederlands. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Old Frankish was the language of the Franks and it is classified as a West Germanic language. ... A Dutch creole is a creole language which has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages. ... Dutch ( (help· info)), sometimes referred to as Netherlandic in English, is a Low Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium (2005 [1]). Dutch spoken in Flanders (Vlaanderen), the northern part of Belgium, is sometimes referred to as Flemish (Vlaams). ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an institution for discussing issues on the Dutch language between three partners: The Netherlands, Flanders (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and Suriname. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq...


Dutch grammar also shares many traits with German, especially in syntax, but has a less complicated morphology caused by deflexion, which puts it closer to English. Dutch has officially three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter, however, according to some interpretations these are reduced to only two, common and neuter, which is similar to the gender systems of most Continental Scandinavian languages. This page outlines the grammar of the Dutch language. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Deflexion is a linguistic process related to inflectional languages (like all members of the Indo-European language family) reflecting a gradual decline of the inflectional morphemes (atomic semantic units) bound to lexemes (abstract word units). ... English grammar is a body of rules specifying how meanings are created in English. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ...


The consonant system of Dutch did not undergo the High German consonant shift and has more in common with English and the Scandinavian languages. Like most Germanic languages it has a syllable structure that allows fairly complex consonant clusters. Dutch is often noted for the prominent use of velar fricatives. In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Dutch vocabulary is predominantly Germanic in origin, considerably more so than English. This is to a large part due to the heavy influence of Norman French on English, and to Dutch patterns of word formation, such as the tendency to form long and sometimes very complicated compound nouns, being more similar to those of German and the Scandinavian languages. The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... A compound is a word composed of more than one free morphemes. ...

Contents

Names

In Dutch, the language is called Nederlands (Netherlandish)[4]. This name is drawn from the name of the country, Nederland (Low Country), but only since the 19th century replaced the earlier and more common names: (northern) Nederduits and (southern) Diets (Dietsch), the latter dropped due to its popular association and connotation with fascist ideologies. Because of the turbulent history of both the Netherlands and Belgium and the Dutch language, mostly because of the frequent change of economical and military power within the Low Countries, the names that other peoples have chosen to use to refer to it vary more than for most other languages. ... Dietsch (Diets in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. ...


In English, however, the language and people are still referred to as Dutch, a word derived from Middle Dutch duutsch, dūtsch but applied originally to continental Germanic speakers, be it of Dutch, Low German, or German proper (cf. Pennsylvania Dutch). By 1600, it had come to be used exclusively for the Dutch after the Netherlands became a united, independent state and the focus of English commercial rivalry[5] Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ...


The term Flemish is used to describe the majority of Dutch dialects of Belgium and is derived through Old Norse flæmskr from Middle Dutch vlāmisch, vlemesch "Fleming, Flemish person". It has historically been used in contradistinction to Hollander, though the various dialects of Flanders are dialects of Dutch as well. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


History

Main article: History of Dutch

The history of the Dutch language begins around AD 450–500, after Old Frankish, one of the many West Germanic tribal languages, was split by the Second Germanic consonant shift while at more or less the same time the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law led to the development of the direct ancestors of modern Dutch Low Saxon, Frisian and English. Dutch is a West Germanic language, that originated from the Old Frankish dialects. ... Old Frankish was the language of the Franks and it is classified as a West Germanic language. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description of a philological development in some dialects of West Germanic, which is attested in Old English, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ...


The northern dialects of Old Frankish generally did not participate in either of these two shifts, except for a small amount of phonetic changes, and are hence known now as Old Low Franconian; the "Low" refers to dialects not influenced by the consonant shift. The most south-eastern dialects of the Franconian languages became part of High, though not Upper, German even though a dialect continuum remained. The fact that Dutch did not undergo the sound changes may be the reason why some people say that Dutch is like a bridge between English and German. Within Old Low Franconian there were two subgroups: Old East Low Franconian and Old West Low Franconian, which is better known as Old Dutch. East Low Franconian was eventually absorbed by Dutch as it became the dominant form of Low Franconian, although it remains a noticeable substrate within the southern Limburgish dialects of Dutch. Because the two groups were so similar it is often very hard to determine whether a text is Old Dutch or Old East Low Franconian, hence most linguists will generally use Old Dutch synonymously with Old Low Franconian and most of the time do not differentiate. Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... Legend:  Dutch. ... Subdivisions Central German Upper German High German (in German, Hochdeutsch) is any of several German dialects spoken in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg (as well as in neighbouring portions of Belgium, France (Alsace), Italy, Poland, and Romania (Transylvania) and in some areas of former colonial settlement, for example in... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... Old German could refer to: Old High German Old Low German (also Old Saxon) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Continental Low Franconian (ǂ Dutch) language area. This is smaller than the total Dutch language area, which also includes Dutch Low Saxon and the Frisian language area. French Flanders has become more and more francophone during the last century. Brussels Capital Region is officially bilingual, but largely francophone
Continental Low FranconianDutch) language area. This is smaller than the total Dutch language area, which also includes Dutch Low Saxon and the Frisian language area.
French Flanders has become more and more francophone during the last century. Brussels Capital Region is officially bilingual, but largely francophone

Dutch, coincidentally like other Germanic languages, is conventionally divided into three phases. In the development of Dutch these phases were: Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ...

  • 450/500–1150 Old Dutch (First attested in the Salic Law)
  • 1150–1500 Middle Dutch (Also called "Diets" in popular use, though not by linguists)
  • 1500–present Modern Dutch (Saw the creation of the Dutch standard language and includes contemporary Dutch)

The transition between these languages was very gradual and one of the few moments linguists can detect somewhat of a revolution is when the Dutch standard language emerged and quickly established itself. It should be noted that Standard Dutch is very similar to most Dutch dialects. Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... // The Salic law (Lat. ... Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ... Dietsch (Diets in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


The development of the Dutch language is illustrated by the following sentence in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch.

"Irlôsin sol an frithe sêla mîna fan thên thia ginâcont mi, wanda under managon he was mit mi" (Old Dutch)
"Erlossen sal [hi] in vrede siele mine van dien die genaken mi, want onder menegen hi was met mi" (Middle Dutch)

(Using same word order) In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ...

"Verlossen zal hij in vrede ziel mijn van degenen die [te] na komen mij, want onder velen hij was met mij" (Modern Dutch)

(Using correct contemporary Dutch word order)

"Hij zal mijn ziel in vrede verlossen van degenen die mij te na komen, want onder velen was hij met mij" (Modern Dutch) (see Psalm 55:19)
"He will deliver my soul in peace from those who attack me, because, amongst many, he was with me" (English translation) (see Psalm 55:18)

A process of standardization started in the Middle ages, especially under the influence of the Burgundian Ducal Court in Dijon (Brussels after 1477). The dialects of Flanders and Brabant were the most influential around this time. The process of standardization became much stronger at the start of the 16th century, mainly based on the urban dialect of Antwerp. In 1585 Antwerp fell to the Spanish army: many fled to the Northern Netherlands, especially the province of Holland, where they influenced the urban dialects of that province. In 1637, a further important step was made towards a unified language, when the first major Dutch Bible translation was created that people from all over the United Provinces could understand. It used elements from various, even Dutch Low Saxon, dialects but was predominantly based on the urban dialects of Holland. This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Brabantian is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ...


Classification

Dutch is a Germanic language, and within this family it is a West Germanic language. Dutch did not experience the High German consonant shift (apart from the transition from /θ/ to /d/), and is a Low Franconian language. There was at one time a dialect continuum that blurred the boundary between Dutch and Low Saxon. In some small areas, there are still dialect continuums, but they are gradually becoming extinct. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The European Low Franconian language area (Southeast Limburgish around Aachen and Low Dietsch area in Belgium excluded) Low Franconian (also Low Frankish) is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, Suriname, South Africa, Namibia and north-western Germany descended from Old Frankish. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


Dutch is grammatically similar to German, such as in syntax and verb morphology (for a comparison of verb morphology in English, Dutch and German, see Germanic weak verb and Germanic strong verb). In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm, though historically they are not the oldest or most original group. ... In the Germanic languages, strong verbs are those which mark their past tenses by means of ablaut. ...


Dutch has grammatical cases, but these are now mostly limited to pronouns and set phrases. Dutch has three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter although masculine and feminine have merged to form the common gender (de), whilst the neuter (het) remains distinct as before. The inflectional grammar of Dutch, for instance in adjective and noun endings, has been simplified over time. A set phrase is an expression (i. ... In the Dutch language, nouns have one of three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine, or neuter. ...


For many English speakers, basic Dutch, when written, looks recognizable, but the pronunciation may be markedly different. This is true especially of the diphthongs and of the letter <g>, which is pronounced as a velar continuant. The rhotic pronunciation of <r> causes some English-speakers to believe Dutch sounds similar to a West Country accent; this is the reason for Bill Bryson's famous remark that when one hears Dutch one feels one ought to be able to understand it. Dutch pronunciation is, however, difficult to master for English speakers, its diphthongs and gutturals being the greatest obstacles. Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Rhotic consonants, or R-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants. ... William McGuire Bill Bryson, OBE, (born December 8, 1951 in Des Moines, Iowa) is a best-selling American author of humorous books on travel, as well as books on the English language and on scientific subjects. ...


Geographic distribution

The historic range of the Dutch language in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany
The historic range of the Dutch language in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany

Dutch is spoken by almost all inhabitants of the Netherlands and Flanders (the northern half of Belgium); in Flanders, it is often referred to by the dialect name Vlaams (Flemish). It is also spoken in the bilingual region of Brussels, together with French and other languages. In the northernmost part of France, the Dunkirk arrondissement in the Nord département, Dutch is still spoken as a minority language, also often called Vlaams. On the Caribbean islands of Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles, Dutch is used, but is less common than Papiamento (Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire) and English (Sint Maarten, Sint Eustatius, Saba). Dutch is spoken as a mother tongue by about 60% of the population in Suriname, most of whom are bilingual with Sranan Tongo or other ethnic languages (2005, Nederlandse Taalunie: [2], in Dutch). There are also some speakers of Dutch in countries with many Dutch and Flemish immigrants, such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. In South Africa and Namibia the closely-related language Afrikaans is spoken. There are also a number of Dutch speakers in Indonesia. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Extent of Flemish in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French: North) is a département in the north of France. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Tera di Solo y suave biento Capital (and largest city) Kralendijk Official languages Dutch Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  - Bonaire Administrator  - Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles  Area  - Total 288 km² 111 sq mi  Population  - 2001 census 10,791  - Density... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Motto Semper pro grediens (Latin) Anthem O sweet Saint-Martins Land Capital (and largest city) Philipsburg Official languages Dutch, English Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  -  Administrator Franklyn Richards constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles, separate country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands as from December 15... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin. ... Motto Remis Velisque (Latin) With oars and sails (English) Anthem Saba you rise from the ocean Capital The Bottom Largest city The Bottom Official languages Dutch, Papiamento and English (unofficial) Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  -  Saba Administrator A.J.M. Solagnier  -  Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional... Sranan (also Sranan Tongo Surinamean tongue, Surinaams, Surinamese, Suriname Creole English) is a creole language spoken as a native language by approximately 120,000 people in Suriname. ... The Unions member states Where Dutch is spoken The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an international institution for discussing issues relating to the Dutch language. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Official status

Dutch is an official language of the Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, and the Union of South American Nations. The Dutch, Flemish and Surinamese governments coordinate their language activities in the Nederlandse Taalunie ('Dutch Language Union'). Dutch was an official language in South Africa up until 1961 (it had fallen into disuse after Afrikaans became an official language in 1925). A noticeable minority of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 16,347 (0.4%) are sufficiently fluent in Dutch to carry on an everyday conversation.[6] An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... The Unions member states Where Dutch is spoken The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an international institution for discussing issues relating to the Dutch language. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Standaardnederlands or Algemeen Nederlands ('Common Dutch', abbreviated to AN) is the standard language as taught in schools and used by authorities in the Netherlands, Flanders, Suriname, Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles. The Dutch Language Union defines what is AN and what is not. A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


Since efforts to uplift people came to be considered rather presumptuous, the earlier name Algemeen Beschaafd Nederlands ('Common Civilized Dutch') and its abbreviation ABN have been replaced with Algemeen Nederlands and thus AN. The implicit insinuation that people who spoke dialect or with an accent were not civilized was thus removed.


The Netherlands

Dutch is the official and foremost language of the Netherlands, a nation of 16.4 million people. In the province of Friesland, Frisian is also recognized, but this language is only spoken by some hundreds of thousands of Frisians. In the Netherlands there are a lot of different dialects, but they are often overruled and replaced by the language of the media, school, government etc, Standard Dutch. Immigrant languages are Indonesian, Turkish, Moroccan Berber, Papiamento, and Sranan. In the second generation these newcomers often speak Dutch as their mother tongue, but sometimes alongside the language of the parents. Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Dutch ( (help· info)), sometimes referred to as Netherlandic in English, is a Low Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium (2005 [1]). Dutch spoken in Flanders (Vlaanderen), the northern part of Belgium, is sometimes referred to as Flemish (Vlaams). ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... Sranang Tongo (Surinamean tongue), also Sranan Tongo or (pejorative) Takki Takki, is a Creole language spoken as a native language by 100 000 people in Suriname. ...


Belgium

Language situation in Belgium
Language situation in Belgium
Dutch and French speaking Brussels
Dutch and French speaking Brussels
The place of Dutch in Brussels (yellow)
The place of Dutch in Brussels (yellow)

Belgium is divided along linguistic lines. In the north is the Dutch-speaking Flanders, the south of the country is French-speaking Wallonia. Dutch is one of the main two official languages (the other is French); German is the official language in the main part of the small eastern region of Eupen-Malmédy, the so-called East Cantons, two of which form the German-speaking Community of Belgium with an area of only 854 km², and a population of 73,000. Brussels, the capital and located in Flanders, is officially bilingual but mainly French-speaking. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brussels_signs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brussels_signs. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Eupen-Malmedy, (the French-speaking Belgians once called them the Redeemed Cantons; or the East Cantons (in German, die Ostkantone; in French, les Cantons de l’Est), are composed of the former Prussian districts (Kreise in German) of Malmedy, Eupen, increased by the addition of neutral Moresnet. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ...


Flanders

See also: Flemish (linguistics)

Flanders is the Dutch speaking northern half of Belgium. Dutch is the official language there, and almost everybody speaks it, which makes a number of 6 million in total. The dialects spoken in Flanders are somewhat more divergent from standard Dutch than those spoken in the Netherlands, despite the fact that standard Dutch is mostly based on 16th century Flemish and Brabantic dialects.[citation needed] Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


Brussels

Main article: Francization of Brussels

In Brussels Capital Region both Dutch and French are official languages. Many of the inhabitants are bilingual, but French is the dominant language of the city. Immigrants mostly adopt French as their language. Daily commuting from Flanders amounts to 250,000 people, which reinforces the bilingual situation. [7] Their bilingualism is often more hidden, just like it is in a city such as Cape Town with respect to Afrikaans and English.[citation needed] Historically, Brussels was Dutch speaking and the indigenous older generation still speaks the city dialect. Brussels Capital Region is surrounded by Flemish territory, where there are municipalities with facilities for French speaking people. The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ...


Wallonia

The official language of Wallonia is French and in the Eastern part of the province Liege as well. There are some municipalities near the Dutch-French Language border where Dutch is recognized. French speakers also have facilities in the Flemish Voerstreek region (Fourons) and in Ronse (Renaix). This was settled in 1962, when Dutch as a language became equal to French. In the so-called Low Dietsch language area (Dutch: Platdietse streek) in the province of Liege – an "officially" French speaking area –an old Dutch/German dialect is used, called Low Dietsch (Dutch: Platdiets). The villages that make part of this area do not belong to municipalities with language facilities. Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... A language border is a border between two language areas. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ... Voeren (French: Fourons) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. ... Ronse (French: Renaix) is a municipality located in the province of East Flanders, Flemish Region, Belgium. ... Ronse (French: Renaix) is a municipality located in the Flemish province of East Flanders, in Belgium. ... Low Dietsch (Dutch: Platdiets, Limburgish: Platduutsj, French: Thiois or Platdutch) is a term mainly used within the Flemish terminology for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian dialects of a number of towns and villages in the north-east of the Belgian province of Liege, such as Gemmenich, Homburg, Montzen and Welkenraedt. ... Low Dietsch (Dutch: Platdiets, Limburgish: Platduutsj, French: Thiois or Platdutch) is a term mainly used within the Flemish terminology for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian dialects of a number of towns and villages in the north-east of the Belgian province of Liege, such as Gemmenich, Homburg, Montzen and Welkenraedt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Suriname

Suriname is a South-American country (geographically, but historically, culturally and economically a Caribbean one), which was a Dutch colony until 1975. After Sranan, Dutch is the biggest and most widely spread language in the country. More than 60% of the inhabitants have Dutch as mother tongue. The others speak Dutch very well to very poor, as a second or third language, with their ethnic language as first one, like Javanese, Saramacaans, Aucaans and Indian languages etc. Sranan is used as the lingua franca between those groups, while Dutch is the official language. The Dutch spoken there is sometimes considered to be like Jamacian English. Since 2005 Suriname has become a member of the Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union). West Indies redirects here. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sranang Tongo (Surinamean tongue), also Sranan Tongo or (pejorative) Takki Takki, is a Creole language spoken as a native language by 100 000 people in Suriname. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Sranang Tongo (Surinamean tongue), also Sranan Tongo or (pejorative) Takki Takki, is a Creole language spoken as a native language by 100 000 people in Suriname. ... The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an institution for discussing issues on the Dutch language between three partners: The Netherlands, Flanders (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and Suriname. ... The Unions member states Where Dutch is spoken The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an international institution for discussing issues relating to the Dutch language. ...

Map of the Dutch language. Yellow is where it was once spoken, dark blue is where it is spoken today(offically),light blue where it is spoken by a minority, and green where it is spoken by a small community. Brown is the daughter languague Afrikaans
Map of the Dutch language. Yellow is where it was once spoken, dark blue is where it is spoken today(offically),light blue where it is spoken by a minority, and green where it is spoken by a small community. Brown is the daughter languague Afrikaans

Afrikaans in South Africa and Namibia

One of the 11 official languages of South Africa, Afrikaans is derived from Dutch and is the mother tongue of about 15% of South Africa's population, a total of 6 million people. It is also spoken or understood by more than 10 million other speakers. It has official status in Namibia as well, where it is understood by 60% of the country (more than 1 million). Afrikaans originated from modern Dutch (17th century-present) and is very similar to "European Dutch", the speakers of modern Dutch and of Afrikaans have only minor problems in communicating with each other. Map showing principal South African languages by municipality. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Afrikaners (or "Boers"), the Dutch colonists in Southern Africa, had used the same spelling up to 1925. Then the Afrikaners created their own spelling and this (Afrikaans, Dutch for African) replaced official Dutch. In 1925 Afrikaans and Dutch (declared as the same language) became the official language of the Union of South Africa. Dutch was totally replaced by Afrikaans in 1984 in legislation, but Dutch had no government function beyond 1961.


Before the United Kingdom took control of South Africa from the Netherlands in 1814, the Afrikaans language (which wasn't called or considered Afrikaans at that time) was exposed to a steady stream of Dutch language influence, and the two languages were therefore almost identical. The differentiation and major changes from Dutch, started when the Cape Dutch settlers moved North (Trek Boers). In addition, when the UK seized South Africa, the Dutch language spoken in South Africa was practically cut off from other Dutch-speaking areas, allowing the language to differentiate and evolve further. Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Trekboers were descendents of Dutch settlers, French Huguenot refugees, German Protestants, Friesians and smaller numbers of Belgians, Scandinavians, Scots, also some Indian slaves due to intermarriage, and an a mixture of Khoi and Malay due to absorption into the nascent Boer nation. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...

Bilingual sign in South Africa
Bilingual sign in South Africa
Bilingual warning signs in South Africa
Bilingual warning signs in South Africa

In 1925 the Afrikaans language was recognized as one of South Africa's official languages, alongside Dutch and English. The Afrikaans New Testament was published in 1927 and the first Afrikaans Bible was issued in 1933. This had an influence in consolidating the Afrikaans language. Dutch was only formally de-recognized in South Africa in 1984 (since 1961 it had merited only a mention in the legislation). By that time, however, it had no longer been in everyday official use for some time. The distinction of Afrikaans from the Dutch language appeared to be in danger just after the Second World War when a great number of Dutch immigrants chose South Africa as their new homeland. The Afrikaans language survived the new influx of Dutch speakers, however, which might otherwise have turned Afrikaans into a mixed language. Almost all of the Dutch immigrants and their descendants now speak Afrikaans instead of Dutch, albeit (in the case of the Dutch-born parents) with a slight accent because mutual intelligibility still exists. The differences between the two languages are considerably more than e.g. between European Portuguese and Brazilian or European and Latin-American Spanish. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 492 pixelsFull resolution‎ (805 × 495 pixels, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 492 pixelsFull resolution‎ (805 × 495 pixels, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (471 × 786 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to commons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (471 × 786 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to commons. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ...


A Dutch speaker can usually read Afrikaans easily, and to a slightly lesser degree, also orally understand it, especially when one's native dialect is Hollandic, Zealandic, Flemish or Brabantic. Afrikaans can be considered a creole language. South Africans also contributed their part to Dutch literature and Dutch is still a very important colonial language. Universities teach Afrikaans and Dutch as a one-language study, and the only monument to the Dutch language can be found in South Africa. Hollandic (Dutch: Hollands) is, together with Brabantic, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language. ... Zealandic (Zêeuws in Zeelandic, Zeeuws in Dutch) is a regional language spoken in the Dutch province of Zeeland and on the South Holland island of Goeree-Overflakkee. ... Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ... Brabantian is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant. ...


Other (historical) names of Afrikaans are the following:

  • Kaap-Hollands / Kaap-Nederlands (Cape Hollandic/Cape Dutch)
  • Zuid-Afrikaans (South African)
  • (Zuid-)Afrikaans-Nederlands ((South) African Dutch)
  • Afro-Nederlands / Afro-Hollands (Afro-Dutch/Afro-Hollandic)
  • Keukennederlands / Kombuistaaltje (Kitchen Dutch/Kitchen language)
  • Koloniaal-Nederlands (Colonial Dutch)

Dialects

An overview of the minority languages, regional languages and dialects spoken in the three countries of the Benelux is to be found in the main article. Map illustrating the area in which Dutch is spoken. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...

Main article: Dutch dialects

Dutch dialects are remarkably diverse. The Netherlands have quite a lot different regions and various dialects. To a less degree, the same applies to Flanders. A special series on Dutch dialects provides detailed information on this subject.


Sounds

Main article: Dutch phonology

Dutch devoices all consonants at the ends of words (e.g. a final /d/ becomes [t]), which presents a problem for Dutch speakers when learning English. This is partly reflected in the spelling, the singular of huizen (houses) becomes huis and of and of duiven (doves) becomes duif. The other cases, viz. "p"/"b" and "d"/"t" are always written with the voiced consonant, although a devoiced one is actually pronounced, e.g. sg. baard (beard), pronounced as baart, has plural baarden and sg. rib (rib), pronounced as rip has plural ribben. The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later context. ...


Because of assimilation, often the initial consonant of the next word is also devoiced, e.g. het vee (the cattle) is /(h)ətfe/. This process of devoicing is taken to an extreme in some regions (Amsterdam, Friesland) with almost complete loss of /v/,/z/ and /ɣ/. Further south these phonemes are certainly present in the middle of a word. Compare e.g. logen and loochen /loɣən/ vs. /loxən/. In the South (i.e. Zeeland, Brabant and Limburg) and in Flanders the contrast is even greater because the g becomes a palatal. ('soft g').


The final 'n' of the plural ending -en is often not pronounced (as in Afrikaans where it is also dropped in the written language), except in the North East (Low Saxon) and the South West (West Flemish) where the ending becomes a syllabic n sound.


Dutch is a stress language; the stress position of words matters. Stress can occur on any syllable position in a word. There is a tendency for stress to be at the beginning of words. In composite words, secondary stress is often present. There are some cases where stress is the only difference between words. For example vóórkomen (occur) and voorkómen (prevent). Marking the stress in written Dutch is optional, never obligatory, but sometimes recommended.


The syllable structure of Dutch is (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C). Many words, like in English, begin with three consonants - e.g. straat (street). There are words that end in four consonants - e.g. herfst (autumn), ergst (worst), interessantst (most interesting), sterkst (strongest) - most of them being adjectives in the superlative form.


The greatest number of consonants in a single cluster can be found in the word slechtstschrijvend (worst writing) with 9 consonants (though there are only 7 phonemes since 'ch' represents a single phoneme, and in normal speech the number of phonemes is usually reduced to 6 because of assimilation of 'tschst' to 'schst', or even to 5 by many speakers who pronounce the cluster 'schr' as 'sr'). In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


Vowels

The vowel inventory of Dutch is large, with 14 simple vowels and four diphthongs. The vowels /eː/, /øː/, /oː/ are included on the diphthong chart because they are actually produced as narrow closing diphthongs in many dialects, but behave phonologically like the other simple vowels. [ɐ] (a near-open central vowel) is an allophone of unstressed /a/ and /ɑ/. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

IPA chart Dutch monophthongs
Image:Dutch-monophthongs.png
 
IPA chart Dutch diphthongs
Image:Dutch-diphthongs.png
Dutch Vowels with Example Words
Symbol Example
IPA IPA orthography English translation
ɪ kɪp kip 'chicken'
i bit biet 'beetroot'
ʏ ɦʏt hut 'cabin'
y fyt fuut 'grebe'
ɛ bɛt bed 'bed'
beːt beet 'bite'
ə de 'the'
øː nøːs neus 'nose'
ɑ bɑt bad 'bath'
zaːt zaad 'seed'
ɔ bɔt bot 'bone'
boːt boot 'boat'
u ɦut hoed 'hat'
ɛi ɛi, ʋɛin ei, wijn 'egg', 'wine'
œy œy ui 'onion'
ʌu zʌut, fʌun zout, faun 'salt', 'faun'

A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Dutch monphthong vowel diagram Drawn by User:Nohat File links The following pages link to this file: Dutch language User talk:Nohat User talk:Gerbrant Categories: GFDL images ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... dutch diphthong vowel diagram Drawn by User:Nohat File links The following pages link to this file: Dutch language Categories: GFDL images ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...

Consonants

IPA chart Dutch consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d k g1 ʔ ²
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative f v ³ s z ³ ʃ ʒ 4 x ɣ ³ ʁ 5 ɦ
Approximant ʋ 6 j
Lateral l

Where symbols for consonants occur in pairs, the left represents the voiceless consonant and the right represents the voiced consonant. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ...


Notes:

  1. [g] is not a native phoneme of Dutch and only occurs in borrowed words, like goal.
  2. [ʔ] is not a separate phoneme in Dutch, but is inserted before vowel-initial syllables within words after /a/ and /ə/ and often also at the beginning of a word.
  3. In some dialects, notably that of Amsterdam, the voiced fricatives have almost completely merged with the voiceless ones, and /v/ is usually realized as [f], /z/ is usually realized as [s], and /ɣ/ is usually realized as [x].
  4. [ʃ] and [ʒ] are not native phonemes of Dutch, and usually occur in borrowed words, like show and bagage (baggage). And even then they are usually realized as [sʲ] and [zʲ] respectively. However, /s/ + /j/ phoneme sequences in Dutch are often realized as [sʲ], like in the word huisje (='little house'). In dialects that merge s and z /zj/ often is realized as [sʲ].
  5. The realization of the /r/ phoneme varies considerably from dialect to dialect. In "standard" Dutch, /r/ is realized as [r]. In many dialects it is realized as the voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] or even as the uvular trill [ʀ].
  6. The realization of the /ʋ/ varies considerably from the Northern to the Southern and Belgium dialects of the Dutch language. In the South, including Belgium, it is sometimes realized as [w]. Some, mainly Hollandic, dialects nearly pronounce it like [v].
Dutch Consonants with Example Words
Symbol Example
IPA IPA orthography English translation
p pɛn pen 'pen'
b bit biet 'beetroot'
t tɑk tak 'branch'
d dɑk dak 'roof'
k kɑt kat 'cat'
g goːl goal 'goal' (sports)
m mɛns mens 'human being'
n nɛk nek 'neck'
ŋ ɛŋ eng 'scary'
f fits fiets 'bicycle'
v oːvən oven 'oven'
s sɔk sok 'sock'
z zeːp zeep 'soap'
ʃ ʃaːɫ sjaal 'shawl'
ʒ ʒyːʁi jury 'jury'
x ɑxt acht 'eight'
ɣ ɣaːn gaan 'to go'
r rɑt rat 'rat'
ɦ ɦut hoed 'hat'
ʋ ʋɑŋ wang 'cheek'
j jɑs jas 'coat'
l lɑnt land 'land / country'
ɫ ɦeːɫ heel 'whole'
ʔ bəʔaːmən beamen 'to confirm'

For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...

Historical sound changes

Dutch (with the exception of the Limburg dialects) did not participate in the second Germanic (High German) Sound Shift - compare German machen /-x-/ Dutch maken, English make, German Pfanne /pf-/, Dutch pan, English pan, German zwei /ts-/, Dutch twee, English two.


Dutch underwent a few changes of its own. For example, words in -old or -olt lost the l in favor of a diphthong as a result of vocalisation. Compare English old, German alt, Dutch oud. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Germanic */uː/ turned into /y/ through palatalization, which sound in turn became a diphthong /œy/, spelt 〈ui〉. Long */iː/ also diphthongized to /ɛi/, spelt 〈ij〉.


The phoneme /ɡ/ became a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, or a voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ (in the South: Flanders, Limburg). The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Grammar

Main article: Dutch grammar

Like all other continental West Germanic languages, Dutch has a word order that is markedly different from English, which presents a problem for some Anglophones learning Dutch. A simple example often used in Dutch language classes and text books is "Ik kan mijn pen niet vinden omdat het veel te donker is" which word-for-word translates to "I can my pen not find because it much too dark is" but actually translates to "I can't find my pen because it's much too dark". This can be explained by saying that the first (main) verb goes at the beginning of a clause while the remaining verbs go at the end of the clause. It must also be noted that Dutch (like German) often splits larger sentences into smaller ones, each of which can have distinctly different grammatical rules depending on what is actually being said and where the emphasis is placed. Because of Dutch resembling German more than English in both sentence structure and vocabulary, this also means that English speakers who study German extensively (meaning the equivalent of about three years of university courses) can often understand written Dutch fairly well. This page outlines the grammar of the Dutch language. ...


The Dutch written grammar has simplified over the past 100 years: cases are now mainly used for the pronouns, such as ik (I), mij, me (me), mijn (my), wie (who), wiens (whose: masculine or neuter singular), wier (whose: feminine singular, masculine or feminine plural). Nouns and adjectives are not case inflected (except for the genitive of proper nouns (names): -s, -'s or -'). In the spoken language cases and case inflections had already gradually disappeared from a much earlier date on (probably the 15th century) as in all continental West Germanic dialects. In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ...


Inflection of adjectives is a little more complicated: nothing with indefinite neuter nouns in singular and -e in all other cases:

een mooi huis (a beautiful house)
het mooie huis (the beautiful house)
mooie huizen (beautiful houses)
de mooie huizen (the beautiful houses)
een mooie vrouw (a beautiful woman)

More complex inflection is still found in certain lexicalized expressions like de heer des huizes (literally, the man of the house), etc. These are usually remnants of cases (in this instance, the genitive case which is still used in German, cf. Der Herr des Hauses) and other inflections no longer in general use today. In such lexicalized expressions remnants of strong and weak nouns can be found too, e.g. in het jaar des Heren (Anno Domini), where “-en” is actually the genitive ending of the weak noun. Also in this case, German retains this feature. This page outlines the grammar of the German language. ...


Dutch nouns can take endings for size: -je for singular diminutive and -jes for plural diminutive. Between these suffixes and the radical can come extra letters depending on the ending of the word: A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

boom (tree) - boompje
ring (ring) - ringetje
koning (king) - koninkje
tien (ten) - tientje (a ten euro note)

Like most Germanic languages, Dutch forms noun compounds, where the first noun modifies the category given by the second, for example: hondenhok (doghouse). Unlike English, where newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in open form with separating spaces, Dutch (like the other Germanic languages) either uses the closed form without spaces, for example: boomhuis (Eng. tree house) or hyphenated: VVD-coryfee (outstanding member of the VVD, a political party). Like German, Dutch allows arbitrarily long compounds, but the longer they get, the less frequent they tend to be. The longest serious entry in the Van Dale dictionary is wapenstilstandsonderhandeling (ceasefire negotiation). Leafing through the articles of association (Statuten) one may come across a 30-letter vertegenwoordigingsbevoegdheid (right of representation). Sometimes hottentottensoldatententententoonstellingsterreinen (hottentot soldiers tents exhibition terrains) is jocularly quoted as the longest Dutch word (note the four times consecutive ten), but outside this usage it actually never occurs. Notwithstanding official spelling rules, some Dutch people nowadays tend to write the parts of a compound separately, which is sometimes dubbed “the English disease” or "de Engelse ziekte".[8][9] In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... Ultras at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002 Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour, usually by gangs of young people. ...


Vocabulary

Main articles: Wiktionary:Category:Dutch language, Wiktionary:Category:Dutch derivations, and Wiktionary:List of Romanic words in the Dutch language with a Germanic alternative

The Dutch vocabulary is one of the richest in the world and comprises at least 186,000 headwords.[10] A headword (or head word) is the word under which a set of related dictionary definitions will be listed. ...


Like English, Dutch includes words of Greek and Latin origin. Its number of Romance-based loanwords is higher than in German, but much lower than in English. Even more than in English, a Romance alternative exists for many Germanic words, and the Romance word is primarily used in more formal contexts (e.g. "rechtvaardigheid" and "justitie", "verdediging" and "defensie"). Somewhat paradoxically, most loanwords from French have entered into Dutch vocabulary via the Netherlands and not via Belgium, in spite of the cultural and economic dominance exerted by French speakers in Belgium until the first half of the 20th century. This happened because the status French enjoyed as the language of refinement and high culture inspired the affluent upper and upper-middle classes in the Netherlands to adopt many French terms into the language. In Belgium no such phenomenon occurred, since members of the upper and upper-middle classes would have spoken French rather than Frenchify their Dutch. French terms heavily influenced Dutch dialects in Flanders, but Belgian speakers did (and do) tend to resist French loanwords when using standard Dutch. Nonetheless some French loanwords of relatively recent date have become accepted in standard Dutch, also in Belgium, albeit with a shift in meaning and not as straight synonyms for existing Dutch words. For example, "blesseren" (from French blesser, to injure) is almost exclusively used to refer to sports injuries, while in other contexts the standard Dutch verbs "kwetsen" and "verwonden" continue to be used. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Especially on the streets and in many professions, there is a steady increase of English loanwords, rather often pronounced or applied in a different way (see Dutch pseudo-anglicisms). The influx of English words is maintained by the dominance of English in the mass media and on the Internet. Unlike some other languages, Dutch adopts these new English terms with little or no resistance. Efforts to develop Dutch alternatives for English loanwords have extremely little success and indeed are often met with derision. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


High German had an important influence on Dutch vocabulary in the formation stage of the standard language in the 16th and 17th century. Except for the adverbs überhaupt and sowieso, the few more recent German loanwords are relatively rarely used. However, even though few true loanwords are present, German has had a major effect in the 19th and 20th century upon the lexicon of the language, mainly by the adaptation and change of German words into words that seem Dutch (so-called germanisme), a process probably to be ascribed to the likeness of the two languages. Some of these forms have become so integral to Dutch that few Dutch are aware of their origin; they include words like beduidend (from German bedeutend), aanstalten (from Anstalten).


Writing system

Dutch is written using the Latin alphabet. It has a relatively high proportion of doubled letters, both vowels and consonants. This is due to the formation of compound words and also to the spelling devices for distinguishing the many vowel sounds in the Dutch language. An example of five consecutive doubled letters is the word voorraaddoos (supply box). The Dutch alphabet in 1560. ... Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


The diaeresis (Dutch: trema) is used to mark vowels that are pronounced separately. In the most recent spelling reform, a hyphen has replaced the diaeresis in compound words (i.e., if the vowels originate from separate words, not from prefixes or suffixes), e.g. zeeëend (seaduck) is now spelled zee-eend. In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ...


The acute accent occurs mainly on loanwords like café, but can also be used for emphasis or to differentiate between two forms. Its most common use is to differentiate between the indefinite article 'een' (a, an) and the numeral 'één' (one); also 'hé' (hey, also written 'hee'). The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The redirects here. ...


The grave accent is used to clarify pronunciation ('hè' (what?, what the ...?, tag question 'eh?'), 'bèta') and in loanwords ('caissière' (female cashier), 'après-ski'). In the recent spelling reform, the accent grave was dropped as stress sign on short vowels in favour of the accent aigu (e.g. 'wèl' was changed to 'wél'). The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ...


Other diacritical marks such as the circumflex only occur on a few words, most of them loanwords from French. Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent...


The most important dictionary of the modern Dutch language is the Van Dale groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal,[11] more commonly referred to as the Dikke van Dale ("dik" is Dutch for "fat" or "thick"). However, it is dwarfed by the 45,000-page "Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal", a scholarly endeavour that took 147 years from initial idea to first edition. Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (English: Dictionary of the Dutch language) is a dictionary of the Dutch language which claims to be the largest dictionary in the world. ...


The official spelling is set by the Wet schrijfwijze Nederlandsche taal (Law on the writing of the Dutch language; Belgium 1946, Netherlands 1947; based on a 1944 spelling revision; both amended in the 1990s after a 1995 spelling revision). The Woordenlijst Nederlandse taal, more commonly known as "het groene boekje" (i.e. "the green booklet", because of its colour), is usually accepted as an informal explanation of the law. However, the official 2005 spelling revision, which reverted some of the 1995 changes and made new ones, has been welcomed with a distinct lack of enthusiasm in both the Netherlands and Belgium. As a result, the Genootschap Onze Taal (Our Language Society) decided to publish an alternative list, "het witte boekje" ("the white booklet"), which tries to simplify some complicated rules and offers several possible spellings for many contested words. This alternative orthography is followed by a number of major Dutch media organisations but mostly ignored in Belgium.


Dutch as a foreign language

The number of non-native speakers of Dutch who voluntarily learn the language is small. Dutch is not geographically widespread and in its home countries, the Netherlands and Belgium, most of its speakers are proficient in other European languages. There are far fewer Francophone Belgians who speak Dutch than Flemings who speak French, although quite recently the number of the former is slightly on the rise. European languages are the object of Eurolinguistics. ... The term Flemings (Dutch: ) denotes the majority population in Flanders (the northern half of Belgium). ...


Some non-native residents of the Netherlands and of Belgium have never learned to speak Dutch, probably because of a perception of its difficulties. Moreover, and especially in Belgium, the difference between the standard language and the language people speak (their local dialect or, more often, a version of the standard language heavily influenced by it) can be very important and cause difficulties. In addition, native Dutch speakers themselves are often so linguistically proficient that they will try to help a struggling Dutch learner by replying in his or her own (second) language – usually English, or in Belgium also French. Dutch or Flemish people in contact with foreigners often are eager to show their mastery of foreign languages, in particular English. However, those residents or visitors who do learn some Dutch will be rewarded, not only by the extra fillip this gives to their understanding of Dutch history and culture, but also because it will enable them to converse with people in areas away from the big cities where other languages are less commonly spoken and experience other aspects of the Dutch culture more deeply. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Native speakers of German usually have the biggest advantage of all people when learning Dutch from a grammar and vocabulary point of view but almost always struggle with the pronunciation.


Pronunciation

Pronunciation can be a challenge as many of the Dutch vowel sounds are difficult for non native speakers. Diphthongs such as the "ui" sound in such words as "zuid" (south) or "huis" (house), the "eu" in "keuze" (choice) or "sleutel" (key), and the "ij" sound in words like "mijt" (mite) or "wijn" (wine) present difficulties. Even though some of these words are superficially like their English equivalents the correct sound is very different. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Another issue with pronunciation is the "ch"-sound, which Dutch native speakers pronounce as /x/. It has no counterpart in English. Particularly the voiced equivalent /ɣ/ is rare among other European languages. Anglo-Saxons sometimes make fun of this feature of the Dutch language, and even speakers of Dutch who are well aware of this phonological speciality sometimes ironise it — for example Tom Meyer, a radio commentator, used to say on air that "Dutch isn't a language; it's a disease of the throat." The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


There is a well-known Second World War anecdote in which the name of Dutch town Scheveningen was used as a Shibboleth by the Dutch Resistance, as there is also no phonetic counterpart of this word-initial combination in German. Native German speakers will pronounce the consonant cluster sch in Scheveningen as /ʃ/ (as in the English word short), while Dutch native speakers will pronounce it as /sx/. According to the legend, this linguistic difference provided an excellent instrument to uncover German spies in the ranks of the Dutch resistance. It is a nice, Hans Brinker-like story, well-known, but little more than that. It rather shows a deeply felt need for the Dutch to ready contrast themselves with Germans. The linguistic significance of this articulatory problem for foreigners, however, stays beyond doubt. The city of Rotterdam after the German terror bombing during the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. ... Scheveningen pier Scheveningen is part of Den Haag, the Netherlands. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates is a novel by Mary Mapes Dodge, first published in 1865. ...


Consonant clustering

The morphologic versatility and cohesiveness of Dutch sometimes also produces words that might baffle speakers of other languages due to the high amount of consecutive consonants, such as the word "angstschreeuw"  (ɑŋstsxreːɥ) (scream in fear), which has grand total of eight in a row (ngstschr) (although the ng and ch are digraphs). It has to be noted though that the pronunciation of a word can differ greatly from its written form. In this case, "angstschreeuw" actually features 6 consonants (ng-s-t-s-ch-r) originating from two distinct compounded words ("angst" and "schreeuw"), which is reduced further in everyday pronunciation by blending consecutive consonants into one sound - e.g. "ch" and "r". Image File history File links Angstschreeuw. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ...


Popular misconceptions

The language of Flanders

Main article: Flemish (linguistics)

Dutch is the language of government, education, and daily life in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. There is no officially recognized language called "Flemish", and both the Dutch and Belgian governments adhere to the standard Dutch (Algemeen Nederlands) defined by the Nederlandse Taalunie ("Dutch Language Union"). Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an institution for discussing issues on the Dutch language between three partners: The Netherlands, Flanders (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and Suriname. ...


The actual differences between the spoken standard language of Dutch and Belgian speakers are comparable to the differences between American and British English or the German spoken in Germany and Austria. In other words, most differences are rather a matter of accent than of grammar. Some of these differences are recognized by the Taalunie and major dictionaries as being interchangeably valid, although some dictionaries and grammars may mark them as being more prevalent in one region or the other. This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ...


The use of the word Vlaams ("Flemish") to describe Standard Dutch for the variations prevalent in Flanders and used there, is common in the Netherlands and Belgium. Dutch ( (help· info)), sometimes referred to as Netherlandic in English, is a Low Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium (2005 [1]). Dutch spoken in Flanders (Vlaanderen), the northern part of Belgium, is sometimes referred to as Flemish (Vlaams). ...


Dutch as a German dialect

The question of what is a language, and what is a dialect, is rather a political and not a linguistic one. Dutch cannot be defined as a German dialect. The Dutch standard language by definition cannot be a dialect of another standard language, in this case Standard German. The dialect group from which Dutch is largely derived, Low Franconian, belongs to the whole of the continental West Germanic dialect set. This whole is sometimes imprecisely indicated by the word "German", but it might as well be called "Dutch". Indeed the Low Franconian dialects and languages are morphologically closer to the original form of Western Germanic than the High German from which standard German is derived. It is quite appropriate to call modern Dutch and High German sister languages, only they are derived not from one and the same common variety, but from cognate mother vernaculars of Continental West Germanic. By the High German consonant shift, the former Dutch-German dialect continuum. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ...


No intrinsic quality of the whole of the component dialects favours one standard over the other: both were rivals and historical contingency decided the range of their use. The state border does not reflect dialectal subdivisions. Only since the dialect continuum of continental West Germanic was broken by the 19th century introduction of mass education have the respective ranges been fixed; in the 18th century standard Dutch was still used as the normal written standard in the Lower Rhine, the county of Bentheim and East Frisia, now all part of Germany. See also Meuse-Rhenish. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mass education refers to a state-run educational system, usually free and compulsory, that aims to ensure that all children in society have at least a basic education. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... i hate erin saunders ... Bentheim (in full Grafschaft Bentheim (County of Bentheim)) is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ...


Low Dietsch

Low Dietsch (Dutch: Platdiets, Limburgish: Platduutsj, French: Thiois or Platdutch) is a term mainly used within the Flemish terminology for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian dialects of a number of towns and villages in the north-east of the Belgian province of Liege, such as Gemmenich, Homburg, Montzen and Welkenraedt. Low Dietsch (Dutch: Platdiets, Limburgish: Platduutsj, French: Thiois or Platdutch) is a term mainly used within the Flemish terminology for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian dialects of a number of towns and villages in the north-east of the Belgian province of Liege, such as Gemmenich, Homburg, Montzen and Welkenraedt. ...


Relation to English

Dutch does have a relatively close genetic relationship to the descendants of Old and Middle English (such as English and Scots), since both belong to the West Germanic languages and both lack most or all of the High German consonant shift that characterizes the descendants of Middle High German (such as German and Yiddish). Genetic, in linguistics, means due to descent from a common ancestor language, rather than borrowing at some time in the past between languages that were not necessarily descended from a common ancestor. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ...


The Frisian languages, however, are even more closely related to the Middle English descendants than Dutch. Languages and dialects sharing some features found in English and Frisian are referred to as Anglo-Frisian languages or, occasionally, Ingvaeonic languages. This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ...


Pennsylvania Dutch

Pennsylvania Dutch, a West Central German variety called Deitsch by its speakers, is not a form of Dutch. The word "Dutch" has historically been used for all speakers of continental West Germanic languages, including, the Dutch people, Flemish, Austrians, Germans, and the German-speaking Swiss. It is cognate with the Dutch archaism Diets, meaning "Dutch", and the German self-designation Deutsch. The use of the term "Dutch" exclusively for the language of Belgium, or for the inhabitants of the Netherlands or some of its former colonies, dates from the early 16th century. The name "Dutch" for the Pennsylvania dialect also stems from the way "Deutsch" is pronounced in the dialect itself. The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ...


Pennsylvania Dutch must not be confused with Jersey Dutch as spoken in Upstate New York in former ages, and even until the 1950's in New Jersey, being Dutch-based creole or pidgin languages. The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... Jersey Dutch was a variant of the Dutch language spoken in and around Bergen and Passaic counties in New Jersey from the late 1600s until the early 20th century. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A Dutch creole is a creole language which has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language. ... This article is about simplified languages. ...


Dutch, not Deutsch

The resemblance of the English-language word 'Dutch' (referring to the language spoken in the Netherlands and Flanders) and the German-language word Deutsch (meaning the language spoken in Germany, Austria, and much of Switzerland) is not accidental, since both derive from the Germanic word thioda (of the people). English is a West Germanic language originating in England, and the first language for most people in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (also commonly known as the Anglosphere). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language and one of the worlds major languages. ...


Until roughly the 16th century, speakers of all the varieties of West Germanic from the mouth of the Rhine to the Alps had been accustomed to refer to their native speech as 'the people's language', that is to say, Dietsch or Duitsch in Middle Dutch, and what would eventually stabilize as Deutsch further south. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Alp redirects here. ... Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ...


English-speakers took the word Duitsch from their nearest Germanic-speaking neighbours in the Low Countries, and having anglicized it as Dutch, used it to refer to those neighbours and to the language they spoke. Meanwhile, however, especially after their secession from the Holy Roman Empire (i.e. Germany) in 1648, the Dutch began increasingly to refer to their own language as Nederlandsch (from which today's Nederlands) in distinction from the people and speech of the Empire itself – Duitsch (now Duits) – with the result that 'Dutch' and Deutsch now refer to two different languages. For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


See also

This page outlines the grammar of the Dutch language. ... Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language. ... Dutch names consist of one or several given name(s) and a surname. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Old Frankish was the language of the Franks and it is classified as a West Germanic language. ... Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ... Low Dietsch (Dutch: Platdiets, Limburgish: Platduutsj, French: Thiois or Platdutch) is a term mainly used within the Flemish terminology for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian dialects of a number of towns and villages in the north-east of the Belgian province of Liege, such as Gemmenich, Homburg, Montzen and Welkenraedt. ... Bargoens is a form of Dutch slang. ... I like balls. ... Historically, many Dutch military terms have been influential and adopted by many other languages all over the world. ... This is a list of words of Dutch language origin. ... A Dutch creole is a creole language which has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language. ... Frans-Vlaams (French Flemish) is a dialect of the Dutch language. ...

References

  1. ^ a b (Dutch) Hoeveel mensen spreken Nederlands als moedertaal? (How many people speak Dutch as mother tongue?), Nederlandse Taalunie, 2005.
  2. ^ (Dutch) G. De Moor in Taalschrift. Tijdschrift over taal en taalbeleid, Dec. 1, 2007.
  3. ^ (Dutch) Werken aan de toekomst van de taal, page 13: Nederlands: een kleine wereldtaal (Dutch: a small universal language), Nederlandse Taalunie, 2004.
  4. ^ The name Nederlands as an indication of the Dutch language is first attested in a work printed at Gouda in 1482. (Rijpma & Schuringa, Nederlandse spraakkunst, Groningen 1969, p. 20.)
  5. ^ "Dutch". Online Etymological Dictionary. [1].
  6. ^ Statistics New Zealand - Concerning Language 2004 - Profile of First Language Retention
  7. ^ According to the Belgian secretary of state, mr. Karel De Gucht, in a Dutch television programme on Nov. 15, 2007.
  8. ^ SOS! - In het Nederlands moeten samengestelde woorden gewoon aan elkaar geschreven worden (Dutch)
  9. ^ Engelse ziekte - Dutch language Wikipedia (Dutch)
  10. ^ Van Dale Dutch-English-Dutch Dictionary, "The Van Dale Handwoordenboeken Engels is a bidirectional Dutch-English dictionary containing over 186,000 headwords"
  11. ^ (Dutch) www.vandale.nl

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Dutch language, alphabet and pronunciation (338 words)
Dutch is a West Germanic language with about 20 million speakers mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium.
It is taught in schools and used by authorities in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium), Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles.
The Dutch translation of the Bible, the Staten-Bijbel, of 1619-1637 was one of the first major works in Modern Dutch.
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