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Encyclopedia > Dutch famine of 1944

After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in the Nazi occupied Netherlands. The Allies were able to liberate the southern part of the country, but their liberation efforts came to a halt when Operation Market Garden, the attempt to gain control of the bridge across the Rhine at Arnhem, failed. After the national railways complied with the exiled Dutch government's appeal for a railway strike starting September 1944, to further the Allied liberation efforts, the German administration retaliated by putting an embargo on all food transports to the western Netherlands. Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Gerd von Rundstedt Strength XXX Corps, 35,000 airborne 20,000 Casualties 17,000 casualties 8,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical objectives were to... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Arnhem is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, located on the Lower Rhine, and the capital of the Gelderland province. ...


By the time the embargo was partially lifted in early November 1944, allowing restricted food transports over water, the unusually early and harsh winter had already set in. The canals froze over and became impassable for barges. Food stocks in the cities in the western Netherlands rapidly ran out. The adult rations in cities such as Amsterdam had dropped to below 1000 calories (4,200 kilojoules) a day by the end of November 1944 and to 580 calories in the West by the end of February 1945 (1). Over that winter, which has been etched in the Dutch peoples memories as the Hongerwinter ("Hunger winter"), as the Netherlands became one of the main western battlefields, a number of factors combined to starve the Dutch people: the winter itself was unusually harsh and together with the widespread dislocation and destruction of the war, the retreating German army destroyed locks and bridges to flood the country and impede the Allied advance, which ruined much agricultural land and made the transport of existing food stocks difficult. Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 741,329 (1 August 2006) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ...


In search of food people would walk for hundreds of kilometers to trade valuables for food at farms. Tulip bulbs and sugarbeets were commonly consumed. Furniture and houses were dismantled to provide fuel for heating. From September 1944 until early 1945 approximately the deaths of 10,000 Dutch people were attributed to malnutrition as the primary cause, many more as a contributing factor (1). The Dutch Famine ended with the liberation of the western Netherlands in May 1945. Shortly before that, some relief had come from the 'Swedish bread', which was actually baked in the Netherlands but made from flour shipped in from Sweden. And shortly after that, the German occupiers allowed coordinated air droppings of food by the Royal Air Force over German-occupied Dutch territory in Operation Manna. The two events are often confused, even resulting in the commemoration of bread being dropped from airplanes, something that never happened. Species See text Tulip (Tulipa) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Operation Manna was an event which took place from 29 April to 7 May 1945, at the end of World War II, in which Lancaster bombers of the Royal Air Force dropped food into parts of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people...


Scientific Legacy

This famine was unique as it took place in modern, developed and literate country, albeit suffering under the privations of occupation and war. The well documented experience has allowed scientists to measure the effects of famine on human health. The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study, carried out by the departments of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Gynecology and Obstetrics and Internal Medicine of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, the Netherlands in collaboration with the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit of the University of Southampton in Britain, has found that pregnant women exposed to famine produced offspring who were more susceptible to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, microalbuminuria and other health problems. Epidemiology is the scientific study of factors affecting the health and illness of individuals and populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The University of Southampton is a British university situated in the city of Southampton, on the south coast of Great Britain. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Microalbuminuria - the measurement of small amounts of albumin in the urine that cannot be detected by urine dipstick methods. ...


Audrey Hepburn spent her childhood in the Netherlands during the famine. She suffered anemia, respiratory illnesses and edema as a result, and her clinicaldepression later in life has been attributed to malnutrition. Audrey Hepburn (May 4, 1929 – January 20, 1993) was an Academy Award-winning actress, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Edema (American English) or oedema (British English), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess lymph fluid, without an increase of the number of cells in the affected tissue. ... Look up depression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Reference

(1) Stein Z, Susser M, Saenger G, et al: Famine and Human Development: The Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944-1945. New York, Oxford University Press, 1975.


External links

  • http://home.ust.hk/~lbcaplan/dutchfamine.html
  • http://www.mrc.soton.ac.uk/project.asp?proj=10
  • http://www.hongerwinter.nl
  • http://www.dutchfamine.nl

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Famine (174 words)
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As a result many affected by the famine are undernourished and die of starvation or thirst[?].
Famine is an ancient problem: famine was so well known in the ancient world that Famine was one of the biblical Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
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